E Barklis

Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon, United States

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Publications (66)403.79 Total impact

  • Ayna Alfadhli, Eric Barklis
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    ABSTRACT: During HIV-1 assembly, precursor Gag (PrGag) proteins are delivered to plasma membrane (PM) assembly sites, where they are triggered to oligomerize and bud from cells as immature virus particles. The delivery and triggering processes are coordinated by the PrGag matrix (MA) and nucleocapsid (NC) domains. Targeting of PrGag proteins to membranes enriched in cholesterol and phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PI[4,5]P2) is mediated by the MA domain, which also has been shown to bind both RNA and DNA. Evidence suggests that the nucleic-acid-binding function of MA serves to inhibit PrGag binding to inappropriate intracellular membranes, prior to delivery to the PM. At the PM, MA domains putatively trade RNA ligands for PI(4,5)P2 ligands, fostering high-affinity membrane binding. Triggering of oligomerization, budding, and virus particle release results when NC domains on adjacent PrGag proteins bind to viral RNA, leading to capsid (CA) domain oligomerization. This process leads to the assembly of immature virus shells in which hexamers of membrane-bound MA trimers appear to organize above interlinked CA hexamers. Here, we review the functions of retroviral MA proteins, with an emphasis on the nucleic-acid-binding capability of the HIV-1 MA protein, and its effects on membrane binding.
    Frontiers in microbiology. 01/2014; 5:253.
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    ABSTRACT: During HIV-1 morphogenesis, the precursor Gag protein is processed to release capsid (CA) proteins that form the mature virus core. In this process, the CA proteins assemble a lattice in which N-terminal domain (NTD) helices 1-3 are critical for multimer formation. Mature core assembly requires refolding of the N-terminus of CA into a β-hairpin, but the precise contribution of the hairpin core morphogenesis is unclear. We found that mutations at isoleucine 15 (I15), between the β-hairpin and NTD helix 1 are incompatible with proper mature core assembly. However, a compensatory mutation of histidine 12 in the β-hairpin to a tyrosine was selected by long term passage of an I15 mutant virus in T cells. The tyrosine does not interact directly with residue 15, but with NTD helix 3, supporting a model in which β-hairpin folding serves to align helix 3 for mature NTD multimerization.
    Virology 12/2013; 447(1-2):95-103. · 3.35 Impact Factor
  • Microscopy and Microanalysis 01/2013; 19(S2):922. · 2.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The matrix (MA) domain of the HIV-1 PrGag protein directs PrGag proteins to assembly sites at the plasma membrane by virtue of its affinity to the phospholipid, phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2). MA also binds to RNA at a site that overlaps its PI(4,5)P2 site, suggesting that RNA binding may protect MA from associating with inappropriate cellular membranes prior to PrGag delivery to the PM. Based on this, we have developed an assay in which small molecule competitors to MA-RNA binding can be characterized, with the assumption that such compounds might interfere with essential MA functions and help elucidate additional features of MA binding. Following this approach, we have identified four compounds, including three thiadiazolanes, that compete with RNA for MA binding. We also have identified MA residues involved in thiadiazolane binding and found that they overlap the MA PI(4,5)P2 and RNA sites. Cell culture studies demonstrated that thiadiazolanes inhibit HIV-1 replication, but are associated with significant levels of toxicity. Nevertheless, these observations provide new insights as to MA binding, and pave the way for the development of antivirals that target the HIV- 1 matrix domain.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 11/2012; · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The matrix (MA) domain of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) precursor Gag (PrGag) protein plays multiple roles in the viral replication cycle. One essential role is to target PrGag proteins to their lipid raft-associated phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P(2)] assembly sites at the plasma membranes of infected cells. In addition to this role, several reports have implicated nucleic acid binding properties to retroviral MAs. Evidence indicates that RNA binding enhances the binding specificity of MA to PI(4,5)P(2)-containing membranes and supports a hypothesis in which RNA binding to MA acts as a chaperone that protects MA from associating with inappropriate cellular membranes prior to PrGag delivery to plasma membrane assembly sites. To gain a better understanding of HIV-1 MA-RNA interactions, we have analyzed the interaction of HIV MA with RNA ligands that were selected previously for their high affinities to MA. Binding interactions were characterized via bead binding, fluorescence anisotropy, gel shift, and analytical ultracentrifugation methods. Moreover, MA residues that are involved in RNA binding were identified from NMR chemical shift data. Our results indicate that the MA RNA and PI(4,5)P(2) binding sites overlap and suggest models for Gag-membrane and Gag-RNA interactions and for the HIV assembly pathway.
