Arlene B Chapman

Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, United States

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Publications (144)1085.1 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Identification of genetic markers of antihypertensive drug responses could assist in individualization of hypertension treatment. We conducted a genome-wide association study to identify gene loci influencing the responsiveness of 228 male patients to 4 classes of antihypertensive drugs. The Genetics of Drug Responsiveness in Essential Hypertension (GENRES) study is a double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study where each subject received amlodipine, bisoprolol, hydrochlorothiazide, and losartan, each as a monotherapy, in a randomized order. Replication analyses were performed in 4 studies with patients of European ancestry (PEAR Study, N=386; GERA I and II Studies, N=196 and N=198; SOPHIA Study, N=372). We identified 3 single-nucleotide polymorphisms within the ACY3 gene that showed associations with bisoprolol response reaching genome-wide significance (P<5×10(-8)); however, this could not be replicated in the PEAR Study using atenolol. In addition, 39 single-nucleotide polymorphisms showed P values of 10(-5) to 10(-7). The 20 top-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms were different for each antihypertensive drug. None of these top single-nucleotide polymorphisms co-localized with the panel of >40 genes identified in genome-wide association studies of hypertension. Replication analyses of GENRES results provided suggestive evidence for a missense variant (rs3814995) in the NPHS1 (nephrin) gene influencing losartan response, and for 2 variants influencing hydrochlorothiazide response, located within or close to the ALDH1A3 (rs3825926) and CLIC5 (rs321329) genes. These data provide some evidence for a link between biology of the glomerular protein nephrin and antihypertensive action of angiotensin receptor antagonists and encourage additional studies on aldehyde dehydrogenase-mediated reactions in antihypertensive drug action. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.
    Journal of the American Heart Association 12/2015; 4(1). DOI:10.1161/JAHA.114.001521 · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is marked by gradual renal cyst and kidney enlargement and ultimately renal failure. Magnetic resonance-based, height-adjusted total kidney volume (htTKV) over 600 cc/m predicts the development of CKD stage 3 within 8 years in the Consortium for Radiologic Imaging in Polycystic Kidney Disease cohort. Here we compared simultaneous ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging to determine whether ultrasound and kidney length (KL) predict future CKD stage 3 over longer periods of follow-up. A total of 241 ADPKD patients, 15-46 years, with creatinine clearance of 70 ml/min and above had iothalamate clearance, magnetic resonance, and ultrasound evaluations. Participants underwent an average of five repeat clearance measurements over a mean follow-up of 9.3 years. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance-based TKV and KL were compared using Bland-Altman plots and intraclass correlations. Each measure was tested to predict future CKD stage 3. Relatively strong intraclass correlations between ultrasound and magnetic resonance were found for both htTKV and KL (0.81 and 0.85, respectively). Ultrasound and magnetic resonance-based htTKV and KL predicted future CKD stage 3 similarly (AUC of 0.87, 0.88, 0.87, and 0.88, respectively). An ultrasound kidney length over 16.5 cm and htTKV over 650 ml/min had the best cut point for predicting the development of CKD stage 3. Thus, kidney length alone is sufficient to stratify the risk of progression to renal insufficiency early in ADPKD using either ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging.Kidney International advance online publication, 1 April 2015; doi:10.1038/ki.2015.71.
    Kidney International 04/2015; DOI:10.1038/ki.2015.71 · 8.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) affects up to 12 million individuals and is the fourth most common cause for renal replacement therapy worldwide. There have been many recent advances in the understanding of its molecular genetics and biology, and in the diagnosis and management of its manifestations. Yet, diagnosis, evaluation, prevention, and treatment vary widely and there are no broadly accepted practice guidelines. Barriers to translation of basic science breakthroughs to clinical care exist, with considerable heterogeneity across countries. The Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes Controversies Conference on ADPKD brought together a panel of multidisciplinary clinical expertise and engaged patients to identify areas of consensus, gaps in knowledge, and research and health-care priorities related to diagnosis; monitoring of kidney disease progression; management of hypertension, renal function decline and complications; end-stage renal disease; extrarenal complications; and practical integrated patient support. These are summarized in this review.Kidney International advance online publication, 18 March 2015; doi:10.1038/ki.2015.59.
