[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Numerous obesity loci have been identified using genome-wide association studies. A UK study indicated that physical activity may attenuate the cumulative effect of 12 of these loci, but replication studies are lacking. Therefore, we tested whether the aggregate effect of these loci is diminished in adults of European ancestry reporting high levels of physical activity. Twelve obesity-susceptibility loci were genotyped or imputed in 111,421 participants. A genetic risk score (GRS) was calculated by summing the BMI-associated alleles of each genetic variant. Physical activity was assessed using self-administered questionnaires. Multiplicative interactions between the GRS and physical activity on BMI were tested in linear and logistic regression models in each cohort, with adjustment for age, age2, sex, study center (for multicenter studies), and the marginal terms for physical activity and the GRS. These results were combined using meta-analysis weighted by cohort sample size. The meta-analysis yielded a statistically significant GRS × physical activity interaction effect estimate (Pinteraction = 0.015). However, a statistically significant interaction effect was only apparent in North American cohorts (n = 39,810, Pinteraction = 0.014 vs. n = 71,611, Pinteraction = 0.275 for Europeans). In secondary analyses, both the FTO rs1121980 (Pinteraction = 0.003) and the SEC16B rs10913469 (Pinteraction = 0.025) variants showed evidence of SNP × physical activity interactions. This meta-analysis of 111,421 individuals provides further support for an interaction between physical activity and a GRS in obesity disposition, although these findings hinge on the inclusion of cohorts from North America, indicating that these results are either population-specific or non-causal.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A genetic variant within the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 region (rs1051730), previously associated with smoking quantity, was recently shown to interact with smoking on obesity predisposition. We attempted to replicate this finding in the Gene-Lifestyle Interactions and Complex Traits Involved in Elevated Disease Risk (GLACIER) Study, a prospective cohort study of adults from northern Sweden (n = 16,426). We also investigated whether a similar interaction is apparent between rs1051730 and snus, a type of moist oral tobacco, to determine whether this interaction is driven by factors that cigarettes and snus have in common, such as nicotine. Main effects of smoking, snus, and the rs1051730 variant and pairwise interaction terms (smoking × rs1051730 and snus × rs1051730) were tested in relation to body mass index (BMI; calculated as weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) through the use of multivariate linear models adjusted for age and sex. Smoking status and BMI were inversely related (β = -0.46 kg/m(2), standard error (SE) = 0.08; P < 0.0001). Snus use and BMI were positively related (β = 0.35 kg/m(2), SE = 0.12; P = 0.003). The rs1051730 variant was not significantly associated with smoking status or snus use (P > 0.05); the T allele was associated with lower BMI in the overall cohort (β = -0.10 kg/m(2), SE = 0.05; P = 0.03) and with smoking quantity in those in whom this was measured (n = 5,304) (β = 0.08, SE = 0.01; P < 0.0001). Neither smoking status (Pinteraction = 0.29) nor snus use (Pinteraction = 0.89) modified the association between the rs1051730 variant and BMI.
American journal of epidemiology 05/2013; · 5.59 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study explored sex differences in 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases type 1 (11β-HSD1) activity and gene expression in isolated adipocytes and adipose tissue (AT), obtained via subcutaneous biopsies from non-diabetic subjects (58M, 64F; age 48.3 ± 15.3 yr, BMI 27.2 ± 3.9 kg/m(2) ). Relationships with adiposity and insulin resistance (IR) were addressed. Males exhibited higher 11β-HSD1 activity in adipocytes than females, but there was no such difference for AT. In both men and women, adipocyte 11β-HSD1 activity correlated positively with BMI, waist circumference, % body fat, adipocyte size and with serum glucose, triglycerides and LDL:HDL ratio. Positive correlations with insulin, HOMA-IR and HbA1c and a negative correlation with HDL-cholesterol were significant only in males. Conversely, 11β-HSD1 activity in AT correlated with several markers of IR and adiposity in females but not in males, but the opposite pattern was found with respect to 11β-HSD1 mRNA expression. This study suggests that there are sex differences in 11β-HSD1 regulation and in its associations with markers of obesity and IR.
