Ivan Ahel

University of Oxford, Oxford, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (45)454.14 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Sirtuins are an ancient family of NAD(+)-dependent deacylases connected with the regulation of fundamental cellular processes including metabolic homeostasis and genome integrity. We show the existence of a hitherto unrecognized class of sirtuins, found predominantly in microbial pathogens. In contrast to earlier described classes, these sirtuins exhibit robust protein ADP-ribosylation activity. In our model organisms, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes, the activity is dependent on prior lipoylation of the target protein and can be reversed by a sirtuin-associated macrodomain protein. Together, our data describe a sirtuin-dependent reversible protein ADP-ribosylation system and establish a crosstalk between lipoylation and mono-ADP-ribosylation. We propose that these posttranslational modifications modulate microbial virulence by regulating the response to host-derived reactive oxygen species. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Molecular Cell 07/2015; 59(2):309-320. DOI:10.1016/j.molcel.2015.06.013 · 14.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) are a major family of enzymes capable of modifying proteins by ADP-ribosylation. Due to the large size and diversity of this family, PARPs affect almost every aspect of cellular life and have fundamental roles in DNA repair, transcription, heat shock and cytoplasmic stress responses, cell division, protein degradation, and much more. In the past decade, our understanding of the PARP enzymatic mechanism and activation, as well as regulation of ADP-ribosylation signals by the readers and erasers of protein ADP-ribosylation, has been significantly advanced by the emergence of new structural data, reviewed herein, which allow for better understanding of the biological roles of this widespread post-translational modification. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Molecular cell 06/2015; 58(6):935-946. DOI:10.1016/j.molcel.2015.05.007 · 14.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ADP-ribosylation is a post-translational modification of proteins found in organisms from all kingdoms of life which regulates many important biological functions including DNA repair, chromatin structure, unfolded protein response, and apoptosis. Several cellular enzymes, such as macrodomain containing proteins PARG and TARG1, reverse protein ADP-ribosylation. Here we show that human Nudix-Type Motif 16 (hNUDT16) represents a new enzyme class that can process protein ADP-ribosylation in vitro, converting it into ribose-5'-phosphate tags covalently attached to the modified proteins. Furthermore, our data show that hNUDT16 enzymatic activity can be used to trim ADP-ribosylation on proteins in order to facilitate analysis of ADP-ribosylation sites on proteins by mass spectrometry.
    Biochemical Journal 03/2015; 468(2). DOI:10.1042/BJ20141554 · 4.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is a common post-translational modification that mediates a wide variety of cellular processes including DNA damage repair, chromatin regulation, transcription, and apoptosis. The difficulty associated with accessing poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) in a homogeneous form has been an impediment to understanding the interactions of PAR with poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) and other binding proteins. Here we describe the chemical synthesis of the ADP-ribose dimer, and we use this compound to obtain the first human PARG substrate-enzyme co-crystal structure. Chemical synthesis of PAR is an attractive alternative to traditional enzymatic synthesis and fractionation, allowing access to products such as dimeric ADP-ribose, which has been detected but never isolated from natural sources. Additionally, we describe the synthesis of an alkynylated dimer and demonstrate that this compound can be used to synthesize PAR probes including biotin and fluorophore-labeled compounds. The fluorescently labeled ADP-ribose dimer was then utilized in a general fluorescence polarization-based PAR-protein binding assay. Finally, we use intermediates of our synthesis to access various PAR fragments and evaluation of these compounds as substrates for PARG reveals the minimal features for substrate recognition and enzymatic cleavage. Homogeneous PAR oligomers and unnatural variants produced from chemical synthesis will allow for further detailed structural and biochemical studies on the interaction of PAR with its many protein binding partners.