    Kidney International 03/2015; DOI:10.1038/ki.2015.59 · 8.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) results in kidney cyst development and enlargement, resulting in chronic kidney disease (CKD) leading to renal failure. This study sought to determine if ADPKD patients in the early stages of CKD contribute to a sizable economic burden for the US health care system. This was a retrospective, matched cohort study, reviewing medical resource utilization (MRU) and costs for adults in a US private-payer claims database with a diagnosis code of ADPKD (ICD-9-CM 753.13). ADPKD patients were matched by age grouping (0-17, 18-34, 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, and 65+ years) and sex to controls to understand the burden of ADPKD. Descriptive statistics on 6-month MRU and costs were assessed by CKD stages, dialysis use, or previous renal transplant. The analysis included ADPKD patients in CKD stages 1-5 (n=316 to n=860), dialysis (n=586), and post-transplant (n=615). Mean ages did not differ across CKD stages (range 43-56 years). Men were the majority in the later stages but the minority in the early stages. The proportion of patients with at least one hospitalization increased with CKD stage, (12% to >40% CKD stage 2 to stage 5, dialysis or post-transplant). The majority had at least one hospital outpatient visit and at least one pharmacy claim. Total 6-month per-patient costs were greater among ADPKD patients than in age-matched and sex-matched healthy non-ADPKD controls (P<0.001 for all comparisons). ADPKD patients with normal kidney function are associated with a significant economic burden to the health care system relative to the general population. Any treatments that delay progression to later stages of CKD may provide potential health care cost offsets.
    ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research 02/2015; 7:123-32. DOI:10.2147/CEOR.S75523
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    ABSTRACT: Thiazide diuretics have been recommended as a first-line antihypertensive treatment, although the choice of 'the right drug in the individual essential hypertensive patient' remains still empirical. Essential hypertension is a complex, polygenic disease derived from the interaction of patient's genetic background with the environment. Pharmacogenomics could be a useful tool to pinpoint gene variants involved in antihypertensive drug response, thus optimizing therapeutic advantages and minimizing side effects. We looked for variants associated with blood pressure response to hydrochlorothiazide over an 8-week follow-up by means of a genome-wide association analysis in two Italian cohorts of never-treated essential hypertensive patients: 343 samples from Sardinia and 142 from Milan. TET2 and CSMD1 as plausible candidate genes to affect SBP response to hydrochlorothiazide were identified. The specificity of our findings for hydrochlorothiazide was confirmed in an independent cohort of essential hypertensive patients treated with losartan. Our best findings were also tested for replication in four independent hypertensive samples of European Ancestry, such as GENetics of drug RESponsiveness in essential hypertension, Genetic Epidemiology of Responses to Antihypertensives, NORdic DILtiazem intervention, Pharmacogenomics Evaluation of Antihypertensive Responses, and Campania Salute Network-StayOnDiur. We validated a polymorphism in CSMD1 and UGGT2. This exploratory study reports two plausible loci associated with SBP response to hydrochlorothiazide: TET2, an aldosterone-responsive mediator of αENaC gene transcription; and CSMD1, previously described as associated with hypertension in a case-control study.
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The three branched amino acids (valine, leucine, and isoleucine) and two aromatic amino acids (tyrosine and phenylalanine) have been associated with many adverse metabolic pathways, including diabetes. However, these associations have been identified primarily in otherwise healthy Caucasian populations. We aimed to investigate the association of this five-amino-acid signature with metabolic syndrome and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) in a hypertensive cohort of Caucasian and African Americans. Methods: We analyzed data from the Pharmacogenomic Evaluation of Antihypertensive Responses (PEAR) studies PEAR and PEAR2 conducted between 2005 and 2014. Subjects were enrolled at the University of Florida (Gainesville, FL), Emory University (Atlanta, GA), and Mayo Clinic (Rochester, MN). A total of 898 patients with essential hypertension were included in this study. Presence of metabolic syndrome and IFG at baseline were determined on the basis of measurements of demographic and biochemical data. Levels of the five amino acids were quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS). Results: With a multiple logistic regression model, we found that all five amino acids were significantly associated with metabolic syndrome in both Caucasian and African Americans. IFG and the five amino acids were associated in the Caucasian Americans. Only valine was significantly associated with IFG in African Americans. Conclusion: In both Caucasian and African Americans with uncomplicated hypertension, plasma levels of the five-amino-acid signature are associated with metabolic syndrome. Additionally, in Caucasians we have confirmed the five-amino-acid signature was associated with IFG.
    Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders 02/2015; DOI:10.1089/met.2014.0132 · 1.92 Impact Factor
  • Arlene B Chapman
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    ABSTRACT: Healthy autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) patients with normal kidney function demonstrate reduced endothelial-dependent vasodilation that improves with increasing local dopamine levels. Dopamine regulates renal sodium excretion, and dopamine receptors are located on primary cilia in both vascular and renal tubular epithelial cells. The study by Lorthioir and colleagues links endothelial function and dopamine availability in ADPKD patients.
    Kidney International 02/2015; 87(2):279-280. DOI:10.1038/ki.2014.391 · 8.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) gene duplication and multiplication can result in ultrarapid drug metabolism and therapeutic failure or excessive response in patients. Long range polymerase chain reaction (PCR), restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and sequencing are usually used for genotyping CYP2D6 duplication/multiplications and identification, but are labor intensive, time consuming, and costly. We developed a simple allele quantification-based Pyrosequencing genotyping method that facilitates CYP2D6 copy number variation (CNV) genotyping while also identifying allele-specific CYP2D6 CNV in heterozygous samples. Most routine assays do not identify the allele containing a CNV. A total of 237 clinical and Coriell DNA samples with different known CYP2D6 gene copy numbers were genotyped for CYP2D6 *2, *3, *4, *6, *10, *17, *41 polymorphisms and CNV determination. The CYP2D6 gene allele quantification/identification were determined simultaneously with CYP2D6*2, *3, *4, *6, *10, *17, *41 genotyping. We determined the exact CYP2D6 gene copy number, identified which allele had the duplication or multiplication, and assigned the correct phenotype and activity score for all samples. Our method can efficiently identify the duplicated CYP2D6 allele in heterozygous samples, determine its copy number in a fraction of time compared to conventional methods and prevent incorrect ultrarapid phenotype calls. It also greatly reduces the cost, effort and time associated with CYP2D6 CNV genotyping.
    PLoS ONE 01/2015; 10(1):e0113808. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0113808 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Hypertension is common in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and is associated with increased total kidney volume, activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and progression of kidney disease. Methods In this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we randomly assigned 558 hypertensive participants with ADPKD (15 to 49 years of age, with an estimated glomerular filtration rate [GFR] >60 ml per minute per 1.73 m(2) of body-surface area) to either a standard blood-pressure target (120/70 to 130/80 mm Hg) or a low blood-pressure target (95/60 to 110/75 mm Hg) and to either an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor (lisinopril) plus an angiotensin-receptor blocker (telmisartan) or lisinopril plus placebo. The primary outcome was the annual percentage change in the total kidney volume. Results The annual percentage increase in total kidney volume was significantly lower in the low-blood-pressure group than in the standard-blood-pressure group (5.6% vs. 6.6%, P=0.006), without significant differences between the lisinopril-telmisartan group and the lisinopril-placebo group. The rate of change in estimated GFR was similar in the two medication groups, with a negative slope difference in the short term in the low-blood-pressure group as compared with the standard-blood-pressure group (P<0.001) and a marginally positive slope difference in the long term (P=0.05). The left-ventricular-mass index decreased more in the low-blood-pressure group than in the standard-blood-pressure group (-1.17 vs. -0.57 g per square meter per year, P<0.001); urinary albumin excretion was reduced by 3.77% with the low-pressure target and increased by 2.43% with the standard target (P<0.001). Dizziness and light-headedness were more common in the low-blood-pressure group than in the standard-blood-pressure group (80.7% vs. 69.4%, P=0.002). Conclusions In early ADPKD, the combination of lisinopril and telmisartan did not significantly alter the rate of increase in total kidney volume. As compared with standard blood-pressure control, rigorous blood-pressure control was associated with a slower increase in total kidney volume, no overall change in the estimated GFR, a greater decline in the left-ventricular-mass index, and greater reduction in urinary albumin excretion. (Funded by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases and others; HALT-PKD [Study A] ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00283686 .).
