Thorkild I A Sørensen

University of Bristol, Bristol, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (588)3149.21 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Gestational weight gain (GWG) is a complex trait involving intrauterine environmental, maternal environmental, and genetic factors. However, the extent to which these factors contribute to the total variation in GWG is unclear. We therefore examined the genetic and environmental influences on the variation in GWG in the first and second pregnancy in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twin mother-pairs. Further, we explored if any co-variance existed between factors influencing the variation in GWG of the mothers' first and second pregnancies. By using Swedish nationwide record-linkage data, we identified 694 twin mother-pairs with complete data on their first pregnancy and 465 twin mother-pairs with complete data on their second pregnancy during 1982-2010. For a subanalysis, 143 twin mother-pairs had complete data on two consecutive pregnancies during the study period. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) to assess the contribution of genetic, shared, and unique environmental factors to the variation in GWG. A bivariate Cholesky decomposition model was used for the subanalysis. We found that genetic factors explained 43% (95% CI: 36-51%) of the variation in GWG in the first pregnancy and 26% (95% CI: 16-36%) in the second pregnancy. The remaining variance was explained by unique environmental factors. Both overlapping and distinct genetic and unique environmental factors influenced GWG in the first and the second pregnancy. This study showed that GWG has a moderate heritability, suggesting that a large part of the variation in the trait can be explained by unique environmental factors.
    Twin Research and Human Genetics 06/2015; DOI:10.1017/thg.2015.38 · 1.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The season of birth might influence prenatal circumstances, which may influence the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine whether the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes in Denmark changed with the season of birth. This study used data from the population-based Copenhagen School Health Records Register (CSHRR) that includes schoolchildren born between 1930 and 1989. Via a personal identification number, the CSHRR was linked to the National Patient Register containing hospital discharge diagnoses since 1977. The effect of seasonal variation in birth on the risk of type 2 diabetes was assessed using Cox regression, with month or season of birth as the predictor. The underlying time variable was age, and follow-up started in 1977 or at age 30 years. The study population consisted of 223,099 people, of whom 12,486 developed adult type 2 diabetes. Using January as the reference month, the risk of type 2 diabetes by month of birth was not statistically different for any of the 11 comparative birth months. Grouping month of birth into seasons (spring was the reference) gave essentially similar results, showing no difference in the risk of type 2 diabetes for any season. Repeating the analysis by sex, birth cohort and birthweight categories revealed no associations. The risk of adult type 2 diabetes was not associated with month of birth in a large Danish population-based study. The results suggest that the causes of seasonality in birthweight are not causes of type 2 diabetes.
    Diabetologia 06/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00125-015-3661-1 · 6.88 Impact Factor
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    PLoS ONE 06/2015; 10(6):e0128631. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0128631 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: For over 100 years, the genetics of human anthropometric traits has attracted scientific interest. In particular, height and body mass index (BMI, calculated as kg/m2) have been under intensive genetic research. However, it is still largely unknown whether and how heritability estimates vary between human populations. Opportunities to address this question have increased recently because of the establishment of many new twin cohorts and the increasing accumulation of data in established twin cohorts. We started a new research project to analyze systematically (1) the variation of heritability estimates of height, BMI and their trajectories over the life course between birth cohorts, ethnicities and countries, and (2) to study the effects of birth-related factors, education and smoking on these anthropometric traits and whether these effects vary between twin cohorts. We identified 67 twin projects, including both monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins, using various sources. We asked for individual level data on height and weight including repeated measurements, birth related traits, background variables, education and smoking. By the end of 2014, 48 projects participated. Together, we have 893,458 height and weight measures (52% females) from 434,723 twin individuals, including 201,192 complete twin pairs (40% monozygotic, 40% same-sex dizygotic and 20% opposite-sex dizygotic) representing 22 countries. This project demonstrates that large-scale international twin studies are feasible and can promote the use of existing data for novel research purposes.
    Twin Research and Human Genetics 05/2015; 10(10):1017. · 1.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The obesity epidemic may have developed as a response to the obesogenic environment among the genetically predisposed. This investigation examined whether the intergenerational resemblances in childhood overweight changed across the development of the obesity epidemic in groups of children born to parents with and without childhood overweight. The study population was from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register, which includes age- and sex-specific body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2) ) of children. This study used BMI values from 7-year-old children born 1952-1989 and from their parents at ages 7 and 13 years. The available number of parent-child pairs ranged from 17,926 through 42,184. The odds ratios of childhood overweight (BMI z-score >90th percentile) were calculated using logistic regression by parental BMI groups (BMI > or ≤90th percentile) and child birth year intervals. Stable levels in parent-child overweight associations were observed across child BMI groups born to parents with and without childhood overweight. A slight upward odds ratio trend was observed across time in children born to two overweight parents at age 13, but not at age 7 years. Parent-child resemblance in childhood overweight showed small changes during the development of the obesity epidemic, suggesting that the obesogenic environment inducing the epidemic in Denmark influenced children irrespective of their familial predisposition. © 2015 The Obesity Society.