    Journal of the American Chemical Society 03/2015; 137(10):3558-64. DOI:10.1021/ja512528p · 11.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The poly(adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribose) polymerase (PARP) protein family generates ADP-ribose (ADPr) modifications onto target proteins using NAD(+) as substrate. Based on the composition of three NAD(+) coordinating amino acids, the H-Y-E motif, each PARP is predicted to generate either poly(ADPr) (PAR) or mono(ADPr) (MAR). However, the reaction product of each PARP has not been clearly defined, and is an important priority since PAR and MAR function via distinct mechanisms. Here we show that the majority of PARPs generate MAR, not PAR, and demonstrate that the H-Y-E motif is not the sole indicator of PARP activity. We identify automodification sites on seven PARPs, and demonstrate that MAR and PAR generating PARPs modify similar amino acids, suggesting that the sequence and structural constraints limiting PARPs to MAR synthesis do not limit their ability to modify canonical amino-acid targets. In addition, we identify cysteine as a novel amino-acid target for ADP-ribosylation on PARPs.
    Nature Communications 07/2014; 5:4426. DOI:10.1038/ncomms5426 · 10.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is a post-translational modification of proteins involved in regulation of many cellular pathways. Poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) consists of chains of repeating ADP-ribose nucleotide units and is synthesized by the family of enzymes called poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs). This modification can be removed by the hydrolytic action of poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) and ADP-ribosylhydrolase 3 (ARH3). Hydrolytic activity of macrodomain proteins (MacroD1, MacroD2 and TARG1) is responsible for the removal of terminal ADP-ribose unit and for complete reversion of protein ADP-ribosylation.
    DNA Repair 05/2014; 23. DOI:10.1016/j.dnarep.2014.05.003 · 3.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) is a post-translational modification of proteins and is synthesised by PAR polymerases (PARPs), which have long been associated with the coordination of the cellular response to DNA damage, amongst other processes. Binding of some PARPs such as PARP1 to broken DNA induces a substantial wave of PARylation, which results in significant re-structuring of the chromatin microenvironment through modification of chromatin-associated proteins and recruitment of chromatin-modifying proteins. Similarly, other DNA damage response proteins are recruited to the damaged sites via PAR-specific binding modules, and in this way, PAR mediates not only local chromatin architecture but also DNA repair. Here, we discuss the expanding role of PAR in the DNA damage response, with particular focus on chromatin regulation.
    Chromosoma 10/2013; 123(1). DOI:10.1007/s00412-013-0442-9 · 3.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Poly-ADP-ribosylation is a post-translational modification that regulates processes involved in genome stability. Breakdown of the poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) polymer is catalysed by poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG), whose endo-glycohydrolase activity generates PAR fragments. Here we present the crystal structure of PARG incorporating the PAR substrate. The two terminal ADP-ribose units of the polymeric substrate are bound in exo-mode. Biochemical and modelling studies reveal that PARG acts predominantly as an exo-glycohydrolase. This preference is linked to Phe902 (human numbering), which is responsible for low-affinity binding of the substrate in endo-mode. Our data reveal the mechanism of poly-ADP-ribosylation reversal, with ADP-ribose as the dominant product, and suggest that the release of apoptotic PAR fragments occurs at unusual PAR/PARG ratios.