    Journal of Molecular Biology 07/2011; 410(4):653-66. · 3.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Based on structural information, we have analyzed the mechanism of mature HIV-1 core assembly and the contributions of structural elements to the assembly process. Through the use of several in vitro assembly assay systems, we have examined details of how capsid (CA) protein helix 1, ß-hairpin and cyclophilin loop elements impact assembly-dependent protein interactions, and we present evidence for a contribution of CA helix 6 to the mature assembly-competent conformation of CA. Additional experiments with mixtures of proteins in assembly reactions provide novel analyses of the mature core assembly mechanism. Our results support a model in which initial assembly products serve as scaffolds for further assembly by converting incoming subunits to assembly proficient conformations, while mutant subunits increase the probability of assembly termination events.
    Virology 06/2011; 417(1):137-46. · 3.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) capsid (CA) protein assembles into a hexameric lattice that forms the mature virus core. Contacts between the CA N-terminal domain (NTD) of one monomer and the C-terminal domain (CTD) of the adjacent monomer are important for the assembly of this core. In this study, we have examined the effects of mutations in the NTD region associated with this interaction. We have found that such mutations yielded modest reductions of virus release but major effects on viral infectivity. Cell culture and in vitro assays indicate that the infectivity defects relate to abnormalities in the viral cores. We have selected second-site compensatory mutations that partially restored HIV infectivity. These mutations map to the CA CTD and to spacer peptide 1 (SP1), the portion of the precursor Gag protein immediately C terminal to the CTD. The compensatory mutations do not locate to the molecularly modeled intermolecular NTD-CTD interface. Rather, the compensatory mutations appear to act indirectly, possibly by realignment of the C-terminal helix of the CA CTD, which participates in the NTD-CTD interface and has been shown to serve an important role in the assembly of infectious virus.
    Journal of Virology 03/2011; 85(10):4730-8. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    Amelia Still, Douglas Huseby, Eric Barklis
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    ABSTRACT: Lentiviruses such as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) and alpharetroviruses such as Rous Sarcoma virus encode an element that spans the precursor Gag (PrGag) protein capsid (CA) C-terminus, a spacer peptide (SP), and the N-terminus of nucleocapsid (NC). Perturbation of this element causes the assembly of aberrant, non-infectious virus particles. To determine whether this element is conserved in gammaretroviruses such as the Moloney murine leukemia virus (MLV), we examined the effects of insertion mutations in the N-terminal portion of the MLV NC coding region. Interestingly, we found that insertions of as many as twenty residues after the twelfth residue of MLV NC yielded proteins that directed the efficient assembly of virus particles. Virus morphologies and crosslink profiles appeared normal, and assembled viruses retained significant levels of infectivity in single cycle infection assays. Two variants were examined in the context of replicating virus constructs, and the mutations were found to be maintained during multiple rounds of infection in a cell culture system. These results suggest that the alpharetrovirus and lentivirus assembly elements either are not needed for gammaretroviruses, or are replaced by an alternative assembly element. Our results also indicate that the N-terminal region of MLV NC is amenable to genetic manipulation.
    Virus Research 10/2010; 155(1):181-8. · 2.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: HIV-1 Nef triggers down-regulation of cell-surface MHC-I by assembling a Src family kinase (SFK)-ZAP-70/Syk-PI3K cascade. Here, we report that chemical disruption of the Nef-SFK interaction with the small molecule inhibitor 2c blocks assembly of the multi-kinase complex and represses HIV-1-mediated MHC-I down-regulation in primary CD4(+) T-cells. 2c did not interfere with the PACS-2-dependent trafficking of Nef required for the Nef-SFK interaction or the AP-1 and PACS-1-dependent sequestering of internalized MHC-I, suggesting the inhibitor specifically interfered with the Nef-SFK interaction required for triggering MHC-I down-regulation. Transport studies revealed Nef directs a highly regulated program to down-regulate MHC-I in primary CD4(+) T-cells. During the first two days after infection, Nef assembles the 2c-sensitive multi-kinase complex to trigger down-regulation of cell-surface MHC-I. By three days postinfection Nef switches to a stoichiometric mode that prevents surface delivery of newly synthesized MHC-I. Pharmacologic inhibition of the multi-kinase cascade prevents the Nef-dependent block in MHC-I transport, suggesting the signaling and stoichiometric modes are causally linked. Together, these studies resolve the seemingly controversial models that describe Nef-induced MHC-I down-regulation and provide new insights into the mechanism of Nef action.
