[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nelfinavir (NFV) is an HIV-1 aspartyl protease inhibitor that has numerous effects on human cells, which impart attractive antitumor properties. NFV has also been shown to have in vitro inhibitory activity against human herpesviruses (HHVs). Given the apparent absence of an aspartyl protease encoded by HHVs, we investigated the mechanism of action of NFV herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in cultured cells. Selection of HSV-1 resistance to NFV was not achieved despite multiple passages under drug pressure. NFV did not significantly affect the level of expression of late HSV-1 gene products. Normal numbers of viral particles appeared to be produced in NFV-treated cells by electron microscopy but remain within the cytoplasm more often than controls. NFV did not inhibit the activity of the HSV-1 serine protease nor could its antiviral activity be attributed to inhibition of Akt phosphorylation. NFV was found to decrease glycosylation of viral glycoproteins B and C and resulted in aberrant subcellular localization, consistent with induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response by NFV. These results demonstrate that NFV causes alterations in HSV-1 glycoprotein maturation and egress and likely acts on one or more host cell functions that are important for HHV replication.
Advances in Virology 01/2015; 2015:687162. DOI:10.1155/2015/687162
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) and -7 (HHV-7) are Roseoloviruses within the Betaherpesvirus family, which have a high prevalence and suspected involvement in a number of diseases. Using CODEHOP-based PCR, we identified homologs of both viruses in saliva of pig-tailed macaques, provisionally named MneHV-6 and MneHV-7. This finding supports the existence of two distinct Roseolovirus lineages before the divergence of humans and macaques. Using specific qPCR assays, high levels of MneHV-6 and MneHV-7 DNA were detected in macaque saliva, although the frequency was greater for MneHV-7. A blood screen of 283 macaques revealed 10% MneHV-6 DNA positivity and 25% MneHV-7 positivity, with higher prevalences of MneHV-6 in older females and of MneHV-7 in younger males. Levels of MneHV-6 were increased in animals coinfected with MneHV-7, and both viruses were frequently detected in salivary gland and stomach tissues. Our discovery provides a unique animal model to answer unresolved questions regarding Roseolovirus pathology.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Kaposi's Sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV), the etiologic agent of Kaposi's Sarcoma, is present in the predominant tumor cells of KS, the spindle cells. Spindle cells express markers of lymphatic endothelium and, interestingly, KSHV infection of blood endothelial cells reprograms them to a lymphatic endothelial cell phenotype. KSHV induced reprogramming requires the activation of STAT3 and PI3/AKT through the activation of cellular receptor gp130. Importantly, KSHV-induced reprogramming is specific to endothelial cells, indicating that there are additional host genes that are differentially regulated during KSHV infection of endothelial cells that contribute to lymphatic reprogramming. We found that the transcription factor Ets-1 is highly expressed in KS spindle cells and is upregulated during KSHV infection of endothelial cells in culture. The latent viral gene vFLIP is sufficient to induce Ets-1 expression in an NF-κB-dependent fashion. Ets-1 is required for KSHV-induced expression of VEGFR3, a lymphatic endothelial cell specific receptor important for lymphangiogenesis, and Ets-1 activates the promoter of VEGFR3. Ets-1 knockdown does not alter the expression of another lymphatic specific gene, podoplanin, but does inhibit the expression of VEGFR3 in uninfected lymphatic endothelium, indicating that Ets-1 is a novel cellular regulator of VEGFR3 expression. Knockdown of Ets-1 affects the ability of KSHV infected cells to display angiogenic phenotypes indicating that Ets-1 plays a role in KSHV activation of endothelial cells during latent KSHV infection. Thus, Ets-1 is a novel regulator of VEGFR3 and is involved in the induction of angiogenic phenotypes by KSHV.
