Arlene B Chapman

University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States

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Publications (156)1142.34 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Identification of genetic markers of antihypertensive drug responses could assist in individualization of hypertension treatment. We conducted a genome-wide association study to identify gene loci influencing the responsiveness of 228 male patients to 4 classes of antihypertensive drugs. The Genetics of Drug Responsiveness in Essential Hypertension (GENRES) study is a double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study where each subject received amlodipine, bisoprolol, hydrochlorothiazide, and losartan, each as a monotherapy, in a randomized order. Replication analyses were performed in 4 studies with patients of European ancestry (PEAR Study, N=386; GERA I and II Studies, N=196 and N=198; SOPHIA Study, N=372). We identified 3 single-nucleotide polymorphisms within the ACY3 gene that showed associations with bisoprolol response reaching genome-wide significance (P<5×10(-8)); however, this could not be replicated in the PEAR Study using atenolol. In addition, 39 single-nucleotide polymorphisms showed P values of 10(-5) to 10(-7). The 20 top-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms were different for each antihypertensive drug. None of these top single-nucleotide polymorphisms co-localized with the panel of >40 genes identified in genome-wide association studies of hypertension. Replication analyses of GENRES results provided suggestive evidence for a missense variant (rs3814995) in the NPHS1 (nephrin) gene influencing losartan response, and for 2 variants influencing hydrochlorothiazide response, located within or close to the ALDH1A3 (rs3825926) and CLIC5 (rs321329) genes. These data provide some evidence for a link between biology of the glomerular protein nephrin and antihypertensive action of angiotensin receptor antagonists and encourage additional studies on aldehyde dehydrogenase-mediated reactions in antihypertensive drug action. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.
    Journal of the American Heart Association 12/2015; 4(1). DOI:10.1161/JAHA.114.001521 · 4.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The aim of this study is to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) influencing blood pressure (BP) response to the β-blocker atenolol. Methods: Genome-wide association analysis of BP response to atenolol monotherapy was performed in 233 white participants with uncomplicated hypertension in the pharmacogenomic evaluation of antihypertensive responses study. Forty-two polymorphisms with P less than 10 for association with either diastolic or systolic response to atenolol monotherapy were validated in four independent groups of hypertensive individuals (total n = 2114). Results: In whites, two polymorphisms near the gene PTPRD (rs12346562 and rs1104514) were associated with DBP response to atenolol (P = 3.2 × 10 and P = 5.9 × 10, respectively) with directionally opposite association for response to hydrochlorothiazide in another group of 228 whites (P = 0.0018 and P = 0.00012). A different polymorphism (rs10739150) near PTPRD was associated with response to atenolol in 150 black hypertensive individuals (P = 8.25 × 10). rs12346562 had a similar trend in association with response to bisoprolol (a different β-blocker) in 207 Finnish men in the genetics of drug responsiveness in essential hypertension study. In addition, an intronic single-nucleotide polymorphism (rs4742610) in the PTPRD gene was associated with resistant hypertension in whites and Hispanics in the international verapamil SR trandolapril study (meta-analysis P = 3.2 × 10). Conclusion: PTPRD was identified as a novel locus potentially associated with BP response to atenolol and resistant hypertension in multiple ethnic groups.