    Nature Communications 08/2013; 4:2164. DOI:10.1038/ncomms3164 · 10.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is involved in the regulation of a variety of cellular pathways, including, but not limited to, transcription, chromatin, DNA damage and other stress signaling. Similarly to other tightly regulated post-translational modifications, poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation employs 'writers', 'readers' and 'erasers' to confer regulatory functions. The generation of poly(ADP-ribose) is catalyzed by PARP enzymes, which use NAD(+) as a cofactor to sequentially transfer ADP-ribose units generating long polymers, which in turn can affect protein function or serve as a recruitment platform for additional factors. Historically, research has focused on poly(ADP-ribose) generation pathways, with knowledge about PAR recognition and degradation lagging behind. Over the last years, there have been several discoveries that significantly furthered our understanding of PAR recognition and, even more so, of PAR degradation. In this review we summarize current knowledge about the protein modules recognizing poly(ADP-ribose) and discuss the newest developments on the complete reversibility of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    FEBS Journal 05/2013; 280(15). DOI:10.1111/febs.12358 · 3.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribosylation is a post-translational protein modification implicated in the regulation of a range of cellular processes. A family of proteins that catalyse ADP-ribosylation reactions are the poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) polymerases (PARPs). PARPs covalently attach an ADP-ribose nucleotide to target proteins and some PARP family members can subsequently add additional ADP-ribose units to generate a PAR chain. The hydrolysis of PAR chains is catalysed by PAR glycohydrolase (PARG). PARG is unable to cleave the mono(ADP-ribose) unit directly linked to the protein and although the enzymatic activity that catalyses this reaction has been detected in mammalian cell extracts, the protein(s) responsible remain unknown. Here, we report the homozygous mutation of the c6orf130 gene in patients with severe neurodegeneration, and identify C6orf130 as a PARP-interacting protein that removes mono(ADP-ribosyl)ation on glutamate amino acid residues in PARP-modified proteins. X-ray structures and biochemical analysis of C6orf130 suggest a mechanism of catalytic reversal involving a transient C6orf130 lysyl-(ADP-ribose) intermediate. Furthermore, depletion of C6orf130 protein in cells leads to proliferation and DNA repair defects. Collectively, our data suggest that C6orf130 enzymatic activity has a role in the turnover and recycling of protein ADP-ribosylation, and we have implicated the importance of this protein in supporting normal cellular function in humans.
    The EMBO Journal 03/2013; 32(9). DOI:10.1038/emboj.2013.51 · 10.75 Impact Factor
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    Ivan Matic · Ivan Ahel · Ronald T Hay
    Nature Methods 07/2012; 9(8):771-2. DOI:10.1038/nmeth.2106 · 25.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is a reversible post-translational protein modification involved in the regulation of a number of cellular processes including DNA repair, chromatin structure, mitosis, transcription, checkpoint activation, apoptosis and asexual development. The reversion of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is catalysed by poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) glycohydrolase (PARG), which specifically targets the unique PAR (1''-2') ribose-ribose bonds. Here we report the structure and mechanism of the first canonical PARG from the protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila. In addition, we reveal the structure of T. thermophila PARG in a complex with a novel rhodanine-containing mammalian PARG inhibitor RBPI-3. Our data demonstrate that the protozoan PARG represents a good model for human PARG and is therefore likely to prove useful in guiding structure-based discovery of new classes of PARG inhibitors.
    Nature Communications 06/2012; 3:878. DOI:10.1038/ncomms1889 · 10.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is a post-translational protein modification involved in the regulation of important cellular functions including DNA repair, transcription, mitosis and apoptosis. The amount of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PAR) in cells reflects the balance of synthesis, mediated by the PARP protein family, and degradation, which is catalyzed by a glycohydrolase, PARG. Many of the proteins mediating PAR metabolism possess specialised high affinity PAR-binding modules that allow the efficient sensing or processing of the PAR signal. The identification of four such PAR-binding modules and the characterization of a number of proteins utilising these elements during the last decade has provided important insights into how PAR regulates different cellular activities. The macrodomain represents a unique PAR-binding module which is, in some instances, known to possess enzymatic activity on ADP-ribose derivatives (in addition to PAR-binding). The most recently discovered example for this is the PARG protein, and several available PARG structures have provided an understanding into how the PARG macrodomain evolved into a major enzyme that maintains PAR homeostasis in living cells.
    03/2012; 3(1):1-17. DOI:10.3390/biom3010001
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    ABSTRACT: DNA ligases finalize DNA replication and repair through DNA nick-sealing reactions that can abort to generate cytotoxic 5'-adenylation DNA damage. Aprataxin (Aptx) catalyzes direct reversal of 5'-adenylate adducts to protect genome integrity. Here the structure of a Schizosaccharomyces pombe Aptx-DNA-AMP-Zn(2+) complex reveals active site and DNA interaction clefts formed by fusing a histidine triad (HIT) nucleotide hydrolase with a DNA minor groove-binding C(2)HE zinc finger (Znf). An Aptx helical 'wedge' interrogates the base stack for sensing DNA ends or DNA nicks. The HIT-Znf, the wedge and an '[F/Y]PK' pivot motif cooperate to distort terminal DNA base-pairing and direct 5'-adenylate into the active site pocket. Structural and mutational data support a wedge-pivot-cut HIT-Znf catalytic mechanism for 5'-adenylate adduct recognition and removal and suggest that mutations affecting protein folding, the active site pocket and the pivot motif underlie Aptx dysfunction in the neurodegenerative disorder ataxia with oculomotor apraxia 1 (AOA1).