Journal of Virology 04/2013; 87(12). DOI:10.1128/JVI.03241-12 · 4.44 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two gammaherpesviruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) (Lymphocryptovirus genus) and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) (Rhadinovirus genus) have been implicated in the etiology of AIDS-associated lymphomas. Homologs of these viruses have been identified in macaques and other non-human primates. In order to assess the association of these viruses with non-human primate disease, archived lymphoma samples were screened for the presence of macaque lymphocryptovirus (LCV) homologs of EBV, and macaque rhadinoviruses belonging to the RV1 lineage of KSHV homologs or the more distant RV2 lineage of Old World primate rhadinoviruses. Viral loads were determined by QPCR and infected cells were identified by immunolabeling for different viral proteins. The lymphomas segregated into three groups. The first group (n = 6) was associated with SIV/SHIV infections, contained high levels of LCV (1-25 genomes/cell) and expressed the B-cell antigens CD20 or BLA.36. A strong EBNA-2 signal was detected in the nuclei of the neoplastic cells in one of the LCV-high lymphomas, indicative of a type III latency stage. None of the lymphomas in this group stained for the LCV viral capsid antigen (VCA) lytic marker. The second group (n = 5) was associated with D-type simian retrovirus-2 (SRV-2) infections, contained high levels of RV2 rhadinovirus (9-790 genomes/cell) and expressed the CD3 T-cell marker. The third group (n = 3) was associated with SIV/SHIV infections, contained high levels of RV2 rhadinovirus (2-260 genomes/cell) and was negative for both CD20 and CD3. In both the CD3-positive and CD3/CD20-negative lymphomas, the neoplastic cells stained strongly for markers of RV2 lytic replication. None of the lymphomas had detectable levels of retroperitoneal fibromatosis herpesvirus (RFHV), the macaque RV1 homolog of KSHV. Our data suggest etiological roles for both lymphocryptoviruses and RV2 rhadinoviruses in the development of simian AIDS-associated lymphomas and indicate that the virus-infected neoplastic lymphoid cells are derived from different lymphocyte lineages and differentiation stages.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Little is known about what effector populations are associated with the control of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) infection in vivo. We compared T lymphocyte subsets among HIV-HHV-8+ and HIV-HHV-8- infected human individuals. alphabeta+ T cells from HHV-8-infected individuals displayed a significantly higher percentage of differentiated effector cells among both CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets. HHV-8 infection was associated with significant expansion of gammadelta+ Vdelta1 T cells expressing a differentiated effector cell phenotype in peripheral blood. In vitro stimulation of PBMC from HHV-8-infected individuals with either infectious viral particles or different HHV-8 viral proteins resulted in gammadelta Vdelta1 T cell activation. In addition, gammadelta Vdelta1 T cells displayed a strong reactivity against HHV-8-infected cell lines and prevented the release of infectious viral particles following the induction of lyric replication. These data indicate that gammadelta T cells play a role in both innate and adaptive T cell responses against HHV-8 in immunocompetent individuals.
The Journal of Immunology 04/2008; 180(5):3417-25. DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.180.5.3417 · 4.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genital infection by herpes simplex virus (HSV)-2 offers a unique model for study of the effects of a remitting and exacerbating infection on the survival and persistence of antigen-specific T cells.
We used complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) length analysis to examine the complete T cell receptor (TCR) beta -chain repertoire in skin-lesion biopsy samples from subjects with genital herpes.
We found that herpetic skin lesions consistently demonstrated oligoclonal CDR3 DNA length distribution, indicating the presence of T cell expansions. Sequence analysis of representative HSV-specific lesional CD4(+) cell clones and TCR beta -variable (TCRBV) sequencing confirmed that the oligoclonal expansions were largely related to HSV-specific T cell proliferation. To assess the persistence of HSV-specific CD4(+) cells that localize to genital lesions, we developed a sensitive and highly specific clonal tracking technique using a combination of TCRBV-specific polymerase chain reaction, followed by liquid hybridization with clonotype-specific probes.