    New England Journal of Medicine 11/2014; 371(24). DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa1402685 · 54.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Hypertension develops early in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and is associated with disease progression. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension in patients with ADPKD. Dual blockade of the RAAS may circumvent compensatory mechanisms that limit the efficacy of monotherapy with an angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitor or angiotensin II-receptor blocker (ARB). Methods In this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we randomly assigned 486 patients, 18 to 64 years of age, with ADPKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate [GFR], 25 to 60 ml per minute per 1.73 m(2) of body-surface area) to receive an ACE inhibitor (lisinopril) and placebo or lisinopril and an ARB (telmisartan), with the doses adjusted to achieve a blood pressure of 110/70 to 130/80 mm Hg. The composite primary outcome was the time to death, end-stage renal disease, or a 50% reduction from the baseline estimated GFR. Secondary outcomes included the rates of change in urinary aldosterone and albumin excretion, frequency of hospitalizations for any cause and for cardiovascular causes, incidence of pain, frequency of ADPKD-related symptoms, quality of life, and adverse study-medication effects. Patients were followed for 5 to 8 years. Results There was no significant difference between the study groups in the incidence of the composite primary outcome (hazard ratio with lisinopril-telmisartan, 1.08; 95% confidence interval, 0.82 to 1.42). The two treatments controlled blood pressure and lowered urinary aldosterone excretion similarly. The rates of decline in the estimated GFR, urinary albumin excretion, and other secondary outcomes and adverse events, including hyperkalemia and acute kidney injury, were also similar in the two groups. Conclusions Monotherapy with an ACE inhibitor was associated with blood-pressure control in most patients with ADPKD and stage 3 chronic kidney disease. The addition of an ARB did not alter the decline in the estimated GFR. (Funded by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases and others; HALT-PKD [Study B] ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01885559 .).
    New England Journal of Medicine 11/2014; 371(24). DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa1402686 · 54.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Resistant hypertension (RHTN), defined by lack of blood pressure (BP) control despite treatment with at least 3 antihypertensive drugs, increases cardiovascular risk compared with controlled hypertension. Yet, there are few data on genetic variants associated with RHTN. Methods and Results We used a gene‐centric array containing ≈50 000 single‐nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to identify polymorphisms associated with RHTN in hypertensive participants with coronary artery disease (CAD) from INVEST‐GENES (the INnternational VErapamil‐SR Trandolapril STudy—GENEtic Substudy). RHTN was defined as BP≥140/90 on 3 drugs, or any BP on 4 or more drugs. Logistic regression analysis was performed in European Americans (n=904) and Hispanics (n=837), using an additive model adjusted for age, gender, randomized treatment assignment, body mass index, principal components for ancestry, and other significant predictors of RHTN. Replication of the top SNP was conducted in 241 European American women from WISE (Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation), where RHTN was defined similarly. To investigate the functional effect of rs12817819, mRNA expression was measured in whole blood. We found ATP2B1 rs12817819 associated with RHTN in both INVEST European Americans (P‐value=2.44×10−3, odds ratio=1.57 [1.17 to 2.01]) and INVEST Hispanics (P=7.69×10−4, odds ratio=1.76 [1.27 to 2.44]). A consistent trend was observed at rs12817819 in WISE, and the INVEST‐WISE meta‐analysis result reached chip‐wide significance (P=1.60×10−6, odds ratio=1.65 [1.36 to 1.95]). Expression analyses revealed significant differences in ATP2B1 expression by rs12817819 genotype. Conclusions The ATP2B1 rs12817819 A allele is associated with increased risk for RHTN in hypertensive participants with documented CAD or suspected ischemic heart disease. Clinical Trial Registration URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifiers: NCT00133692 (INVEST), NCT00000554 (WISE).