    Molecular biology of the cell 10/2010; 21(19):3279-92. · 5.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tight regulation of microtubule (MT) dynamics is essential for proper chromosome movement during mitosis. Here we show, using mammalian cells, that structure-specific recognition protein 1 (SSRP1) is a novel regulator of MT dynamics. SSRP1 colocalizes with the spindle and midbody MTs, and associates with MTs both in vitro and in vivo. Purified SSRP1 facilitates tubulin polymerization and MT bundling in vitro. Knockdown of SSRP1 inhibits the growth of MTs and leads to disorganized spindle structures, reduction of K-fibers and midbody fibers, disrupted chromosome movement, and attenuated cytokinesis in vivo. These results demonstrate that SSRP1 is crucial for MT growth and spindle assembly during mitosis.
    Molecular and cellular biology 12/2009; 30(4):935-47. · 6.06 Impact Factor
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    Ayna Alfadhli, Amelia Still, Eric Barklis
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    ABSTRACT: The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) matrix (MA) protein targets HIV-1 precursor Gag (PrGag) proteins to assembly sites at plasma membrane (PM) sites that are enriched in cholesterol and phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P(2)]. MA is myristoylated, which enhances membrane binding, and specifically binds PI(4,5)P(2) through headgroup and 2' acyl chain contacts. MA also binds nucleic acids, although the significance of this association with regard to the viral life cycle is unclear. We have devised a novel MA binding assay and used it to examine MA interactions with membranes and nucleic acids. Our results indicate that cholesterol increases the selectivity of MA for PI(4,5)P(2)-containing membranes, that PI(4,5)P(2) binding tolerates 2' acyl chain variation, and that the MA myristate enhances membrane binding efficiency but not selectivity. We also observed that soluble PI(4,5)P(2) analogues do not compete effectively with PI(4,5)P(2)-containing liposomes for MA binding but surprisingly do increase nonspecific binding to liposomes. Finally, we have demonstrated that PI(4,5)P(2)-containing liposomes successfully outcompete nucleic acids for MA binding, whereas other liposomes do not. These results support a model in which RNA binding protects MA from associating with inappropriate cellular membranes prior to PrGag delivery to PM assembly sites.
    Journal of Virology 09/2009; 83(23):12196-203. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: During the morphogenesis of mature human immunodeficiency virus-1 cores, viral capsid proteins assemble conical or tubular shells around viral ribonucleoprotein complexes. This assembly step is mimicked in vitro through reactions in which capsid proteins oligomerize to form long tubes, and this process can be modeled as consisting of a slow nucleation period, followed by a rapid phase of tube growth. We have developed a novel fluorescence microscopy approach to monitor in vitro assembly reactions and have employed it, along with electron microscopy analysis, to characterize the assembly process. Our results indicate that temperature, salt concentration, and pH changes have differential effects on tube nucleation and growth steps. We also demonstrate that assembly can be unidirectional or bidirectional, that growth can be capped, and that proteins can assemble onto the surfaces of tubes, yielding multiwalled or nested structures. Finally, experiments show that a peptide inhibitor of in vitro assembly also can dismantle preexisting tubes, suggesting that such reagents may possess antiviral effects against both viral assembly and uncoating. Our investigations help establish a basis for understanding the mechanism of mature human immunodeficiency virus-1 core assembly and avenues for antiviral inhibition.