    Journal of Hypertension 10/2015; 33(11):2278-2285. DOI:10.1097/HJH.0000000000000714 · 4.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The HALT Polycystic Kidney Disease Trials Network consisted of two randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trials among patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. The trials involved 5-8 years of participant follow-up with interventions in blood pressure and antihypertensive therapy. We provide a framework for designing and implementing closeout near the end of a trial while ensuring patient safety and maintaining scientific rigor and study morale. We discuss issues and resolutions for determining the last visit, tapering medications, and unblinding of participants to study allocation and results. We also discuss closure of clinical sites and Data Coordinating Center responsibilities to ensure timely release of study results and meeting the requirements of regulatory and funding authorities. Just over 90% of full participants had a 6-month study visit prior to their last visit preparing them for trial closeout. Nearly all patients wanted notification of study results (99%) and treatment allocation (99%). All participants were safely tapered off study and open label blood pressure medications. Within 6months, the trials were closed, primary papers published, and 805 letters distributed to participants with results and allocation. DCC obligations for data repository and reporting were completed within 12months of the last study visit. Closeout of our trials involved years of planning and significant human and financial resources. We provide questions for investigators to consider when planning closeout of their trials with focus on (1) patient safety (2) dissemination of study results and (3) compliance with regulatory and funding responsibilities. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Contemporary clinical trials 07/2015; 44. DOI:10.1016/j.cct.2015.07.017 · 1.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Data standards provide a structure for consistent understanding and exchange of data and enable the integration of data across studies for integrated analysis. There is no data standard applicable to kidney disease. We describe the process for development of the first-ever Clinical Data Interchange Standards Consortium (CDISC) data standard for autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) by the Polycystic Kidney Disease Outcomes Consortium (PKDOC). Definition of common data elements and creation of ADPKD-specific data standards from case report forms used in long-term ADPKD registries, an observational cohort (Consortium for Radiologic Imaging Studies of Polycystic Kidney Disease [CRISP] 1 and 2), and a randomized clinical trial (Halt Progression of Polycystic Kidney Disease [HALT-PKD]) are described in detail. This data standard underwent extensive review, including a global public comment period, and is now available online as the first PKD-specific data standard ( Submission of clinical trial data that use standard data structures and terminology will be required for new electronic submissions to the US Food and Drug Administration for all disease areas by the end of 2016. This data standard will allow for the mapping and pooling of available data into a common data set in addition to providing a foundation for future studies, data sharing, and long-term registries in ADPKD. This data set will also be used to support the regulatory qualification of total kidney volume as a prognostic biomarker for use in clinical trials. The availability of consensus data standards for ADPKD has the potential to facilitate clinical trial initiation and increase sharing and aggregation of data across observational studies and among completed clinical trials, thereby improving our understanding of disease progression and treatment. Copyright © 2015 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    American Journal of Kidney Diseases 06/2015; DOI:10.1053/j.ajkd.2015.04.044 · 5.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The T-synthase (Core 1 β3-galactosyltransferase) and its molecular chaperone Cosmc regulate the biosynthesis of mucin type O-glycans on glycoproteins, and evidence suggests that both T-synthase and Cosmc are transcriptionally suppressed in several human diseases, although the transcriptional regulation of these two genes is not understood. Here we characterized the promoters essential for human Cosmc and T-synthase transcription. The upstream regions of the genes lack a conventional TATA box but contain CpG-islands: cCpG-I and cCpG-II for Cosmc and tCpG for T-synthase. Using luciferase reporter assays, site-directed mutagenesis, ChIP assays, and Mithramycin A treatment, we identified the core promoters within cCpG-II and tCpG, which contain two binding sites for Kruppel-like transcription factors (KLF), including SP1/SP3, respectively. Methylome analysis of Tn4 B cells, which harbor a silenced Cosmc, confirmed the hypermethylation of Cosmc core promoter, but not for that of T-synthase. These results demonstrate that Cosmc and T-synthase are transcriptionally regulated at a basal level by SP/KLF family transcription factors, which explains their ubiquitous and coordinated expression, and also indicates that they are differentially epigenetically regulated beyond X-chromosome imprinting. These results are important in understanding the regulation of these genes that have roles in human diseases, such as IgA Nephropathy and cancer. Copyright © 2015, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 06/2015; 290(31). DOI:10.1074/jbc.M115.654244 · 4.57 Impact Factor