    Journal of the American Heart Association 10/2014; 3(6). DOI:10.1161/JAHA.114.001398 · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hypokalemia is a recognized adverse effect of thiazide diuretic treatment. This phenomenon, which may impair insulin secretion, has been suggested to be a reason for the adverse effects on glucose metabolism associated with thiazide diuretic treatment of hypertension. However, the mechanisms underlying thiazide diuretic-induced hypokalemia are not well understood. In an effort to identify genes or genomic regions associated with potassium response to hydrochlorothiazide, without a priori knowledge of biologic effects, we performed a genome-wide association study and a multiethnic meta-analysis in 718 European- and African-American hypertensive participants from two different pharmacogenetic studies. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms rs10845697 (Bayes factor=5.560) on chromosome 12, near to the HEME binding protein 1 gene, and rs11135740 (Bayes factor=5.258) on chromosome 8, near to the Mitoferrin-1 gene, reached genome-wide association study significance (Bayes factor >5). These results, if replicated, suggest a novel mechanism involving effects of genes in the HEME pathway influencing hydrochlorothiazide-induced renal potassium loss.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 9 September 2014; doi:10.1038/tpj.2014.46.
    The Pharmacogenomics Journal 09/2014; DOI:10.1038/tpj.2014.46 · 5.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Polycystic liver disease (PLD), the most common extra-renal manifestation of autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), has become more prevalent due to increased life expectancy, improved renal survival, reduced cardiovascular mortality, and renal replacement therapy. No studies have fully characterized PLD in large cohorts. We investigated whether liver and cyst volumes associate with volume of the hepatic parenchyma, results from liver laboratory tests, and patient-reported outcomes.
    Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology 08/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.cgh.2014.07.051 · 6.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common form of glomerulonephritis worldwide and is histologically characterized by the deposition of IgA1 and consequent inflammation in the glomerular mesangium. Prior studies suggested that serum IgA1 from IgAN patients contains aberrant, undergalactosylated O-glycans, e.g. Tn antigen and its sialylated version, SialylTn (STn), but the mechanisms underlying aberrant O-glycosylation are not well understood. Here we have used serial lectin separation technologies, Western blot, enzymatic modifications, and mass spectrometry to explore whether there are different glycoforms of IgA1 in plasma from patients with IgAN and healthy individuals. While total plasma IgA in IgAN patients was elevated ~1.6-fold compared to that in healthy donors, IgA1 in all samples was unexpectedly separable into two distinct glycoforms: one with core 1 based O-glycans, and the other exclusively containing Tn/STn structures. Importantly, Tn antigen present on IgA1 from IgAN patients and controls was convertible into the core 1 structure in vitro by recombinant T-synthase. Our results demonstrate that undergalactosylation of O-glycans in IgA1 is not restricted to IgAN and suggest that in vivo inefficiency of T-synthase toward IgA1 in a subpopulation of B or plasma cells, as well as overall elevation of IgA, may contribute to IgAN pathogenesis.
    Molecular &amp Cellular Proteomics 07/2014; 13(11). DOI:10.1074/mcp.M114.039693 · 7.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The rate of renal disease progression varies widely among patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), necessitating optimal patient selection for enrollment into clinical trials. Patients from the Mayo Clinic Translational PKD Center with ADPKD (n=590) with computed tomography/magnetic resonance images and three or more eGFR measurements over ≥6 months were classified radiologically as typical (n=538) or atypical (n=52). Total kidney volume (TKV) was measured using stereology (TKVs) and ellipsoid equation (TKVe). Typical patients were randomly partitioned into development and internal validation sets and subclassified according to height-adjusted TKV (HtTKV) ranges for age (1A–1E, in increasing order). Consortium for Radiologic Imaging Study of PKD (CRISP) participants (n=173) were used for external validation. TKVe correlated strongly with TKVs, without systematic underestimation or overestimation. A longitudinal mixed regression model to predict eGFR decline showed that log2HtTKV and age significantly interacted with time in typical patients, but not in atypical patients. When 1A–1E classifications were used instead of log2HtTKV, eGFR slopes were significantly different among subclasses and, except for 1A, different from those in healthy kidney donors. The equation derived from the development set predicted eGFR in both validation sets. The frequency of ESRD at 10 years increased from subclass 1A (2.4%) to 1E (66.9%) in the Mayo cohort and from 1C (2.2%) to 1E (22.3%) in the younger CRISP cohort. Class and subclass designations were stable. An easily applied classification of ADPKD based on HtTKV and age should optimize patient selection for enrollment into clinical trials and for treatment when one becomes available.
    Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 06/2014; 26(1). DOI:10.1681/ASN.2013101138 · 9.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Metoprolol is a selective β-1 adrenergic receptor blocker that undergoes extensive metabolism by the polymorphic enzyme, CYP2D6. Our objective was to investigate the influence of CYP2D6 polymorphisms on efficacy and tolerability of metoprolol tartrate. 281 study participants with uncomplicated hypertension received 50 mg of metoprolol twice daily followed by response guided titration to 100 mg twice daily. Phenotypes were assigned based on results of CYP2D6 genotyping and copy number variation assays. Clinical response to metoprolol and adverse effect rates were analyzed in relation to CYP2D6 phenotypes by using appropriate statistical tests. Heart rate response differed significantly by CYP2D6 phenotype (p-value <0.0001) with poor metabolizers & intermediate metabolizers showing greater HR reduction. However, blood pressure response and adverse effect rates were not significantly different by CYP2D6 phenotype. Other than a significant difference in heart rate response, CYP2D6 polymorphisms were not a determinant of the variability in response or tolerability to metoprolol.Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics (2014); Accepted article preview online 17 March 2014. doi:10.1038/clpt.2014.62.
    Clinical Pharmacology &#38 Therapeutics 03/2014; 96(2). DOI:10.1038/clpt.2014.62 · 7.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Elevated central systolic blood pressure (BP) increases the risk of cardiovascular events and appears superior to peripheral BP for long term risk prediction. The objective of this study was to identify demographic and clinical factors associated with central pressures in patients with uncomplicated hypertension. We prospectively examined peripheral BP, central aortic BP, and arterial wall properties and wave reflection in 57 subjects with uncomplicated essential hypertension in the Pharmacogenomic Evaluation of Antihypertensive Responses (PEAR) Study. Significant predictors of central SBP included height, smoking status, heart rate (HR), and peripheral systolic BP (SBP), while central diastolic BP (DBP) was explained by peripheral DBP and HR. These variables accounted for nearly all of the variability in central SBP and central DBP (R(2) = 0.94 and R(2) = 0.98, respectively). Central pulse pressure variability was largely explained by gender, ex-smoking status, HR, peripheral SBP, and peripheral DBP (R(2) = 0.94). Central augmented pressure had a direct relationship with smoking status, peripheral SBP, and duration of hypertension, whereas it was indirectly related to height, HR, and peripheral DBP. Easily obtainable demographic and clinical factors are associated with central pressures in essential hypertensive persons. These relationships should be considered in future studies to improve assessment of BP to reduce cardiovascular risk and mortality.