Diabetes Obesity and Metabolism 05/2013; · 5.18 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Favorable associations between magnesium intake and glycemic traits, such as fasting glucose and insulin, are observed in observational and clinical studies, but whether genetic variation affects these associations is largely unknown. We hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with either glycemic traits or magnesium metabolism affect the association between magnesium intake and fasting glucose and insulin. Fifteen studies from the CHARGE (Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology) Consortium provided data from up to 52,684 participants of European descent without known diabetes. In fixed-effects meta-analyses, we quantified 1) cross-sectional associations of dietary magnesium intake with fasting glucose (mmol/L) and insulin (ln-pmol/L) and 2) interactions between magnesium intake and SNPs related to fasting glucose (16 SNPs), insulin (2 SNPs), or magnesium (8 SNPs) on fasting glucose and insulin. After adjustment for age, sex, energy intake, BMI, and behavioral risk factors, magnesium (per 50-mg/d increment) was inversely associated with fasting glucose [β = -0.009 mmol/L (95% CI: -0.013, -0.005), P < 0.0001] and insulin [-0.020 ln-pmol/L (95% CI: -0.024, -0.017), P < 0.0001]. No magnesium-related SNP or interaction between any SNP and magnesium reached significance after correction for multiple testing. However, rs2274924 in magnesium transporter-encoding TRPM6 showed a nominal association (uncorrected P = 0.03) with glucose, and rs11558471 in SLC30A8 and rs3740393 near CNNM2 showed a nominal interaction (uncorrected, both P = 0.02) with magnesium on glucose. Consistent with other studies, a higher magnesium intake was associated with lower fasting glucose and insulin. Nominal evidence of TRPM6 influence and magnesium interaction with select loci suggests that further investigation is warranted.
Journal of Nutrition 01/2013; · 4.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human body acceleration is often used as an indicator of daily physical activity in epidemiological research. Raw acceleration signals contain three basic components: movement, gravity, and noise. Separation of these becomes increasingly difficult during rotational movements. We aimed to evaluate five different methods (metrics) of processing acceleration signals on their ability to remove the gravitational component of acceleration during standardised mechanical movements and the implications for human daily physical activity assessment.
An industrial robot rotated accelerometers in the vertical plane. Radius, frequency, and angular range of motion were systematically varied. Three metrics (Euclidian norm minus one [ENMO], Euclidian norm of the high-pass filtered signals [HFEN], and HFEN plus Euclidean norm of low-pass filtered signals minus 1 g [HFEN+]) were derived for each experimental condition and compared against the reference acceleration (forward kinematics) of the robot arm. We then compared metrics derived from human acceleration signals from the wrist and hip in 97 adults (22-65 yr), and wrist in 63 women (20-35 yr) in whom daily activity-related energy expenditure (PAEE) was available.
In the robot experiment, HFEN+ had lowest error during (vertical plane) rotations at an oscillating frequency higher than the filter cut-off frequency while for lower frequencies ENMO performed better. In the human experiments, metrics HFEN and ENMO on hip were most discrepant (within- and between-individual explained variance of 0.90 and 0.46, respectively). ENMO, HFEN and HFEN+ explained 34%, 30% and 36% of the variance in daily PAEE, respectively, compared to 26% for a metric which did not attempt to remove the gravitational component (metric EN).
