Ella Fudim

Sheba Medical Center, Gan, Tel Aviv, Israel

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Publications (15)68.88 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background The T cell cytokine IL-17 and the Th-17 pathway appear to have a role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases. IL-2 is a potent stimulator of lymphocyte proliferation and IL2/IL21 receptor polymorphisms have recently been associated with susceptibility to IBD. Aims To evaluate the expression of IL-17, IL-2 and TNFα in Crohn's disease (CD) patients with and without anti-TNFs. Methods Cytokine expression was evaluated by ELISA and intracellular staining of CD4+ T-cells from the peripheral blood and lamina propria of CD patients and of non-IBD controls. The results were stratified by disease activity and anti-TNF treatment. Results IL2 expression was significantly elevated in CD patients not treated with anti-TNFs in comparison to healthy controls (19.6% vs. 33.3%, P = 0.03) and CD patients treated with anti-TNFs (20.4% vs. 33.3%, P = 0.02), and similar in infliximab-treated patients and controls. IL17 expression was similar in CD patients and controls, and was not affected by anti-TNF therapy. TNFα expression in patients with active CD was increased compared to controls (35.5% vs 25.7%, P < 0.005), and was significantly decreased in anti-TNF treated patients in comparison to CD patients without anti-TNFs (39.6% vs 26.2%, P = 0.01). Conclusions Expression of IL2 was significantly decreased in anti-TNF-treated CD patients in comparison to non-treated CD patients and controls. This novel finding may indicate a further mechanism of anti-TNF therapy in CD. Expression of IL17 was not influenced by presence of CD or anti-TNF therapy, which may partly explain the failure of recent clinical trials investigating anti-IL17 therapy in CD.
    Gastroentérologie Clinique et Biologique 01/2014; · 0.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To elucidate the relative role of the immune system and intestinal epithelium in the ethiopatogenesis of Celiac disease (CD). A patient with childhood CD who underwent allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for chronic myelogenous leukemia was followed for 5 years after resumption of gluten containing diet. Immunological memory to gliadin epitopes was assessed in the index patient and in 5 newly diagnosed CD patients by standard serology testing and by CFSE-based proliferation assays of peripheral blood CD4+ cells and of intestinal LPL towards gliadin-TTG antigens. Intestinal lymphocytes' origin was determined by combined immuno-histochemistry and fluorescent in-situ hybridiazation (FISH). Over 5 years of follow-up after receiving BMT from a HLA-matched woman and cessation of gluten-free diet, the patient has remained well, with negative periodic antibodies assays and unremarkable serial duodenal biopsies. In vitro proliferation assays showed lack of a memory response of the patient's peripheral blood and lamina propria CD4+ T-cells towards TTG, gliadin or TTG-treated gliadin, whereas memory responses were evident in the newly diagnosed CD patients. Immuno-FISH of post-BMT duodenal mucosa showed that the chromosomal phenotype of all the epithelial cells was XY. In contrast, CD45+ lymphocytic lineage cells were all donor-derived XX cells, presumably originating in the transplanted bone marrow and re-populating the intestinal wall. CD resolution following allogeneic BMT is associated with absent gliadin-specific memory response, and with a dichotomous lymphocyte-epithelial chimeric intestine. These observations suggest that the pathogenesis of CD is critically dependent upon the immune system rather than the epithelial compartment.
    Journal of Clinical Immunology 10/2013; · 3.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To characterise the temporal evolution of antibodies to infliximab (ATI). Prospective observational study of infliximab-treated patients with inflammatory bowel disease between 2009 and 2012. Trough levels of infliximab and ATI were measured before each infusion by anti-λ ELISA. Patients were monitored for disease activity by clinical activity indexes and for dose-intensification or infliximab cessation. The occurrence of transient ATI disappearing spontaneously without intervention was recorded separately. 125 patients were included (98 Crohn's disease, 27 ulcerative colitis, median follow-up 11.5±22 months) and 1119 sera were analysed for infliximab and ATI levels. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that 42% of patients remained ATI-free by 4 years of treatment. Most (90%) of the patients who developed ATI did so within the first 12 months of therapy, whereas transient ATI were detected throughout the duration of infliximab therapy (p<0.001). ATI incidence was similar between patients who received infliximab previously (episodic/interrupted therapy patients, n=14) and scheduled-therapy patients (n=111). In the scheduled group, combination immunomodulator+infliximab resulted in longer ATI-free survival compared with monotherapy (p=0.003, logrank test). Survival free of clinical loss of response was enjoyed by 51% of patients, and serial measurements showed that ATI development often preceded the onset of clinical flare. When followed prospectively, most patients who develop ATI do so within the first 12 months of therapy. This incidence is reduced by concomitant immunomodulator even in scheduled-therapy patients. In contrast, transient ATI, which are of little clinical significance, can appear haphazardly at any time during treatment. The onset of clinical loss of response may lag behind the appearance of anti-infliximab antibodies.