    Obesity 05/2015; 23(6). DOI:10.1002/oby.21060 · 4.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The relation between childhood overweight and adult non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is largely unknown. We investigated if weight and weight gain in childhood increases the risk of being diagnosed with NAFLD in routine clinical settings in adulthood. We studied 244 464 boys and girls, born between 1930 and 1989, who attended school in Copenhagen, Denmark. Their heights and weights were measured by physicians or nurses at mandatory school health examinations at ages 7-13 years. Body mass index (BMI) z-scores were calculated from an internal age-specific and sex-specific reference. NAFLD reported in the National Patient Register and the National Register of Pathology at 18 years of age or older. HRs with 95% CIs were estimated. During follow-up, 1264 and 1106 NAFLD cases, respectively, occurred in men and women. In both sexes, childhood BMI z-score was not consistently associated with adult NAFLD. Change in BMI z-score between 7 and 13 years of age was positively associated with NAFLD in both sexes. When adjusted for BMI z-score at age 7 years, the HRs of adult NAFLD were 1.15 (95% CI 1.05 to 1.26) and 1.12 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.23) per 1-unit gain in BMI z-score in men and women, respectively. Associations were similar when adjusted for BMI z-score at age 13 years, and were consistent across birth years. A BMI gain in school-aged children is associated with adult NAFLD. Intriguingly, BMI gain appears to have an effect on adult NAFLD irrespective of either the initial or the attained BMI. Taken together, our results suggest that BMI gain in childhood, rather than the level of BMI per se, is important in the development of adult NAFLD. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to
    BMJ Open 05/2015; 5(4):e006998. DOI:10.1136/bmjopen-2014-006998 · 2.06 Impact Factor
  • International journal of obesity (2005) 04/2015; DOI:10.1038/ijo.2015.81 · 5.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many environmental factors have been shown to influence birth weight (BW) and one of these are season of birth. The aim of the present study was to investigate the seasonal variation in BW in Denmark during 1936-1989, and to see if the variation could be explained by sunshine exposure during pregnancy. The study population was selected from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register and included 276 339 children born between 1936 and 1989. Seasonal variation was modeled using a non-stationary sinusoidal model that allowed the underlying trend in BW and the amplitude and phase of the yearly cycles to change. There was a clear seasonal pattern in BW which, however, changed gradually across the study period. The highest BWs were seen during fall (September - October) from 1936 to 1963, but a new peak gradually grew from the early 1940s during early summer (May - June) and became the highest from 1964 to 1989. The amplitude of the fall peak started at 25.5 (95%CI 24.6; 25.9) grams and gradually disappeared. The amplitude of the early summer peak gradually arose from nothing to a peak of 18.6 (95%CI 17.7; 19.6) grams in the mid 1980s where it started to decrease again. Sunshine did not explain the seasonal variation in BW. There was a clear seasonal pattern in BW in Denmark 1936-1989, which however changed across the study period. Throughout the study period we observed a peak in BW during the fall, but gradually, starting in the early 1940s, an additional early summer peak emerged and became the highest from 1964 and onwards. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Early human development 04/2015; 91(6):361-365. DOI:10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2015.03.010 · 1.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prenatal vitamin-D deficiency may be associated with increased risk of obesity later in life. Using two national vitamin-D fortification programs as the setting for a societal experiment, we investigated whether exposure to vitamin-D from fortified margarine and low-fat milk during foetal life was associated with body size at 7 years of age. Vitamin-D fortification of margarine was mandatory in Denmark from 1961 to 1985, and voluntary fortification of low-fat milk was permitted from 1972 to 1976. Using information on body mass index (BMI) Z-score at the age of 7 years of 54 270 children, who were measured during the mandatory Copenhagen School Health examination, we compared children according to whether the mothers were pregnant during the fortification programs or not. The comparisons were performed for children born just before and after initiation or termination of margarine and milk fortification periods, respectively. In total four sets of analyses were performed. We observed no difference in mean BMI Z-score between children exposed to vitamin-D fortification in utero and non-exposed children. Similar results were observed for overweight and obesity. Prenatal exposure to vitamin-D from fortification of margarine and low-fat milk showed no association with body size at 7 years.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 8 April 2015; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2015.55.