    Journal of Molecular Biology 04/2009; 387(2):376-89. · 3.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) matrix (MA) protein represents the N-terminal domain of the HIV-1 precursor Gag (PrGag) protein and carries an N-terminal myristate (Myr) group. HIV-1 MA fosters PrGag membrane binding, as well as assembly of envelope (Env) proteins into virus particles, and recent studies have shown that HIV-1 MA preferentially directs virus assembly at plasma membrane sites enriched in cholesterol and phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate (PI[4,5]P2). To characterize the membrane binding of MA and PrGag proteins, we have examined how Myr-MA proteins, and proteins composed of Myr-MA and its neighbor Gag capsid (CA) protein associate on membranes containing cholesterol and PI[4,5]P2. Our results indicate that Myr-MA assembles as a hexamer of trimers on such membranes, and imply that MA trimers interconnect CA hexamer rings in immature virus particles. Our observations suggest a model for the organization of PrGag proteins, and for MA-Env protein interactions.
    Virology 01/2009; · 3.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The matrix (MA) domain of the HIV-1 structural precursor Gag (PrGag) protein targets PrGag proteins to membrane assembly sites, and facilitates incorporation of envelope proteins into virions. To evaluate the specific requirements for the MA membrane-binding domain (MBD) in HIV-1 assembly and replication, we examined viruses in which MA was replaced by alternative MBDs. Results demonstrated that the pleckstrin homology domains of AKT protein kinase and phospholipase C delta1 efficiently directed the assembly and release of virus-like particles (VLPs) from cells expressing chimeric proteins. VLP assembly and release also were mediated in a phorbol ester-dependent fashion by the cysteine-rich binding domain of phosphokinase Cgamma. Although alternative MBDs promoted VLP assembly and release, the viruses were not infectious. Notably, PrGag processing was reduced, while cleavage of GagPol precursors resulted in the accumulation of Pol-derived intermediates within virions. Our results indicate that the HIV-1 assembly machinery is flexible with regard to its means of membrane association, but that alternative MBDs can interfere with the elaboration of infectious virus cores.
    Virology 03/2008; 371(2):322-35. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have identified sultam thioureas as novel inhibitors of West Nile virus (WNV) replication. One such compound inhibited WNV, with a 50% effective concentration of 0.7 microM, and reduced reporter expression from cells that harbored a WNV-based replicon. Our results demonstrate that sultam thioureas can block a postentry, preassembly step of WNV replication.
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 08/2007; 51(7):2642-5. · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: HIV-1 Nef, which is required for the efficient onset of AIDS, enhances viral replication and infectivity by exerting multiple effects on infected cells. Nef downregulates cell-surface MHC-I molecules by an uncharacterized PI3K pathway requiring the actions of two Nef motifs-EEEE(65) and PXXP(75). We report that the Nef EEEE(65) targeting motif enables Nef PXXP(75) to bind and activate a trans-Golgi network-localized Src family tyrosine kinase (SFK). The Nef/SFK complex then recruits and phosphorylates the tyrosine kinase ZAP-70, which binds class I PI3K to trigger MHC-I downregulation in primary CD4+ T cells. In promonocytic cells, Nef/SFK recruits the ZAP-70 homolog Syk to downregulate MHC-I, implicating this PI3K pathway in multiple HIV-1 reservoirs. Isoform-specific PI3K inhibitors repress MHC-I downregulation, identifying them as potential therapeutic agents to combat HIV-1. The discovery of this Nef-SFK-ZAP-70/Syk-PI3K signaling pathway explains the hierarchal role of the Nef motifs in effecting immunoevasion.
    Cell host & microbe 05/2007; 1(2):121-33. · 13.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The membrane-binding matrix (MA) domain of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) structural precursor Gag (PrGag) protein oligomerizes in solution as a trimer and crystallizes in three dimensions as a trimer unit. A number of models have been proposed to explain how MA trimers might align with respect to PrGag capsid (CA) N-terminal domains (NTDs), which assemble hexagonal lattices. We have examined the binding of naturally myristoylated HIV-1 matrix (MyrMA) and matrix plus capsid (MyrMACA) proteins on membranes in vitro. Unexpectedly, MyrMA and MyrMACA proteins both assembled hexagonal cage lattices on phosphatidylserine-cholesterol membranes. Membrane-bound MyrMA proteins did not organize into trimer units but, rather, organized into hexamer rings. Our results yield a model in which MA domains stack directly above NTD hexamers in immature particles, and they have implications for HIV assembly and interactions between MA and the viral membrane glycoproteins.