    Nature Structural & Molecular Biology 11/2011; 18(11):1189-95. DOI:10.1038/nsmb.2146 · 13.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Post-translational modification of proteins/histones by lysine acylation has profound effects on the physiological function of modified proteins. Deacylation by NAD+-dependent sirtuin reactions yields as a product O-acyl-ADP-ribose, which has been implicated as a signaling molecule in modulating cellular processes. Macrodomain-containing proteins are reported to bind NAD+-derived metabolites. Here, we describe the structure and function of an orphan macrodomain protein, human C6orf130. This unique 17-kDa protein is a stand-alone macrodomain protein that occupies a distinct branch in the phylogenic tree. We demonstrate that C6orf130 catalyzes the efficient deacylation of O-acetyl-ADP-ribose, O-propionyl-ADP-ribose, and O-butyryl-ADP-ribose to produce ADP-ribose (ADPr) and acetate, propionate, and butyrate, respectively. Using NMR spectroscopy, we solved the structure of C6orf130 in the presence and absence of ADPr. The structures showed a canonical fold with a deep ligand (ADPr)-binding cleft. Structural comparisons of apo-C6orf130 and the ADPr-C6orf130 complex revealed fluctuations of the β5-α4 loop that covers the bound ADPr, suggesting that the β5-α4 loop functions as a gate to sequester substrate and offer flexibility to accommodate alternative substrates. The ADPr-C6orf130 complex identified amino acid residues involved in substrate binding and suggested residues that function in catalysis. Site-specific mutagenesis and steady-state kinetic analyses revealed two critical catalytic residues, Ser-35 and Asp-125. We propose a catalytic mechanism for deacylation of O-acyl-ADP-ribose by C6orf130 and discuss the biological implications in the context of reversible protein acylation at lysine residues.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2011; 286(41):35955-35965. · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Post-translational modification of proteins by poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation regulates many cellular pathways that are critical for genome stability, including DNA repair, chromatin structure, mitosis and apoptosis. Poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) is composed of repeating ADP-ribose units linked via a unique glycosidic ribose-ribose bond, and is synthesized from NAD by PAR polymerases. PAR glycohydrolase (PARG) is the only protein capable of specific hydrolysis of the ribose-ribose bonds present in PAR chains; its deficiency leads to cell death. Here we show that filamentous fungi and a number of bacteria possess a divergent form of PARG that has all the main characteristics of the human PARG enzyme. We present the first PARG crystal structure (derived from the bacterium Thermomonospora curvata), which reveals that the PARG catalytic domain is a distant member of the ubiquitous ADP-ribose-binding macrodomain family. High-resolution structures of T. curvata PARG in complexes with ADP-ribose and the PARG inhibitor ADP-HPD, complemented by biochemical studies, allow us to propose a model for PAR binding and catalysis by PARG. The insights into the PARG structure and catalytic mechanism should greatly improve our understanding of how PARG activity controls reversible protein poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation and potentially of how the defects in this regulation are linked to human disease.
