[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Little is known about what effector populations are associated with the control of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) infection in vivo. We compared T lymphocyte subsets among HIV-HHV-8+ and HIV-HHV-8- infected human individuals. alphabeta+ T cells from HHV-8-infected individuals displayed a significantly higher percentage of differentiated effector cells among both CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets. HHV-8 infection was associated with significant expansion of gammadelta+ Vdelta1 T cells expressing a differentiated effector cell phenotype in peripheral blood. In vitro stimulation of PBMC from HHV-8-infected individuals with either infectious viral particles or different HHV-8 viral proteins resulted in gammadelta Vdelta1 T cell activation. In addition, gammadelta Vdelta1 T cells displayed a strong reactivity against HHV-8-infected cell lines and prevented the release of infectious viral particles following the induction of lyric replication. These data indicate that gammadelta T cells play a role in both innate and adaptive T cell responses against HHV-8 in immunocompetent individuals.
The Journal of Immunology 04/2008; 180(5):3417-25. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genital infection by herpes simplex virus (HSV)-2 offers a unique model for study of the effects of a remitting and exacerbating infection on the survival and persistence of antigen-specific T cells.
We used complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) length analysis to examine the complete T cell receptor (TCR) beta -chain repertoire in skin-lesion biopsy samples from subjects with genital herpes.
We found that herpetic skin lesions consistently demonstrated oligoclonal CDR3 DNA length distribution, indicating the presence of T cell expansions. Sequence analysis of representative HSV-specific lesional CD4(+) cell clones and TCR beta -variable (TCRBV) sequencing confirmed that the oligoclonal expansions were largely related to HSV-specific T cell proliferation. To assess the persistence of HSV-specific CD4(+) cells that localize to genital lesions, we developed a sensitive and highly specific clonal tracking technique using a combination of TCRBV-specific polymerase chain reaction, followed by liquid hybridization with clonotype-specific probes.
Two different patterns of clonal persistence were observed. Some long-lasting clones appear to home to different epithelia, such as skin and genital mucosa, and to circulate in the peripheral blood, whereas others detected in lesions were absent or very rare in the peripheral blood.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 07/2005; 191(12):2012-21. · 5.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To estimate the prevalence of viruses associated with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and to control for genetic and environmental factors, we conducted a co-twin control study of 22 monozygotic twin pairs, of which one twin met criteria for CFS and the other twin was healthy. Levels of antibodies to human herpesvirus (HHV)-8, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus 1 and 2, and hepatitis C virus were measured. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for viral DNA were performed on peripheral blood mononuclear cell specimens to detect infection with HHV-6, HHV-7, HHV-8, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus, JC virus, BK virus, and parvovirus B19. To detect lytic infection, plasma was tested by PCR for HHV-6, HHV-8, cytomegalovirus, and Epstein-Barr virus DNA, and saliva was examined for HHV-8 DNA. For all assays, results did not differ between the group of twins with CFS and the healthy twins.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Studies elsewhere have suggested that immune dysfunction may be common in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). The objective of this study was to assess the nature and extent of abnormalities in lymphocyte cell surface markers and NK cell activity in patients with CFS while controlling for genetic factors. A co-twin control study of immune system parameters was conducted for 22 pairs of monozygotic twins discordant for CFS and 9 healthy pairs of twins. The CFS twins had greater numbers of CD62L(+) T cells in several T cell subsets, although these differences did not achieve statistical significance. Significantly greater variability was noted in twins discordant for CFS than in the concordant healthy twins for 20 of 48 variables examined. The monozygotic co-twin control design is of unique value because of its ability to control for genetic influences on CFS; however, additional studies will be required to further assess immune dysregulation in this illness.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 04/2002; 185(6):828-32. · 5.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HSV establish a lifelong persistent infection in their host even among immunocompetent persons. The viruses use a variety of immune evasion strategies, presumably to assist persistent replication in the human host. We have observed that infection of human B lymphoblastoid cells (B-LCL) by HSV resulted in a strong inhibition of their ability to induce CD4(+) T cell clone proliferation and cytokine secretion. This inhibitory effect occurs in a variety of both HSV- and HIV-specific clones from three different patients. The inhibition is observed when the Ag is provided either as a soluble protein or as a synthetic peptide and is not associated with detectable down-modulation of the MHC class II molecules or costimulatory molecules. Expression of the HSV-1 unique sequence 1 gene (US1) is necessary and sufficient to induce this inhibition of APC function. US1 gene expression also made B-LCL less susceptible to CD4(+) T cell-mediated lysis. These data indicate a novel immune evasion strategy by HSV-1 in which Ag-processing cells that become infected by HSV-1 are inhibited in their ability to induce subsequent CD4(+) T cell activation.
The Journal of Immunology 06/2001; 166(10):6242-9. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Herpes simplex virus (HSV) establishes a lifelong infection in humans. Reactivation of latent virus occurs intermittently so that the immune system is frequently exposed to viral Ag, providing an opportunity to evaluate memory T cells to a persistent human pathogen. We studied the persistence of genital herpes lesion-derived HSV-specific CD8+ CTL from three immunocompetent individuals with frequently recurring genital HSV-2 infection. All CTL clones were HSV-2 type specific and only one to three unique clonotypes were identified from any single biopsy specimen. The TCRBV genes utilized by these clonotypes were sequenced, and clonotype-specific probes were used to longitudinally track these clonotypes in PBMC and genital lesions. CTL clonotypes were consistently detected in PBMC and lesions for at least 2 and up to 7 years, and identical clonotypes infiltrated herpes lesions spaced as long as 7.5 years apart. Moreover, these clones were functionally lytic in vivo over these time periods. Additionally, CTL clones killed target cells infected with autologous viral isolates obtained 6.5 years after CTL clones were established, suggesting that selective pressure by these CTL did not result in the mutation of CTL epitopes. Thus, HSV recurs in the face of persistent CD8+ CTL with no evidence of clonal exhaustion or mutation of CTL epitopes as mechanisms of viral persistence.
The Journal of Immunology 08/2000; 165(2):1146-52. · 5.52 Impact Factor