In conclusion, none of the metrics as evaluated systematically outperformed all other metrics across a wide range of standardised kinematic conditions. However, choice of metric explains different degrees of variance in daily human physical activity.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(4):e61691. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Whether loci that influence fasting glucose (FG) and fasting insulin (FI) levels, as identified by genome-wide association studies, modify associations of diet with FG or FI is unknown. We utilized data from 15 US and European cohort studies comprising 51,289 persons without diabetes to test whether genotype and diet interact to influence FG or FI concentration. We constructed a diet score using study-specific quartile rankings for intakes of whole grains, fish, fruits, vegetables, and nuts/seeds (favorable) and red/processed meats, sweets, sugared beverages, and fried potatoes (unfavorable). We used linear regression within studies, followed by inverse-variance-weighted meta-analysis, to quantify 1) associations of diet score with FG and FI levels and 2) interactions of diet score with 16 FG-associated loci and 2 FI-associated loci. Diet score (per unit increase) was inversely associated with FG (β = -0.004 mmol/L, 95% confidence interval: -0.005, -0.003) and FI (β = -0.008 ln-pmol/L, 95% confidence interval: -0.009, -0.007) levels after adjustment for demographic factors, lifestyle, and body mass index. Genotype variation at the studied loci did not modify these associations. Healthier diets were associated with lower FG and FI concentrations regardless of genotype at previously replicated FG- and FI-associated loci. Studies focusing on genomic regions that do not yield highly statistically significant associations from main-effect genome-wide association studies may be more fruitful in identifying diet-gene interactions.
American journal of epidemiology 12/2012; · 5.59 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Human complex metabolic traits are in part regulated by genetic determinants. Here we applied exome sequencing to identify novel associations of coding polymorphisms at minor allele frequencies (MAFs) >1% with common metabolic phenotypes. METHODS: The study comprised three stages. We performed medium-depth (8×) whole exome sequencing in 1,000 cases with type 2 diabetes, BMI >27.5 kg/m(2) and hypertension and in 1,000 controls (stage 1). We selected 16,192 polymorphisms nominally associated (p < 0.05) with case-control status, from four selected annotation categories or from loci reported to associate with metabolic traits. These variants were genotyped in 15,989 Danes to search for association with 12 metabolic phenotypes (stage 2). In stage 3, polymorphisms showing potential associations were genotyped in a further 63,896 Europeans. RESULTS: Exome sequencing identified 70,182 polymorphisms with MAF >1%. In stage 2 we identified 51 potential associations with one or more of eight metabolic phenotypes covered by 45 unique polymorphisms. In meta-analyses of stage 2 and stage 3 results, we demonstrated robust associations for coding polymorphisms in CD300LG (fasting HDL-cholesterol: MAF 3.5%, p = 8.5 × 10(-14)), COBLL1 (type 2 diabetes: MAF 12.5%, OR 0.88, p = 1.2 × 10(-11)) and MACF1 (type 2 diabetes: MAF 23.4%, OR 1.10, p = 8.2 × 10(-10)). CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: We applied exome sequencing as a basis for finding genetic determinants of metabolic traits and show the existence of low-frequency and common coding polymorphisms with impact on common metabolic traits. Based on our study, coding polymorphisms with MAF above 1% do not seem to have particularly high effect sizes on the measured metabolic traits.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE
We sought to assess the association between maternal gestational physical activity and insulin action and body composition in early infancy.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
At 28-32 weeks, gestation, pregnant women participating in an observational study in Sweden underwent assessments of height, weight, and body composition, an oral glucose tolerance test, and 10 days of objective physical activity assessment. Thirty mothers and infants returned at 11-19 weeks, postpartum. Infants underwent assessments of weight, length, and body composition.RESULTSEarly insulin response was correlated with total physical activity (r = -0.47; P = 0.007). Early insulin response (r = -0.36; P = 0.045) and total physical activity (r = 0.52; P = 0.037) were also correlated with infant fat-free mass. No maternal variable was significantly correlated with infant adiposity.CONCLUSIONS