    Gut 09/2013; · 10.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There are few therapeutic options for patients with inflammatory bowel disease who lose response to infliximab because they produced antibodies against the drug. We performed a retrospective analysis to investigate whether administration of immune modulators to 5 patients who developed antibodies to infliximab (ATI) restored response to this drug; 3 patients were given azathioprine/6MP and 2 were given methotrexate. Concentrations of infliximab and ATIs, and anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) activity, were analyzed using ELISA-based competition assays of serum samples collected before and after patients were given the immunomodulator. In all patients, levels of ATIs gradually decreased and trough levels of infliximab increased; clinical responses were restored to all patients. In competition assays, immunomodulator-induced elimination of ATIs was associated with increased anti-TNF activity in serum. The addition of immunomodulators to therapy might be helpful to patients that have lost response to anti-TNF agents due to formation of anti-drug antibodies.
    Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology: the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association 10/2012; · 5.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Anti-drug antibodies can be elicited by infliximab and adalimumab, but the rate of their decay after therapy is stopped is unknown. To investigate the decline of anti-drug antibody titre after anti-TNF cessation, and to evaluate the clinical utility of anti-drug antibody measurement before anti-TNF re-induction. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients who stopped anti-TNF therapy and had measurable anti-drug antibodies were prospectively followed up by serial blood measurements of antibodies levels. The clinical outcome of a second cohort of patients who received re-induction by infliximab or adalimumab after a drug holiday >4 months was determined vis-à-vis their anti-drug antibodies status before re-induction. The first cohort included 22 patients with anti-drug antibodies who were prospectively followed up after cessation of anti-TNF. Sixteen had antibodies-to-infliximab (ATI) and six had antibodies-to-adalimumab (ATA). ATI titres declined within 12 months to below detection levels in 13/16 infliximab-treated patients, whereas ATA titres became undetectable in only 2/6 adalimumab-treated patients (P = 0.04). The second cohort comprised 27 patients who resumed anti-TNFs (24 infliximab, 3 adalimumab). Of these, 3/5 patients with measurable anti-drug antibodies before re-induction experienced severe hypersensitivity reaction and/or nonresponse mandating drug-discontinuation, compared to 11/22 patients who were re-induced without measurable anti-drug antibodies (OR = 1.5, 95% CI 0.2-11, P = 0.7). Antibodies to infliximab titres decline to undetectable levels within one year of cessation of infliximab in the majority of patients, whereas antibodies to adalimumab seem to persist longer after adalimumab discontinuation. Measuring antibodies to infliximab prior to infliximab re-induction is probably of little clinical utility, especially if more than a 12-month drug-holiday has elapsed.
    Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 03/2012; 35(6):714-22. · 4.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Limited data suggest the absence of infliximab in breast milk, thereby implying the safety of this drug during breast-feeding. We aimed to re-evaluate the presence of infliximab in breast milk of nursing IBD patients. Serum and breast milk were obtained post-partum from 3 breast-feeding patients with Crohn's disease before and after re-initiation of infliximab. ELISA assay was employed to measure infliximab level in maternal serum and in breast milk. The level of infliximab was also measured in breast milk of a control group of 8 nursing healthy mothers. Infliximab was undetectable in breast milk prior to the first infusion and was also not measurable in 8 lactating women not exposed to infliximab. Infliximab levels in breast milk rose up to 101ng/ml within 2-3days of the infusion. These levels of infliximab in breast milk were roughly 1/200th of the level in blood. In contrast with prior reports, infliximab can be detected in the breast milk of nursing mothers. The miniscule amounts of infliximab transferred in breast milk are unlikely to result in systemic immune-suppression of the infant. Nonetheless, local effects of this exposure on the neonates' intestine and potential immune sensitization or tolerization towards the drug can not be excluded and merit further investigations.