    Nature 09/2011; 477(7366):616-20. DOI:10.1038/nature10404 · 42.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Post-translational modification of proteins/histones by lysine acylation has profound effects on the physiological function of modified proteins. Deacylation by NAD(+)-dependent sirtuin reactions yields as a product O-acyl-ADP-ribose, which has been implicated as a signaling molecule in modulating cellular processes. Macrodomain-containing proteins are reported to bind NAD(+)-derived metabolites. Here, we describe the structure and function of an orphan macrodomain protein, human C6orf130. This unique 17-kDa protein is a stand-alone macrodomain protein that occupies a distinct branch in the phylogenic tree. We demonstrate that C6orf130 catalyzes the efficient deacylation of O-acetyl-ADP-ribose, O-propionyl-ADP-ribose, and O-butyryl-ADP-ribose to produce ADP-ribose (ADPr) and acetate, propionate, and butyrate, respectively. Using NMR spectroscopy, we solved the structure of C6orf130 in the presence and absence of ADPr. The structures showed a canonical fold with a deep ligand (ADPr)-binding cleft. Structural comparisons of apo-C6orf130 and the ADPr-C6orf130 complex revealed fluctuations of the β(5)-α(4) loop that covers the bound ADPr, suggesting that the β(5)-α(4) loop functions as a gate to sequester substrate and offer flexibility to accommodate alternative substrates. The ADPr-C6orf130 complex identified amino acid residues involved in substrate binding and suggested residues that function in catalysis. Site-specific mutagenesis and steady-state kinetic analyses revealed two critical catalytic residues, Ser-35 and Asp-125. We propose a catalytic mechanism for deacylation of O-acyl-ADP-ribose by C6orf130 and discuss the biological implications in the context of reversible protein acylation at lysine residues.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2011; 286(41):35955-65. DOI:10.1074/jbc.M111.276238 · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sirtuins are a family of protein lysine deacetylases, which regulate gene silencing, metabolism, life span, and chromatin structure. Sirtuins utilize NAD(+) to deacetylate proteins, yielding O-acetyl-ADP-ribose (OAADPr) as a reaction product. The macrodomain is a ubiquitous protein module known to bind ADP-ribose derivatives, which diverged through evolution to support many different protein functions and pathways. The observation that some sirtuins and macrodomains are physically linked as fusion proteins or genetically coupled through the same operon, provided a clue that their functions might be connected. Indeed, here we demonstrate that the product of the sirtuin reaction OAADPr is a substrate for several related macrodomain proteins: human MacroD1, human MacroD2, Escherichia coli YmdB, and the sirtuin-linked MacroD-like protein from Staphylococcus aureus. In addition, we show that the cell extracts derived from MacroD-deficient Neurospora crassa strain exhibit a major reduction in the ability to hydrolyze OAADPr. Our data support a novel function of macrodomains as OAADPr deacetylases and potential in vivo regulators of cellular OAADPr produced by NAD(+)-dependent deacetylation.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 04/2011; 286(15):13261-71. DOI:10.1074/jbc.M110.206771 · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sirtuins are a family of protein lysine deacetylases, which regulate gene silencing, metabolism, life span, and chromatin structure. Sirtuins utilize NAD+ to deacetylate proteins, yielding O-acetyl-ADP-ribose (OAADPr) as a reaction product. The macrodomain is a ubiquitous protein module known to bind ADP-ribose derivatives, which diverged through evolution to support many different protein functions and pathways. The observation that some sirtuins and macrodomains are physically-linked as fusion proteins or genetically-coupled through the same operon, provided a clue that their functions might be connected. Indeed, here we demonstrate that the product of the sirtuin reaction OAADPr is a substrate for several related macrodomain proteins: human MacroD1, human MacroD2, E. coli YmdB, and the sirtuin-linked MacroD-like protein from S. aureus. In addition, we show that the cell extracts derived from MacroD-deficient Neurospora crassa strain exhibit a major reduction in the ability to hydrolyze OAADPr. Our data support a novel function of macrodomains as OAADPr deacetylases and potential in vivo regulators of cellular OAADPr produced by NAD+-dependent deacetylation.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 01/2011; · 4.57 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
454.14 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014–2015
    • University of Oxford
      Oxford, England, United Kingdom
  • 2009–2013
    • The University of Manchester
      • Paterson Institute for Cancer Research
      Manchester, England, United Kingdom
  • 2000–2005
    • Ruder Boskovic Institute
      Zagrabia, Grad Zagreb, Croatia
  • 2001–2004
    • Yale University
      • Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry
      New Haven, CT, United States
  • 2002
    • Massachusetts Institute of Technology
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
    • Ruđer Bošković Institute
      • Department of Molecular Genetics
      Zagrabia, Grad Zagreb, Croatia