    Journal of the American Society of Hypertension (JASH) 03/2014; 8(3):152-8. DOI:10.1016/j.jash.2013.12.008 · 2.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: To develop and assess a semiautomated method for segmenting and counting individual renal cysts from mid-slice MR images in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Methods: A semiautomated method was developed to segment and count individual renal cysts from mid-slice MR images in 241 subjects with ADPKD from the Consortium for Radiologic Imaging Studies of Polycystic Kidney Disease. For each subject, a mid-slice MR image was selected from each set of coronal T2-weighted MR images covering the entire kidney. The selected mid-slice image was processed with the semiautomated method to segment and count individual renal cysts. The number of cysts from the mid-slice image of each kidney was also measured by manual counting. The level of agreement between the semiautomated and manual cyst counts was compared using intraclass correlation (ICC) and a Bland-Altman plot. Results: Individual renal cysts were successfully segmented using the semiautomated method in all 241 cases. The number of cysts in each kidney measured with the semiautomated and manual counting methods correlated well (ICC = 0.96 for the right or left kidney), with a small average difference (-0.52, with higher semiautomated counts, for the right kidney, and 0.13, with higher manual counts, for the left kidney) in the semiautomated method. However, there was substantial variation in a small number of subjects; 6 of 241 participants (2.5%) had a difference in the total cyst count of more than 15. Conclusion: We have developed a semiautomated method to segment individual renal cysts from mid-slice MR images in ADPKD kidneys as a quantitative indicator of characterization and disease progression of ADPKD. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    American Journal of Nephrology 02/2014; 39(3):210-217. DOI:10.1159/000358604 · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    Arlene B Chapman
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    ABSTRACT: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common hereditary renal disease. New data from Paul et al. suggest that mutations in the PKD1 and PKD2 genes may account for all cases of ADPKD. Further improvements in mutation detection methodologies are needed to determine the true relative frequency of PKD1 versus PKD2 as well as to establish the value of mutation type and location to predict disease severity in this disorder.
    Kidney International 02/2014; 85(2):236-7. DOI:10.1038/ki.2013.371 · 8.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective Elevations in uric acid (UA) and the associated hyperuricaemia are commonly observed secondary to treatment with thiazide diuretics. We sought to identify novel single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ)-induced elevations in UA and hyperuricaemia. MethodsA genome-wide association study of HCTZ-induced changes in UA was performed in Caucasian and African American participants from the Pharmacogenomic Evaluation of Antihypertensive Response (PEAR) study who were treated with HCTZ monotherapy. Suggestive SNPs were replicated in Caucasians and African Americans from the PEAR study who were treated with HCTZ add-on therapy. Replicated regions were followed up through expression and pathway analysis. ResultsFive unique gene regions were identified in African Americans (LUC7L2, ANKRD17/COX18, FTO, PADI4 and PARD3B) and one region was identified in Caucasians (GRIN3A). Increases in UA of up to 1.8 mg/dL were observed following HCTZ therapy in individuals homozygous for risk alleles, with heterozygotes displaying an intermediate phenotype. Several risk alleles were also associated with an increased risk of HCTZ-induced clinical hyperuricaemia. A composite risk score, constructed in African Americans using the ‘top’ SNP from each gene region, was strongly associated with HCTZ-induced UA elevations (P = 1.79x10-7) and explained 11% of the variability in UA response. Expression studies in RNA from whole blood revealed significant differences in expression of FTO by rs4784333 genotype. Pathway analysis showed putative connections between many of the genes identified through common microRNAs. Conclusion Several novel gene regions were associated with HCTZ-induced UA elevations in African Americans (LUC7L2, COX18/ANKRD17, FTO, PADI4 and PARD3B) and one region was associated with these elevations in Caucasians (GRIN3A).This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Internal Medicine 02/2014; 276(5). DOI:10.1111/joim.12215 · 5.79 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

4k Citations
1,085.10 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1999–2015
    • Emory University
      • School of Medicine
      Atlanta, Georgia, United States
    • Saint Louis University
      Сент-Луис, Michigan, United States
  • 2013
    • University of Zurich
      • Institute of Physiology
      Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland
    • University of Florida
      Gainesville, Florida, United States
  • 2012
    • Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc
      • Division of Nephrology
      Brussels, BRU, Belgium
  • 2006–2008
    • University of Alabama at Birmingham
      • Department of Medicine
      Birmingham, Alabama, United States
  • 2001–2008
    • Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research
      • • Division of Nephrology and Hypertension
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      Scottsdale, AZ, United States
  • 2002–2005
    • University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston
      • Human Genetics Center
      Houston, TX, United States
  • 1990–1994
    • University of Colorado Hospital
      • Department of Medicine
      Denver, Colorado, United States
  • 1992
    • University of Denver
      Denver, Colorado, United States