    Journal of Crohn s and Colitis 12/2011; 5(6):555-8. · 3.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Anti-infliximab antibodies (ATIs) are associated with lower serum infliximab (IFX) trough levels and diminished clinical response. The current most prevalent method for detection of ATI is a double-antigen (DA) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) utilizing IFX for ligand and detection antibody. Serum IFX interferes with ATI measurement in this method. An alternative ELISA using antihuman lambda chain (AHLC) antibody for ATI detection may be less amenable to this interference. The aim of our study was to compare the performance of AHLC-ATI versus DA-ATI for prediction of clinical response and evaluate the clinical significance of positive ATI in the presence of detectable IFX levels in IFX-treated inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. In all, 63 patients' sera were analyzed for IFX levels and antibody levels by AHLC and DA. The results were compared with the clinical response to IFX. Percentage of patients with IFX+ATI+ status among IFX-treated patients and the clinical outcome of IFX+ATI+ patients were assessed. ATIs were demonstrated in 22/63 (34.9%) and 18/63 (28.5%) sera of patients by AHLC and DA assay, respectively (P = 0.6). Detectable ATI and in IFX was detected in four patients (6.3%) by AHLC but not by DA assay. IFX+ATI+ status was documented in 8.7% of available sera and was associated with a trend for loss of response. AHLC and DA ELISA are equally effective for ATI detection in patients with undetectable serum IFX. AHLC ELISA detects ATI in some patients with detectable serum IFX. This IFX+ATI+ status may be a harbinger of evolving loss of response to the drug.
    Inflammatory Bowel Diseases 10/2011; 18(9):1628-33. · 5.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To localise the immunogenic part of infliximab and evaluate the clinical usefulness of measuring antibodies against infliximab fragments. Observational study. A specialised inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) centre in a tertiary hospital. Serum was collected from patients with IBD and controls. Antibodies against whole infliximab (ATI) and against the digested Fc, F(ab')(2) and F(ab') fragments were measured by a specifically developed ELISA and by western blotting. A separate ELISA was used to determine infliximab levels in serum. 109 serum samples from 62 infliximab-treated patients were tested along with 64 control samples. Anti-F(ab')(2) antibodies were found in 28/42 (67%) samples with positive ATI, all from infliximab-exposed patients. Anti-F(ab')(2) antibodies were also present in 26 of the remaining 67 (39%) samples from exposed patients despite absent ATI. No specific anti-Fc antibodies were detected. Low trough infliximab level and high ATI level was found in 10/12 patients (83%) with complete loss of response to infliximab, but in only 5/14 patients (36%, p=0.02) who regained response to intensified infliximab regimen and in 2/24 patients (8%, p<0.001) in maintained remission while on 5 mg/kg/8 week infliximab treatment. Although Anti-F(ab')(2) antibodies showed similar test characteristics to ATI in patients losing response to infliximab, they were also detected in 61% of patients in maintained remission, thereby limiting their clinical usefulness. No cross reactivity to adalimumab was noted. F(ab')(2) is the immunogenic fragment of infliximab. However, ATI level in serum--combined with measurement of trough infliximab level--is better correlated with the clinical response to infliximab or with its loss.
    Gut 01/2011; 60(1):41-8. · 10.73 Impact Factor
  • Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology: the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association 12/2009; 8(5):475-6. · 5.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To study the antiinflammatory effect of lidocaine in intestinal epithelial cells. HT-29 and T-84 cells were grown in culture with and without TNF-alpha, lidocaine, aconitine and veratridine. The secretion of IL-8 and IP-10 was measured by ELISA. A cDNA microarray was used to assess gene expression. Real-time PCR was used to confirm the results. Western blots and a modified electromobility shift assay (EMSA) were used to assess NFkappaB activation. Lidocaine inhibited spontaneous and TNF-alpha induced secretion of IL-8 and IP-10. The combination of veratridine or aconitine, voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSC) agonists that open VGSCs, with lidocaine did not alter the effect of lidocaine on cytokine secretion. Gene array analysis revealed that IkappaB transcription was induced by TNF-alpha and inhibited by lidocaine. IkappaB real-time PCR confirmed this observation. A Western blot analysis demonstrated that the degradation of IkappaB following TNF-alpha treatment was markedly inhibited by lidocaine. Lidocaine treatment resulted in decreased generation of phosphorylated IkappaB. A modified EMSA was complementary and demonstrated marked inhibition of NFkappaB nuclear binding. Lidocaine inhibits IL-8 and IP-10 secretion from intestinal cells. This effect is mediated by inhibition of NFkappaB activation via decreased IkappaB phosphorylation and is not mediated by lidocaine's effect on VGSC.
    Immunobiology 07/2009; 215(4):304-13. · 2.81 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Crohns & Colitis - J CROHNS COLITIS. 01/2009; 3(1).