    Journal of Virology 03/2007; 81(3):1472-8. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The nucleocapsid (NC) domains of retrovirus precursor Gag (PrGag) proteins play an essential role in virus assembly. Evidence suggests that NC binding to viral RNA promotes dimerization of PrGag capsid (CA) domains, which triggers assembly of CA N-terminal domains (NTDs) into hexamer rings that are interconnected by CA C-terminal domains. To examine the influence of dimerization on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag protein assembly in vitro, we analyzed the assembly properties of Gag proteins in which NC domains were replaced with cysteine residues that could be linked via chemical treatment. In accordance with the model that Gag protein pairing triggers assembly, we found that cysteine cross-linking or oxidation reagents induced the assembly of virus-like particles. However, efficient assembly also was observed to be temperature dependent or required the tethering of NTDs. Our results suggest a multistep pathway for HIV-1 Gag protein assembly. In the first step, Gag protein pairing through NC-RNA interactions or C-terminal cysteine linkage fosters dimerization. Next, a conformational change converts assembly-restricted dimers or small oligomers into assembly-competent ones. At the final stage, final particle assembly occurs, possibly through a set of larger intermediates.
    Journal of Virology 01/2006; 79(23):14498-506. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the mechanism by which human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) precursor Gag (PrGag) proteins assemble to form immature virus particles, we examined the in vitro assembly of MACANC proteins, composed of the PrGag matrix, capsid, and nucleocapsid domains. In the absence of other components, MACANC proteins assembled efficiently at physiological temperature but inefficiently at lower temperatures. However, the addition of RNA reduced the temperature sensitivity of assembly reactions. Assembly of MACANC proteins also was affected by pH because the proteins preferentially formed tubes at pH 6.0, whereas spheres were obtained at pH 8.0. Because neither tubes nor spheres were amenable to analysis of protein-protein contacts, we also examined the membrane-bound assemblies of MACANC proteins. Interestingly, MACANC proteins organized on membranes in tightly packed hexameric rings. The observed hexamer spacing of 79.7 A is consistent with the notion that more PrGag proteins assemble into virions than are needed to provide capsid proteins for mature virus cores. Our data are also consistent with a model for PrGag contacts in immature virions where capsid hexamers are tightly packed, where nucleocapsid domains align beneath capsid C-terminal domains, and where matrix domains form trimers at the nexus of three neighbor hexamers.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 06/2005; 280(18):17664-70. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The N-terminal domains (NTDs) of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) capsid (CA) protein have been modeled to form hexamer rings in the mature cores of virions. In vitro, hexamer ring units organize into either tubes or spheres, in a pH-dependent fashion. To probe factors which might govern hexamer assembly preferences in vivo, we examined the effects of mutations at CA histidine residue 84 (H84), modeled at the outer edges of NTD hexamers, as well as a nearby histidine (H87) in the cyclophilin A (CypA) binding loop. Although mutations at H87 yielded infectious virions, mutations at H84 produced assembly-competent but poorly infectious virions. The H84 mutant viruses incorporated wild-type levels of CypA and viral RNAs and showed nearly normal signals in virus entry assays. However, mutant CA proteins assembled aberrant virus cores, and mutant core fractions retained abnormally high levels of CA but reduced reverse transcriptase activities. Our results suggest that HIV-1 CA residue 84 contributes to a structure which helps control either NTD hexamer assembly or the organization of hexamers into higher-order structures.
    Journal of Virology 03/2005; 79(3):1470-9. · 5.08 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
403.79 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1990–2013
    • Oregon Health and Science University
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Department of Molecular Microbiology & Immunology
      Portland, Oregon, United States
  • 2010–2011
    • University of Wisconsin, Madison
      • Department of Biochemistry
      Mississippi, United States
  • 2000
    • University of Strasbourg
      • Faculté de pharmacie
      Strasbourg, Alsace, France
  • 1996–1998
    • Portland State University
      • Department of Chemistry
      Portland, OR, United States
  • 1985
    • Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1982
    • Massachusetts Institute of Technology
      • Department of Biology
      Cambridge, MA, United States