  • Bharathi Reddy · Arlene B Chapman
    American Journal of Kidney Diseases 06/2015; 65(6):811-813. DOI:10.1053/j.ajkd.2015.03.004 · 5.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is marked by gradual renal cyst and kidney enlargement and ultimately renal failure. Magnetic resonance-based, height-adjusted total kidney volume (htTKV) over 600 cc/m predicts the development of CKD stage 3 within 8 years in the Consortium for Radiologic Imaging in Polycystic Kidney Disease cohort. Here we compared simultaneous ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging to determine whether ultrasound and kidney length (KL) predict future CKD stage 3 over longer periods of follow-up. A total of 241 ADPKD patients, 15-46 years, with creatinine clearance of 70 ml/min and above had iothalamate clearance, magnetic resonance, and ultrasound evaluations. Participants underwent an average of five repeat clearance measurements over a mean follow-up of 9.3 years. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance-based TKV and KL were compared using Bland-Altman plots and intraclass correlations. Each measure was tested to predict future CKD stage 3. Relatively strong intraclass correlations between ultrasound and magnetic resonance were found for both htTKV and KL (0.81 and 0.85, respectively). Ultrasound and magnetic resonance-based htTKV and KL predicted future CKD stage 3 similarly (AUC of 0.87, 0.88, 0.87, and 0.88, respectively). An ultrasound kidney length over 16.5 cm and htTKV over 650 ml/min had the best cut point for predicting the development of CKD stage 3. Thus, kidney length alone is sufficient to stratify the risk of progression to renal insufficiency early in ADPKD using either ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging.Kidney International advance online publication, 1 April 2015; doi:10.1038/ki.2015.71.
    Kidney International 04/2015; 88(1). DOI:10.1038/ki.2015.71 · 8.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) affects up to 12 million individuals and is the fourth most common cause for renal replacement therapy worldwide. There have been many recent advances in the understanding of its molecular genetics and biology, and in the diagnosis and management of its manifestations. Yet, diagnosis, evaluation, prevention, and treatment vary widely and there are no broadly accepted practice guidelines. Barriers to translation of basic science breakthroughs to clinical care exist, with considerable heterogeneity across countries. The Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes Controversies Conference on ADPKD brought together a panel of multidisciplinary clinical expertise and engaged patients to identify areas of consensus, gaps in knowledge, and research and health-care priorities related to diagnosis; monitoring of kidney disease progression; management of hypertension, renal function decline and complications; end-stage renal disease; extrarenal complications; and practical integrated patient support. These are summarized in this review.Kidney International advance online publication, 18 March 2015; doi:10.1038/ki.2015.59.
    Kidney International 03/2015; 88(1). DOI:10.1038/ki.2015.59 · 8.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) results in kidney cyst development and enlargement, resulting in chronic kidney disease (CKD) leading to renal failure. This study sought to determine if ADPKD patients in the early stages of CKD contribute to a sizable economic burden for the US health care system. This was a retrospective, matched cohort study, reviewing medical resource utilization (MRU) and costs for adults in a US private-payer claims database with a diagnosis code of ADPKD (ICD-9-CM 753.13). ADPKD patients were matched by age grouping (0-17, 18-34, 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, and 65+ years) and sex to controls to understand the burden of ADPKD. Descriptive statistics on 6-month MRU and costs were assessed by CKD stages, dialysis use, or previous renal transplant. The analysis included ADPKD patients in CKD stages 1-5 (n=316 to n=860), dialysis (n=586), and post-transplant (n=615). Mean ages did not differ across CKD stages (range 43-56 years). Men were the majority in the later stages but the minority in the early stages. The proportion of patients with at least one hospitalization increased with CKD stage, (12% to >40% CKD stage 2 to stage 5, dialysis or post-transplant). The majority had at least one hospital outpatient visit and at least one pharmacy claim. Total 6-month per-patient costs were greater among ADPKD patients than in age-matched and sex-matched healthy non-ADPKD controls (P<0.001 for all comparisons). ADPKD patients with normal kidney function are associated with a significant economic burden to the health care system relative to the general population. Any treatments that delay progression to later stages of CKD may provide potential health care cost offsets.
    ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research 02/2015; 7:123-32. DOI:10.2147/CEOR.S75523
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    ABSTRACT: Thiazide diuretics have been recommended as a first-line antihypertensive treatment, although the choice of 'the right drug in the individual essential hypertensive patient' remains still empirical. Essential hypertension is a complex, polygenic disease derived from the interaction of patient's genetic background with the environment. Pharmacogenomics could be a useful tool to pinpoint gene variants involved in antihypertensive drug response, thus optimizing therapeutic advantages and minimizing side effects. We looked for variants associated with blood pressure response to hydrochlorothiazide over an 8-week follow-up by means of a genome-wide association analysis in two Italian cohorts of never-treated essential hypertensive patients: 343 samples from Sardinia and 142 from Milan. TET2 and CSMD1 as plausible candidate genes to affect SBP response to hydrochlorothiazide were identified. The specificity of our findings for hydrochlorothiazide was confirmed in an independent cohort of essential hypertensive patients treated with losartan. Our best findings were also tested for replication in four independent hypertensive samples of European Ancestry, such as GENetics of drug RESponsiveness in essential hypertension, Genetic Epidemiology of Responses to Antihypertensives, NORdic DILtiazem intervention, Pharmacogenomics Evaluation of Antihypertensive Responses, and Campania Salute Network-StayOnDiur. We validated a polymorphism in CSMD1 and UGGT2. This exploratory study reports two plausible loci associated with SBP response to hydrochlorothiazide: TET2, an aldosterone-responsive mediator of αENaC gene transcription; and CSMD1, previously described as associated with hypertension in a case-control study.
    Journal of Hypertension 02/2015; 33(6). DOI:10.1097/HJH.0000000000000541 · 4.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The three branched amino acids (valine, leucine, and isoleucine) and two aromatic amino acids (tyrosine and phenylalanine) have been associated with many adverse metabolic pathways, including diabetes. However, these associations have been identified primarily in otherwise healthy Caucasian populations. We aimed to investigate the association of this five-amino-acid signature with metabolic syndrome and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) in a hypertensive cohort of Caucasian and African Americans. Methods: We analyzed data from the Pharmacogenomic Evaluation of Antihypertensive Responses (PEAR) studies PEAR and PEAR2 conducted between 2005 and 2014. Subjects were enrolled at the University of Florida (Gainesville, FL), Emory University (Atlanta, GA), and Mayo Clinic (Rochester, MN). A total of 898 patients with essential hypertension were included in this study. Presence of metabolic syndrome and IFG at baseline were determined on the basis of measurements of demographic and biochemical data. Levels of the five amino acids were quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS). Results: With a multiple logistic regression model, we found that all five amino acids were significantly associated with metabolic syndrome in both Caucasian and African Americans. IFG and the five amino acids were associated in the Caucasian Americans. Only valine was significantly associated with IFG in African Americans. Conclusion: In both Caucasian and African Americans with uncomplicated hypertension, plasma levels of the five-amino-acid signature are associated with metabolic syndrome. Additionally, in Caucasians we have confirmed the five-amino-acid signature was associated with IFG.
    Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders 02/2015; 13(5). DOI:10.1089/met.2014.0132 · 1.98 Impact Factor
  • Annual Meeting of the; 02/2015
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  • Arlene B Chapman
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    ABSTRACT: Healthy autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) patients with normal kidney function demonstrate reduced endothelial-dependent vasodilation that improves with increasing local dopamine levels. Dopamine regulates renal sodium excretion, and dopamine receptors are located on primary cilia in both vascular and renal tubular epithelial cells. The study by Lorthioir and colleagues links endothelial function and dopamine availability in ADPKD patients.