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    ABSTRACT: The onset of the effect of thiopurines is delayed for several months. The aim of this study was to investigate immune mechanisms for this delay. The effects of thiopurines on human peripheral blood T cells and on lamina propria lymphocytes were investigated for apoptosis induction by Annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) and for cytokine secretion by intracellular staining and ELISA assays. To investigate the mechanism of the effect of thiopurines in vivo, Balb/C mice were co-immunised with HEL/OVA (hen egg lysozyme/ovalbumin) antigens, and then repeatedly challenged by HEL only, while being treated by mercaptopurine or vehicle alone for either 4 or 20 weeks. The memory response of CD4+ splenocytes towards HEL/OVA was then determined by CFSE (carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester) dilution. Thiopurines arrested the proliferation of stimulated T cells but did not enhance the apoptosis of either resting T cells or activated T cells until day 5 poststimulation. Despite the proliferation arrest, stimulated T cells successfully differentiated into effector cells, as evidenced by their capacity for proinflammatory cytokine secretion, potent adhesion and cytotoxicity. Prolonged mercaptopurine treatment of mice for 20 weeks selectively reduced the CD4+ memory response to a repeatedly encountered HEL antigen, but did not affect the T cell memory pool to the previously presented OVA antigen. A shorter, 4 weeks, treatment with mercaptopurine did not inhibit the memory response to either antigen. T cells arrested from cycling by thiopurines can still differentiate into potent effector cells capable of propagating the inflammatory process. Thiopurine treatment results in depletion of antigen-specific memory T cells, but this effect is dependent upon repeated encounters with the antigen over a prolonged time course.
    Gut 11/2008; 58(3):396-403. · 10.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lidocaine is a commonly used local anaesthetic agent which has also been found to possess anti-inflammatory activity in several disorders. However, the mechanism of this effect has been little explored. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of lidocaine on stimulated human T cells. The effect of lidocaine on Jurkat T cells was examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to determine secretion of interleukin (IL)-2, and by the [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] viability assay. Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and IL-2 mRNA expression was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. In addition, the effect of lidocaine on the proliferation of freshly isolated peripheral blood (PB) CD3(+) T cells was examined by carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester dilution. Apoptosis induction and cytokine production and secretion were determined by annexin V/PI assay, intracellular immunostaining and ELISA respectively. The results showed that lidocaine exerts a dose-dependent inhibition of IL-2 and TNF-alpha secretion by Jurkat T cells at the protein and mRNA levels. Moreover, lidocaine reduced nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) signalling in clinically relevant concentrations. Similarly, proliferation of anti-CD3 stimulated PB T cells was abrogated significantly by lidocaine, and the percentage of interferon-gamma- and TNF-alpha-producing T cells was diminished after culture with this agent. In both experimental systems, lidocaine's effect was not mediated by cytotoxic mechanism, as no significant apoptosis or necrosis was demonstrated following co-culture of T cells with this drug. In conclusion, lidocaine's anti-inflammatory effect may be mediated by a drug-induced abrogation of T cell proliferation and cytokine secretion independent of cell death. These effects are mediated at least partly by inhibition of NF-kappaB signalling.
    Clinical & Experimental Immunology 06/2008; 152(2):320-7. · 3.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Local anesthetics which preferentially interact with voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) were shown to have a clinical beneficial effect in ulcerative colitis and to regulate the secretion of inflammatory mediators from intestinal epithelial cells. However, expression of VGSCs in epithelial cells was not demonstrated. Herein we assessed whether intestinal epithelial cells express VGSCs. The expression of VGSCs in normal human colonic tissue and in the TNFalpha-treated or untreated intestinal epithelial cell line HT-29 was studied by immunofluorescence staining and FACS analysis, Western blot, immunohistochemistry, and RT-PCR using primers specific for several VGSC alpha subunits. The function of VGSCs was assessed by measuring changes in the membrane potential of the intestinal epithelial cells following incubation with lidocaine, veratridine, or both. HT-29 cells were shown to express the VGSC alpha protein. mRNA analysis revealed the expression of nine of ten VGSC alpha isoforms. Immunohistochemical staining of normal colonic tissue confirmed the expression of VGSCs in colonic epithelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and nerves. Lidocaine induced membrane depolarization of HT-29 cells and its effect was blocked by veratridine. Malignant and normal intestinal epithelial cells express functional VGSCs. These molecules may play a role in the regulation of inflammation in gut physiology and pathology.
    Digestion 02/2008; 77(2):108-17. · 1.94 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Crohn's and Colitis Supplements. 01/2007; 1(1):8-8.