The relationships between maternal physical activity, insulin response, and infant fat-free mass suggest that physical activity during pregnancy may affect metabolic outcomes in the mother and her offspring.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gene-lifestyle interactions have been suggested to contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes. Glucose levels 2 h after a standard 75-g glucose challenge are used to diagnose diabetes and are associated with both genetic and lifestyle factors. However, whether these factors interact to determine 2-h glucose levels is unknown. We meta-analyzed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) × BMI and SNP × physical activity (PA) interaction regression models for five SNPs previously associated with 2-h glucose levels from up to 22 studies comprising 54,884 individuals without diabetes. PA levels were dichotomized, with individuals below the first quintile classified as inactive (20%) and the remainder as active (80%). BMI was considered a continuous trait. Inactive individuals had higher 2-h glucose levels than active individuals (β = 0.22 mmol/L [95% CI 0.13-0.31], P = 1.63 × 10(-6)). All SNPs were associated with 2-h glucose (β = 0.06-0.12 mmol/allele, P ≤ 1.53 × 10(-7)), but no significant interactions were found with PA (P > 0.18) or BMI (P ≥ 0.04). In this large study of gene-lifestyle interaction, we observed no interactions between genetic and lifestyle factors, both of which were associated with 2-h glucose. It is perhaps unlikely that top loci from genome-wide association studies will exhibit strong subgroup-specific effects, and may not, therefore, make the best candidates for the study of interactions.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
The FTO gene harbors the strongest known susceptibility locus for obesity. While many individual studies have suggested that physical activity (PA) may attenuate the effect of FTO on obesity risk, other studies have not been able to confirm this interaction. To confirm or refute unambiguously whether PA attenuates the association of FTO with obesity risk, we meta-analyzed data from 45 studies of adults (n = 218,166) and nine studies of children and adolescents (n = 19,268).
Methods and Findings
All studies identified to have data on the FTO rs9939609 variant (or any proxy [r2>0.8]) and PA were invited to participate, regardless of ethnicity or age of the participants. PA was standardized by categorizing it into a dichotomous variable (physically inactive versus active) in each study. Overall, 25% of adults and 13% of children were categorized as inactive. Interaction analyses were performed within each study by including the FTO×PA interaction term in an additive model, adjusting for age and sex. Subsequently, random effects meta-analysis was used to pool the interaction terms. In adults, the minor (A−) allele of rs9939609 increased the odds of obesity by 1.23-fold/allele (95% CI 1.20–1.26), but PA attenuated this effect (pinteraction = 0.001). More specifically, the minor allele of rs9939609 increased the odds of obesity less in the physically active group (odds ratio = 1.22/allele, 95% CI 1.19–1.25) than in the inactive group (odds ratio = 1.30/allele, 95% CI 1.24–1.36). No such interaction was found in children and adolescents.
The association of the FTO risk allele with the odds of obesity is attenuated by 27% in physically active adults, highlighting the importance of PA in particular in those genetically predisposed to obesity.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
PLoS Medicine 11/2011; 8(11). · 15.25 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The FTO gene harbors the strongest known susceptibility locus for obesity. While many individual studies have suggested that physical activity (PA) may attenuate the effect of FTO on obesity risk, other studies have not been able to confirm this interaction. To confirm or refute unambiguously whether PA attenuates the association of FTO with obesity risk, we meta-analyzed data from 45 studies of adults (n = 218,166) and nine studies of children and adolescents (n = 19,268).
All studies identified to have data on the FTO rs9939609 variant (or any proxy [r(2)>0.8]) and PA were invited to participate, regardless of ethnicity or age of the participants. PA was standardized by categorizing it into a dichotomous variable (physically inactive versus active) in each study. Overall, 25% of adults and 13% of children were categorized as inactive. Interaction analyses were performed within each study by including the FTO×PA interaction term in an additive model, adjusting for age and sex. Subsequently, random effects meta-analysis was used to pool the interaction terms. In adults, the minor (A-) allele of rs9939609 increased the odds of obesity by 1.23-fold/allele (95% CI 1.20-1.26), but PA attenuated this effect (p(interaction) = 0.001). More specifically, the minor allele of rs9939609 increased the odds of obesity less in the physically active group (odds ratio = 1.22/allele, 95% CI 1.19-1.25) than in the inactive group (odds ratio = 1.30/allele, 95% CI 1.24-1.36). No such interaction was found in children and adolescents.