Two different patterns of clonal persistence were observed. Some long-lasting clones appear to home to different epithelia, such as skin and genital mucosa, and to circulate in the peripheral blood, whereas others detected in lesions were absent or very rare in the peripheral blood.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 07/2005; 191(12):2012-21. DOI:10.1086/430389 · 6.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To estimate the prevalence of viruses associated with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and to control for genetic and environmental factors, we conducted a co-twin control study of 22 monozygotic twin pairs, of which one twin met criteria for CFS and the other twin was healthy. Levels of antibodies to human herpesvirus (HHV)-8, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus 1 and 2, and hepatitis C virus were measured. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for viral DNA were performed on peripheral blood mononuclear cell specimens to detect infection with HHV-6, HHV-7, HHV-8, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus, JC virus, BK virus, and parvovirus B19. To detect lytic infection, plasma was tested by PCR for HHV-6, HHV-8, cytomegalovirus, and Epstein-Barr virus DNA, and saliva was examined for HHV-8 DNA. For all assays, results did not differ between the group of twins with CFS and the healthy twins.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Studies elsewhere have suggested that immune dysfunction may be common in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). The objective of this study was to assess the nature and extent of abnormalities in lymphocyte cell surface markers and NK cell activity in patients with CFS while controlling for genetic factors. A co-twin control study of immune system parameters was conducted for 22 pairs of monozygotic twins discordant for CFS and 9 healthy pairs of twins. The CFS twins had greater numbers of CD62L(+) T cells in several T cell subsets, although these differences did not achieve statistical significance. Significantly greater variability was noted in twins discordant for CFS than in the concordant healthy twins for 20 of 48 variables examined. The monozygotic co-twin control design is of unique value because of its ability to control for genetic influences on CFS; however, additional studies will be required to further assess immune dysregulation in this illness.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 04/2002; 185(6):828-32. DOI:10.1086/339194 · 6.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HSV establish a lifelong persistent infection in their host even among immunocompetent persons. The viruses use a variety of immune evasion strategies, presumably to assist persistent replication in the human host. We have observed that infection of human B lymphoblastoid cells (B-LCL) by HSV resulted in a strong inhibition of their ability to induce CD4(+) T cell clone proliferation and cytokine secretion. This inhibitory effect occurs in a variety of both HSV- and HIV-specific clones from three different patients. The inhibition is observed when the Ag is provided either as a soluble protein or as a synthetic peptide and is not associated with detectable down-modulation of the MHC class II molecules or costimulatory molecules. Expression of the HSV-1 unique sequence 1 gene (US1) is necessary and sufficient to induce this inhibition of APC function. US1 gene expression also made B-LCL less susceptible to CD4(+) T cell-mediated lysis. These data indicate a novel immune evasion strategy by HSV-1 in which Ag-processing cells that become infected by HSV-1 are inhibited in their ability to induce subsequent CD4(+) T cell activation.
The Journal of Immunology 06/2001; 166(10):6242-9. DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.166.10.6242 · 4.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Herpes simplex virus (HSV) establishes a lifelong infection in humans. Reactivation of latent virus occurs intermittently so that the immune system is frequently exposed to viral Ag, providing an opportunity to evaluate memory T cells to a persistent human pathogen. We studied the persistence of genital herpes lesion-derived HSV-specific CD8+ CTL from three immunocompetent individuals with frequently recurring genital HSV-2 infection. All CTL clones were HSV-2 type specific and only one to three unique clonotypes were identified from any single biopsy specimen. The TCRBV genes utilized by these clonotypes were sequenced, and clonotype-specific probes were used to longitudinally track these clonotypes in PBMC and genital lesions. CTL clonotypes were consistently detected in PBMC and lesions for at least 2 and up to 7 years, and identical clonotypes infiltrated herpes lesions spaced as long as 7.5 years apart. Moreover, these clones were functionally lytic in vivo over these time periods. Additionally, CTL clones killed target cells infected with autologous viral isolates obtained 6.5 years after CTL clones were established, suggesting that selective pressure by these CTL did not result in the mutation of CTL epitopes. Thus, HSV recurs in the face of persistent CD8+ CTL with no evidence of clonal exhaustion or mutation of CTL epitopes as mechanisms of viral persistence.
The Journal of Immunology 08/2000; 165(2):1146-52. DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.165.2.1146 · 4.92 Impact Factor