    European journal of clinical nutrition 04/2015; DOI:10.1038/ejcn.2015.55 · 2.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previously, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs9939609, in the FTO gene showed a much stronger association with all-cause mortality than expected from its association with body mass index (BMI), body fat mass index (FMI) and waist circumference (WC). This finding implies that the SNP has strong pleiotropic effects on adiposity and adiposity-independent pathological pathways that leads to increased mortality. To investigate this further, we conducted a meta-analysis of similar data from 34 longitudinal studies including 169,551 adult Caucasians among whom 27,100 died during follow-up. Linear regression showed that the minor allele of the FTO SNP was associated with greater BMI (n = 169,551; 0.32 kg m(-2) ; 95% CI 0.28-0.32, P < 1 × 10(-32) ), WC (n = 152,631; 0.76 cm; 0.68-0.84, P < 1 × 10(-32) ) and FMI (n = 48,192; 0.17 kg m(-2) ; 0.13-0.22, P = 1.0 × 10(-13) ). Cox proportional hazard regression analyses for mortality showed that the hazards ratio (HR) for the minor allele of the FTO SNPs was 1.02 (1.00-1.04, P = 0.097), but the apparent excess risk was eliminated after adjustment for BMI and WC (HR: 1.00; 0.98-1.03, P = 0.662) and for FMI (HR: 1.00; 0.96-1.04, P = 0.932). In conclusion, this study does not support that the FTO SNP is associated with all-cause mortality independently of the adiposity phenotypes. © 2015 World Obesity.
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    ABSTRACT: Objective We studied the influence of maternal behavior on weight change from prepregnancy to 7 years postpartum.Methods We used linear regression to study the independent and combined associations between self-reported behavior in pregnancy (dietary intake, leisure-time exercise, sedentary activity, smoking) and postpartum (breastfeeding duration and smoking) on weights at 6 months, 18 months, and 7 years postpartum.ResultsWomen's average 7-year weight gain was 2.07 kg, with 23% gaining >5 kg. Multivariable analyses suggested that women with healthier dietary intake, more leisure-time exercise, less sedentary behavior, and longer duration of breastfeeding on average gained 1.66 kg [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.40; 1.91] with a significantly reduced odds [OR 0.56 (95% CI: 0.49; 0.64)] of gaining >5 kg from prepregnancy to 7 years postpartum compared to women with none or one of these behaviors [mean gain 3.03 kg (95% CI: 2.68; 3.39)]. Women who ceased smoking had higher long-term weight gain than nonsmokers, but not smokers.Conclusions Adherence to healthy behaviors during pregnancy lowered long-term weight gain considerably by lowering postpartum weight retention and subsequent weight gain. Public health efforts to help mothers achieve healthy behaviors might prevent childbearing-related weight gain.
    Obesity 04/2015; 23(4). DOI:10.1002/oby.21022 · 4.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: A trans-ethnic meta-analysis of type 2 diabetes genome-wide association studies has identified seven novel susceptibility variants in or near TMEM154, SSR1/RREB1, FAF1, POU5F1/TCF19, LPP, ARL15 and ABCB9/MPHOSPH9. The aim of our study was to investigate associations between these novel risk variants and type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetic traits in a Danish population-based study with measurements of plasma glucose and serum insulin after an oral glucose tolerance test in order to elaborate on the physiological impact of the variants. METHODS: Case-control analyses were performed in up to 5,777 patients with type 2 diabetes and 7,956 individuals with normal fasting glucose levels. Quantitative trait analyses were performed in up to 5,744 Inter99 participants naïve to glucose-lowering medication. Significant associations between TMEM154-rs6813195 and the beta cell measures insulinogenic index and disposition index and between FAF1-rs17106184 and 2-hour serum insulin levels were selected for further investigation in additional Danish studies and results were combined in meta-analyses including up to 6,486 Danes. RESULTS: We confirmed associations with type 2 diabetes for five of the seven SNPs (TMEM154-rs6813195, FAF1-rs17106184, POU5F1/TCF19-rs3130501, ARL15-rs702634 and ABCB9/MPHOSPH9-rs4275659). The type 2 diabetes risk C-allele of TMEM154-rs6813195 associated with decreased disposition index (n=5,181, β=-0.042, p=0.012) and insulinogenic index (n=5,181, β=-0.032, p=0.043) in Inter99 and these associations remained significant in meta-analyses including four additional Danish studies (disposition index n=6,486, β=-0.042, p=0.0044; and insulinogenic index n=6,486, β=-0.037, p=0.0094). The type 2 diabetes risk G-allele of FAF1-rs17106184 associated with increased levels of 2-hour serum insulin (n=5,547, β=0.055, p=0.017) in Inter99 and also when combining effects with three additional Danish studies (n=6,260, β=0.062, p=0.0040). CONCLUSION: Studies of type 2 diabetes intermediary traits suggest the diabetogenic impact of the C-allele of TMEM154-rs6813195 is mediated through reduced beta cell function. The impact of the diabetes risk G-allele of FAF1-rs17106184 on increased 2-hour insulin levels is however unexplained.