    Kidney International 02/2015; 87(2):279-280. DOI:10.1038/ki.2014.391 · 8.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) gene duplication and multiplication can result in ultrarapid drug metabolism and therapeutic failure or excessive response in patients. Long range polymerase chain reaction (PCR), restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and sequencing are usually used for genotyping CYP2D6 duplication/multiplications and identification, but are labor intensive, time consuming, and costly. We developed a simple allele quantification-based Pyrosequencing genotyping method that facilitates CYP2D6 copy number variation (CNV) genotyping while also identifying allele-specific CYP2D6 CNV in heterozygous samples. Most routine assays do not identify the allele containing a CNV. A total of 237 clinical and Coriell DNA samples with different known CYP2D6 gene copy numbers were genotyped for CYP2D6 *2, *3, *4, *6, *10, *17, *41 polymorphisms and CNV determination. The CYP2D6 gene allele quantification/identification were determined simultaneously with CYP2D6*2, *3, *4, *6, *10, *17, *41 genotyping. We determined the exact CYP2D6 gene copy number, identified which allele had the duplication or multiplication, and assigned the correct phenotype and activity score for all samples. Our method can efficiently identify the duplicated CYP2D6 allele in heterozygous samples, determine its copy number in a fraction of time compared to conventional methods and prevent incorrect ultrarapid phenotype calls. It also greatly reduces the cost, effort and time associated with CYP2D6 CNV genotyping.
    PLoS ONE 01/2015; 10(1):e0113808. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0113808 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Hypertension is common in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and is associated with increased total kidney volume, activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and progression of kidney disease. Methods: In this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we randomly assigned 558 hypertensive participants with ADPKD (15 to 49 years of age, with an estimated glomerular filtration rate [GFR] >60 ml per minute per 1.73 m(2) of body-surface area) to either a standard blood-pressure target (120/70 to 130/80 mm Hg) or a low blood-pressure target (95/60 to 110/75 mm Hg) and to either an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor (lisinopril) plus an angiotensin-receptor blocker (telmisartan) or lisinopril plus placebo. The primary outcome was the annual percentage change in the total kidney volume. Results: The annual percentage increase in total kidney volume was significantly lower in the low-blood-pressure group than in the standard-blood-pressure group (5.6% vs. 6.6%, P=0.006), without significant differences between the lisinopril-telmisartan group and the lisinopril-placebo group. The rate of change in estimated GFR was similar in the two medication groups, with a negative slope difference in the short term in the low-blood-pressure group as compared with the standard-blood-pressure group (P<0.001) and a marginally positive slope difference in the long term (P=0.05). The left-ventricular-mass index decreased more in the low-blood-pressure group than in the standard-blood-pressure group (-1.17 vs. -0.57 g per square meter per year, P<0.001); urinary albumin excretion was reduced by 3.77% with the low-pressure target and increased by 2.43% with the standard target (P<0.001). Dizziness and light-headedness were more common in the low-blood-pressure group than in the standard-blood-pressure group (80.7% vs. 69.4%, P=0.002). Conclusions: In early ADPKD, the combination of lisinopril and telmisartan did not significantly alter the rate of increase in total kidney volume. As compared with standard blood-pressure control, rigorous blood-pressure control was associated with a slower increase in total kidney volume, no overall change in the estimated GFR, a greater decline in the left-ventricular-mass index, and greater reduction in urinary albumin excretion. (Funded by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases and others; HALT-PKD [Study A] number, NCT00283686.).
    New England Journal of Medicine 11/2014; 371(24). DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa1402685 · 55.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Hypertension develops early in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and is associated with disease progression. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension in patients with ADPKD. Dual blockade of the RAAS may circumvent compensatory mechanisms that limit the efficacy of monotherapy with an angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitor or angiotensin II-receptor blocker (ARB). Methods: In this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we randomly assigned 486 patients, 18 to 64 years of age, with ADPKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate [GFR], 25 to 60 ml per minute per 1.73 m(2) of body-surface area) to receive an ACE inhibitor (lisinopril) and placebo or lisinopril and an ARB (telmisartan), with the doses adjusted to achieve a blood pressure of 110/70 to 130/80 mm Hg. The composite primary outcome was the time to death, end-stage renal disease, or a 50% reduction from the baseline estimated GFR. Secondary outcomes included the rates of change in urinary aldosterone and albumin excretion, frequency of hospitalizations for any cause and for cardiovascular causes, incidence of pain, frequency of ADPKD-related symptoms, quality of life, and adverse study-medication effects. Patients were followed for 5 to 8 years. Results: There was no significant difference between the study groups in the incidence of the composite primary outcome (hazard ratio with lisinopril-telmisartan, 1.08; 95% confidence interval, 0.82 to 1.42). The two treatments controlled blood pressure and lowered urinary aldosterone excretion similarly. The rates of decline in the estimated GFR, urinary albumin excretion, and other secondary outcomes and adverse events, including hyperkalemia and acute kidney injury, were also similar in the two groups. Conclusions: Monotherapy with an ACE inhibitor was associated with blood-pressure control in most patients with ADPKD and stage 3 chronic kidney disease. The addition of an ARB did not alter the decline in the estimated GFR. (Funded by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases and others; HALT-PKD [Study B] number, NCT01885559.).