The association of the FTO risk allele with the odds of obesity is attenuated by 27% in physically active adults, highlighting the importance of PA in particular in those genetically predisposed to obesity.
PLoS Medicine 11/2011; 8(11):e1001116. · 15.25 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Overweight and obesity during pregnancy raise the risk of gestational diabetes and birth complications. Lifestyle factors like physical activity may decrease these risks through beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis. Here we examined physical activity patterns and their relationships with measures of glucose homeostasis in late pregnancy compared to non-pregnant women.
Normal weight and overweight women without diabetes (N = 108; aged 25-35 years) were studied; 35 were pregnant (in gestational weeks 28-32) and 73 were non-pregnant.Insulin sensitivity and β-cell response were estimated from an oral glucose tolerance test. Physical activity was measured during 10-days of free-living using a combined heart rate sensor and accelerometer. Total (TEE), resting (REE), and physical activity (PAEE) energy expenditure were measured using doubly-labeled water and expired gas indirect calorimetry.
Total activity was associated with reduced first-phase insulin response in both pregnant (Regression r2 = 0.11; Spearman r = -0.47; p = 0.007) and non-pregnant women (Regression r2 = 0.11 Spearman; r = -0.36; p = 0.002). Relative to non-pregnant women, pregnant women were estimated to have secreted 67% more insulin and had 10% lower fasting glucose than non-pregnant women. Pregnant women spent 13% more time sedentary, 71% less time in moderate-to-vigorous intensity activity, had 44% lower objectively measured total activity, and 12% lower PAEE than non-pregnant women. Correlations did not differ significantly for any comparison between physical activity subcomponents and measures of insulin sensitivity or secretion.
Our findings suggest that physical activity conveys similar benefits on glucose homeostasis in pregnant and non-pregnant women, despite differences in subcomponents of physical activity.
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 06/2011; 11:44. · 2.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Treatment of hypertension with angiotensin receptor blockers has been shown to reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes in comparison to thiazide diuretics and beta adrenergic blockers. Therefore, we wanted to study the effect of antihypertensive drugs on adipose tissue with respect to insulin resistance. In the MEDICA (MEchanisms for the DIabetes preventing effects of CAndesartan) study, 22 hypertensive, nondiabetic patients with abdominal obesity (10 men, 12 women) were randomized into 12-week treatment periods with candesartan, hydrochlorothiazide, and placebo according to a 3-way cross-over design. Subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies were taken after 8 weeks treatment to analyze gene expression, glucose uptake capacity, insulin-signaling, and adipocyte size. Adipose tissue gene expression of serum amyloid A (SAA) was higher after hydrochlorothiazide treatment compared to candesartan (p=0.036), and this was in accordance with our previous finding on circulating SAA levels. Serum levels of E selectin were increased after hydrochlorothiazide compared to candesartan treatment (p=0.002) and lower after candesartan compared to placebo (p=0.002). In adipocytes, there were no significant differences between the treatments with respect to cell size, glucose uptake capacity, or insulin-signaling. In comparison to candesartan, hydrochlorothiazide raised the adipose tissue gene expression of SAA and the serum level of SAA as well as E selectin in hypertensive patients. Less adipose and systemic inflammation may be one explanation why candesartan is favorable in comparison to thiazide diuretics with respect to development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.
Hormone and Metabolic Research 02/2011; 43(5):319-24. · 2.15 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess whether recently discovered genetic loci associated with hyperglycemia also predict long-term changes in glycemic traits.
Sixteen fasting glucose-raising loci were genotyped in middle-aged adults from the Gene x Lifestyle interactions And Complex traits Involved in Elevated disease Risk (GLACIER) Study, a population-based prospective cohort study from northern Sweden. Genotypes were tested for association with baseline fasting and 2-h postchallenge glycemia (N = 16,330), and for changes in these glycemic traits during a 10-year follow-up period (N = 4,059).