    PLoS ONE 03/2015; 10(3). DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0120890 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Early parental separation may be a stress factor causing a long-term alteration in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis activity possibly impacting on the susceptibility to develop overweight and obesity in offspring. We aimed to examine the body mass index (BMI) and the risk of overweight and obesity in children whose parents lived separately before the child was born. A follow-up study was conducted using data from the Aarhus Birth Cohort in Denmark and included 2876 children with measurements of height and weight at 9-11-years-of-age, and self-reported information on parental cohabitation status at child birth and at 9-11-years-of-age. Quantile regression was used to estimate the difference in median BMI between children whose parents lived separately (n = 124) or together (n = 2752) before the birth. We used multiple logistic regression to calculate odds ratio (OR) for overweight and obesity, adjusted for gender, parity, breast feeding status, and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, weight gain during pregnancy, age and educational level at child birth; with and without possible intermediate factors birth weight and maternal smoking during pregnancy. Due to a limited number of obese children, OR for obesity was adjusted for the a priori confounder maternal pre-pregnancy BMI only. The difference in median BMI was 0.54 kg/m2 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.10; 0.98) between children whose parents lived separately before birth and children whose parents lived together. The risk of overweight and obesity was statistically significantly increased in children whose parents lived separately before the birth of the child; OR 2.29 (95% CI: 1.18; 4.45) and OR 2.81 (95% CI: 1.05; 7.51), respectively. Additional, adjustment for possible intermediate factors did not substantially change the estimates. Parental separation before child birth was associated with higher BMI, and increased risk of overweight and obesity in 9-11-year-old children; this may suggest a fetal programming effect or unmeasured difference in psychosocial factors between separated and non-separated parents.
    PLoS ONE 03/2015; 10(3):e0119138. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0119138 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Alcohol consumption, increased body mass index (BMI), and hormone therapy are risk factors for postmenopausal breast cancer, but their combined effects are not well understood. Because hormone therapy is effective for the relief of menopausal symptoms, the identification of "high-risk" users is important for therapeutic reasons. We investigated interactions between hormone therapy use and alcohol-use/high BMI status in relation to invasive breast cancer risk, both overall and according to estrogen receptor (ER) status. Two Danish prospective cohorts were pooled, including 30,789 women aged 50+ years (study period 1981 to 2009). Information on risk factors was obtained in baseline questionnaires. We performed analyses using the Aalen additive hazards model. Serum estradiol and testosterone measurements were obtained in a subsample of approximately 1000 women. During 392,938 person-years of follow-up, 1579 women developed invasive breast cancer. Among nonusers of hormone therapy, the risk of breast cancer was slightly increased with overweight/obesity and increasing alcohol consumption. Compared with normal-weight nonusers, the risk of breast cancer was higher in hormone therapy users across all BMI strata (P for interaction = 0.003). A markedly higher risk of breast cancer was also observed for alcohol combined with hormone therapy use compared with abstinent nonusers (P for interaction = 0.02). These effects were primarily restricted to ER-positive cases. Combined effects of hormone therapy/high BMI and hormone therapy/alcohol on serum estradiol and testosterone supported the hypothesis of a hormonal pathway linking these exposures to breast cancer. These analyses suggest an increased risk of breast cancer associated with hormone therapy use-a risk that may be particularly strong among women consuming alcohol.
    Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.) 02/2015; 26(3). DOI:10.1097/EDE.0000000000000261 · 6.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background:Middle-aged obese adults are at substantially elevated risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma. It is unclear whether this risk originates earlier in life.Methods:We assessed associations between childhood body mass index (BMI) and height-measured annually between ages 7 and 13-with adult oesophageal adenocarcinoma in a cohort from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register. Analyses included 255 053 children born during 1930-1971. Danish Cancer Registry linkage provided outcomes. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using Cox proportional hazards regression.Results:During 5.4 million person-years of follow-up, 254 (216 males) incident oesophageal adenocarcinomas occurred. At each examined age, cancer risk increased linearly per unit BMI z-score, although associations were only statistically significant for ages 9-13. The HR for the age of 13 years was 1.31 (95% CI: 1.13, 1.51) per unit BMI z-score. Associations were similar in men and women and across birth cohorts. Childhood height was not related to cancer risk in men but was in women, although these analyses included just 38 female cases. HRs per unit height z-score at the age of 13 years were 1.04 (0.90, 1.19) in males and 1.77 (1.27, 2.47) in females, with similar results observed at the other examined ages.Conclusion:Individuals with higher childhood BMI were at elevated risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma, even though these cancers occurred many decades later in life. Although the mechanisms require further investigation, our findings provide additional evidence for the long-term health risks of childhood obesity.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 6 January 2015; doi:10.1038/bjc.2014.646
    British Journal of Cancer 01/2015; 112(3). DOI:10.1038/bjc.2014.646 · 4.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives Maternal body mass index (BMI), birth weight, and preschool BMI may help identify children at high risk of overweight as they are (1) similarly linked to adolescent overweight at different stages of the obesity epidemic, (2) linked to adult obesity and metabolic alterations, and (3) easily obtainable in health examinations in young children. The aim was to develop early childhood prediction models of adolescent overweight, adult overweight, and adult obesity.Methods Prediction models at various ages in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort born in 1966 (NFBC1966) were developed. Internal validation was tested using a bootstrap design, and external validation was tested for the model predicting adolescent overweight using the Northern Finland Birth Cohort born in 1986 (NFBC1986).ResultsA prediction model developed in the NFBC1966 to predict adolescent overweight, applied to the NFBC1986, and aimed at labelling 10% as “at risk” on the basis of anthropometric information collected until 5 years of age showed that half of those at risk in fact did become overweight. This group constituted one-third of all who became overweight.Conclusions Our prediction model identified a subgroup of children at very high risk of becoming overweight, which may be valuable in public health settings dealing with obesity prevention.
    Obesity 01/2015; 23(1). DOI:10.1002/oby.20921 · 4.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Building a population-specific catalogue of single nucleotide variants (SNVs), indels and structural variants (SVs) with frequencies, termed a national pan-genome, is critical for further advancing clinical and public health genetics in large cohorts. Here we report a Danish pan-genome obtained from sequencing 10 trios to high depth (50 × ). We report 536k novel SNVs and 283k novel short indels from mapping approaches and develop a population-wide de novo assembly approach to identify 132k novel indels larger than 10 nucleotides with low false discovery rates. We identify a higher proportion of indels and SVs than previous efforts showing the merits of high coverage and de novo assembly approaches. In addition, we use trio information to identify de novo mutations and use a probabilistic method to provide direct estimates of 1.27e-8 and 1.5e-9 per nucleotide per generation for SNVs and indels, respectively.
    Nature Communications 01/2015; 6:5969. DOI:10.1038/ncomms6969 · 10.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We previously used a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the CHRNA5-A3-B4 gene cluster associated with heaviness of smoking within smokers to confirm the causal effect of smoking in reducing body mass index (BMI) in a Mendelian randomisation analysis. While seeking to extend these findings in a larger sample we found that this SNP is associated with 0.74% lower body mass index (BMI) per minor allele in current smokers (95% CI -0.97 to -0.51, P = 2.00×10-10), but also unexpectedly found that it was associated with 0.35% higher BMI in never smokers (95% CI +0.18 to +0.52, P = 6.38×10-5). An interaction test confirmed that these estimates differed from each other (P = 4.95×10-13). This difference in effects suggests the variant influences BMI both via pathways unrelated to smoking, and via the weight-reducing effects of smoking. It would therefore be essentially undetectable in an unstratified genome-wide association study of BMI, given the opposite association with BMI in never and current smokers. This demonstrates that novel associations may be obscured by hidden population sub-structure. Stratification on well-characterized environmental factors known to impact on health outcomes may therefore reveal novel genetic associations.