Cross-sectional directionally consistent replication with fasting glucose concentrations was achieved for 12 of 16 variants; 10 variants were also associated with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and 7 were independently associated with 2-h postchallenge glucose concentrations. In prospective analyses, the effect alleles at four loci (GCK rs4607517, ADRA2A rs10885122, DGKB-TMEM195 rs2191349, and G6PC2 rs560887) were nominally associated with worsening fasting glucose concentrations during 10-years of follow-up. MTNR1B rs10830963, which was predictive of elevated fasting glucose concentrations in cross-sectional analyses, was associated with a protective effect on postchallenge glucose concentrations during follow-up; however, this was only when baseline fasting and 2-h glucoses were adjusted for. An additive effect of multiple risk alleles on glycemic traits was observed: a weighted genetic risk score (80th vs. 20th centiles) was associated with a 0.16 mmol/l (P = 2.4 × 10⁻⁶) greater elevation in fasting glucose and a 64% (95% CI: 33-201%) higher risk of developing IFG during 10 years of follow-up.
Our findings imply that genetic profiling might facilitate the early detection of persons who are genetically susceptible to deteriorating glucose control; studies of incident type 2 diabetes and discrete cardiovascular end points will help establish whether the magnitude of these changes is clinically relevant.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Few studies have compared the validity of objective measures of physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) in pregnant and non-pregnant women. PAEE is commonly estimated with accelerometers attached to the hip or waist, but little is known about the validity and participant acceptability of wrist attachment. The objectives of the current study were to assess the validity of a simple summary measure derived from a wrist-worn accelerometer (GENEA, Unilever Discover, UK) to estimate PAEE in pregnant and non-pregnant women, and to evaluate participant acceptability.
Non-pregnant (N = 73) and pregnant (N = 35) Swedish women (aged 20-35 yrs) wore the accelerometer on their wrist for 10 days during which total energy expenditure (TEE) was assessed using doubly-labelled water. PAEE was calculated as 0.9×TEE-REE. British participants (N = 99; aged 22-65 yrs) wore accelerometers on their non-dominant wrist and hip for seven days and were asked to score the acceptability of monitor placement (scored 1 [least] through 10 [most] acceptable).
There was no significant correlation between body weight and PAEE. In non-pregnant women, acceleration explained 24% of the variation in PAEE, which decreased to 19% in leave-one-out cross-validation. In pregnant women, acceleration explained 11% of the variation in PAEE, which was not significant in leave-one-out cross-validation. Median (IQR) acceptability of wrist and hip placement was 9(8-10) and 9(7-10), respectively; there was a within-individual difference of 0.47 (p<.001).
A simple summary measure derived from a wrist-worn tri-axial accelerometer adds significantly to the prediction of energy expenditure in non-pregnant women and is scored acceptable by participants.
PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(7):e22922. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We determined whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously associated with diabetogenic traits improve the discriminative power of a type 2 diabetes genetic risk score.
Participants (n = 2,751) were genotyped for 73 SNPs previously associated with type 2 diabetes, fasting glucose/insulin concentrations, obesity or lipid levels, from which five genetic risk scores (one for each of the four traits and one combining all SNPs) were computed. Type 2 diabetes patients and non-diabetic controls (n = 1,327/1,424) were identified using medical records in addition to an independent oral glucose tolerance test.
Model 1, including only SNPs associated with type 2 diabetes, had a discriminative power of 0.591 (p < 1.00 x 10(-20) vs null model) as estimated by the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (ROC AUC). Model 2, including only fasting glucose/insulin SNPs, had a significantly higher discriminative power than the null model (ROC AUC 0.543; p = 9.38 x 10(-6) vs null model), but lower discriminative power than model 1 (p = 5.92 x 10(-5)). Model 3, with only lipid-associated SNPs, had significantly higher discriminative power than the null model (ROC AUC 0.565; p = 1.44 x 10(-9)) and was not statistically different from model 1 (p = 0.083). The ROC AUC of model 4, which included only obesity SNPs, was 0.557 (p = 2.30 x 10(-7) vs null model) and smaller than model 1 (p = 0.025). Finally, the model including all SNPs yielded a significant improvement in discriminative power compared with the null model (p < 1.0 x 10(-20)) and model 1 (p = 1.32 x 10(-5)); its ROC AUC was 0.626.
Adding SNPs previously associated with fasting glucose, insulin, lipids or obesity to a genetic risk score for type 2 diabetes significantly increases the power to discriminate between people with and without clinically manifest type 2 diabetes compared with a model including only conventional type 2 diabetes loci.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Large-scale aetiological studies of obesity and its pathological consequences require accurate measurements of adipose mass, distribution and subtype. Here, we compared the validity of three abdominal obesity assessment methods (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), ultrasound and anthropometry) against the gold-standard method of computed tomography (CT) in twenty-nine non-diseased middle-aged men (BMI 26.5 (sd 3.1) kg/m(2)) and women (BMI 25.5 (sd 3.2) kg/m(2)). Assessments of adipose mass (kg) and distribution (total subcutaneous (TSAT), superficial subcutaneous (SSAT), deep subcutaneous (DSAT) and visceral (VAT)) were obtained. Spearman's correlations were performed adjusted for age and sex. VAT area that was assessed using ultrasound (r 0.79; P < 0.0001) and waist circumference (r 0.85; P < 0.0001) correlated highly with VAT from CT, as did BMI (r 0.67; P < 0.0001) and DXA (r 0.70; P < 0.0001). DXA (r 0.72; P = 0.0004), BMI (r 0.71; P = 0.0003), waist circumference (r 0.86; P < 0.0001) and ultrasound (r 0.52; P = 0.015) were less strongly correlated with CT TSAT. None of the comparison measures of DSAT was strongly correlated with CT DSAT (all r approximately 0.50; P < 0.02). BMI (r 0.76; P < 0.0001), waist circumference (r 0.65; P = 0.002) and DXA (r 0.75; P < 0.0001) were all fairly strongly correlated with the CT measure of SSAT, whereas ultrasound yielded a weaker yet statistically significant correlation (r 0.48; P = 0.03). Compared with CT, visceral and subcutaneous adiposity can be assessed with reasonable validity using waist circumference and BMI, respectively. Ultrasound or DXA does not generally provide substantially better measures of these traits. Highly valid assessments of DSAT do not appear to be possible with surrogate measures. These findings may help guide the selection of measures for epidemiological studies of obesity.
The British journal of nutrition 04/2010; 104(4):582-8. · 3.45 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This pilot study was aimed to investigate whether there are humoral factors in serum from type 2 diabetic subjects that, in addition to glucose, insulin and free fatty acids are able to induce or contribute to peripheral insulin resistance with respect to glucose transport. Isolated subcutaneous adipocytes from 11 type 2 diabetic subjects and 10 nondiabetic controls were incubated for 24-h in medium supplemented with 25 % serum from a control or a type 2 diabetic donor, in the presence of a low (5 mM) or a high (15 mM) glucose concentration, respectively. After the incubation period glucose uptake capacity was assessed. Serum from type 2 diabetic donors, compared to serum from controls, significantly reduced the maximal insulin eff ect to stimulate glucose uptake (approximately 40 %, p < 0.05) in adipocytes from control subjects, independent of surrounding glucose concentrations. Glucose uptake capacity in adipocytes isolated from type 2 diabetic subjects was similar regardless of culture condition. No significant alterations were found in cellular content of key proteins in the insulin signaling cascade (insulin receptor substrate-1 and -2, and glucose transporter 4) that could explain the impaired insulin-stimulated glucose transport in control adipocytes incubated with serum from type 2 diabetic donors. The present findings indicate the presence of biomolecules in the circulation of type 2 diabetic subjects, apart from glucose, insulin, and free fatty acids with the ability to induce peripheral insulin resistance. This further implies that even though normoglycemia is achieved other circulating factors can still negatively aff ect insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic patients.
Hormone and Metabolic Research 10/2009; 41(10):767-72. · 2.15 Impact Factor