    PLoS Genetics 12/2014; DOI:10.1371/journal.pgen.1004799 · 8.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Animal and human studies suggest that programing of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may be involved in the development of obesity, but human studies of biological indicators of HPA axis activity are lacking. We studied the association between levels of the stress hormone cortisol during pregnancy and overweight offspring during childhood into adolescence. Salivary samples from 655 Danish pregnant women with singleton pregnancies (1989-1991) were collected once in the morning and once in the evening in their second and third trimester. We followed the offspring from two to 16 years of age with at least one measurement of height and weight, and classified their body mass index into overweight and normal weight. The adjusted relative difference in median salivary cortisol (with 95% confidence interval (CI)) during pregnancy (the four samples), in second and third trimester (morning and evening samples) between overweight and normal weight offspring was estimated. Furthermore, the adjusted median ratio between morning and evening maternal salivary cortisol level was estimated for normal weight and overweight children. All the analyses were stratified into the equal age groups: 2-6, 7-11, and 12-16 years. We found non-significant higher maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy in offspring that were overweight at the age of 2-6, 7-11 and 12-16 years than in normal weight peers; adjusted relative difference in median salivary cortisol 11% (95% CI: -2; 25), 6% (95% CI: -7; 20), and 9% (95% CI: -4; 24), respectively. A statistically significantly higher level of maternal cortisol was found in the second trimester in 2-6-year-old and 12-16-year-old overweight offspring; relative difference 19% (95% CI: 3; 37), and 20% (95% CI: 3; 41), respectively. The median ratio between morning and evening maternal salivary cortisol level was similar for overweight and normal weight children; e.g. at age 2-6 years in third trimester 4.31 (95% CI: 4.05; 4.60)nmol/l and 4.28 (95% CI: 3.60; 5.09)nmol/l, respectively (P=0.93). Our findings suggest a relatively consistent association between pregnancy cortisol levels and overweight offspring, especially in the second trimester. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Psychoneuroendocrinology 11/2014; 52. DOI:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2014.11.006 · 5.59 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

19k Citations
3,149.21 Total Impact Points


  • 2015
    • University of Bristol
      Bristol, England, United Kingdom
  • 1977–2015
    • IT University of Copenhagen
      København, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 2005–2014
    • Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen University
      • Institute of Preventive Medicine
      København, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 1981–2014
    • Frederiksberg Hospital
      Фредериксберг, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 2013
    • Leiden University Medical Centre
      • Department of Gerontology and Geriatrics
      Leyden, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 2006–2013
    • University of Copenhagen
      • Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences
      Copenhagen, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 2003–2013
    • University of Southern Denmark
      • Institute of Public Health
      Odense, South Denmark, Denmark
  • 1992–2013
    • Institut for Sygdomsforebyggelse
      København, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 1988–2013
    • Copenhagen University Hospital
      København, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 2003–2012
    • Aarhus University
      • • Department of Public Health
      • • Department of Clinical Epidemiology
      • • Department of Epidemiology and Social Medicine
      Aars, Region North Jutland, Denmark
  • 2004–2011
    • Statens Serum Institut
      • Department of Epidemiology Research
      København, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 2010
    • Technical University of Denmark
      Lyngby, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 2009
    • Danish Institute for Health Services Research
      København, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 1985–2009
    • University of Helsinki
      • Department of Dental Public Health
      Helsinki, Province of Southern Finland, Finland
  • 1997–2008
    • Steno Diabetes Center
      Gjentofte, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 2007
    • Odense University Hospital
      • Department of Endocrinology - M
      Odense, South Denmark, Denmark
    • University of Oulu
      Uleoborg, Northern Ostrobothnia, Finland
    • Glostrup Hospital
      • Department of Ophthalmology
      Copenhagen, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 2005–2007
    • Cornell University
      • Department of Nutritional Sciences
      Ithaca, NY, United States
  • 1979–2006
    • Herlev Hospital
      Herlev, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 1984–2005
    • Copenhagen University Hospital Hvidovre
      • • Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine
      • • Department of Cardiology
      Hvidovre, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 2003–2004
    • National Institute of Public Health
      København, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 2002
    • Laval University
      Quebec City, Quebec, Canada
  • 2001
    • Copenhagen Fertility Center
      København, Capital Region, Denmark
    • CUNY Graduate Center
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 1997–2001
    • National University (California)
      San Diego, California, United States
  • 1998–2000
    • Copenhagen Trial Unit
      København, Capital Region, Denmark
    • William Penn University
      Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 1989–1991
    • University of Pennsylvania
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Philadelphia, PA, United States
  • 1983–1988
    • University of Copenhagen Herlev Hospital
      Herlev, Capital Region, Denmark