    New England Journal of Medicine 11/2014; 371(24). DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa1402686 · 55.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Resistant hypertension (RHTN), defined by lack of blood pressure (BP) control despite treatment with at least 3 antihypertensive drugs, increases cardiovascular risk compared with controlled hypertension. Yet, there are few data on genetic variants associated with RHTN. Methods and Results We used a gene‐centric array containing ≈50 000 single‐nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to identify polymorphisms associated with RHTN in hypertensive participants with coronary artery disease (CAD) from INVEST‐GENES (the INnternational VErapamil‐SR Trandolapril STudy—GENEtic Substudy). RHTN was defined as BP≥140/90 on 3 drugs, or any BP on 4 or more drugs. Logistic regression analysis was performed in European Americans (n=904) and Hispanics (n=837), using an additive model adjusted for age, gender, randomized treatment assignment, body mass index, principal components for ancestry, and other significant predictors of RHTN. Replication of the top SNP was conducted in 241 European American women from WISE (Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation), where RHTN was defined similarly. To investigate the functional effect of rs12817819, mRNA expression was measured in whole blood. We found ATP2B1 rs12817819 associated with RHTN in both INVEST European Americans (P‐value=2.44×10−3, odds ratio=1.57 [1.17 to 2.01]) and INVEST Hispanics (P=7.69×10−4, odds ratio=1.76 [1.27 to 2.44]). A consistent trend was observed at rs12817819 in WISE, and the INVEST‐WISE meta‐analysis result reached chip‐wide significance (P=1.60×10−6, odds ratio=1.65 [1.36 to 1.95]). Expression analyses revealed significant differences in ATP2B1 expression by rs12817819 genotype. Conclusions The ATP2B1 rs12817819 A allele is associated with increased risk for RHTN in hypertensive participants with documented CAD or suspected ischemic heart disease. Clinical Trial Registration URL:; Unique identifiers: NCT00133692 (INVEST), NCT00000554 (WISE).
    Journal of the American Heart Association 10/2014; 3(6). DOI:10.1161/JAHA.114.001398 · 4.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hypokalemia is a recognized adverse effect of thiazide diuretic treatment. This phenomenon, which may impair insulin secretion, has been suggested to be a reason for the adverse effects on glucose metabolism associated with thiazide diuretic treatment of hypertension. However, the mechanisms underlying thiazide diuretic-induced hypokalemia are not well understood. In an effort to identify genes or genomic regions associated with potassium response to hydrochlorothiazide, without a priori knowledge of biologic effects, we performed a genome-wide association study and a multiethnic meta-analysis in 718 European- and African-American hypertensive participants from two different pharmacogenetic studies. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms rs10845697 (Bayes factor=5.560) on chromosome 12, near to the HEME binding protein 1 gene, and rs11135740 (Bayes factor=5.258) on chromosome 8, near to the Mitoferrin-1 gene, reached genome-wide association study significance (Bayes factor >5). These results, if replicated, suggest a novel mechanism involving effects of genes in the HEME pathway influencing hydrochlorothiazide-induced renal potassium loss.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 9 September 2014; doi:10.1038/tpj.2014.46.
    The Pharmacogenomics Journal 09/2014; 15(2). DOI:10.1038/tpj.2014.46 · 4.23 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

5k Citations
1,142.34 Total Impact Points


  • 2015
    • University of Illinois at Chicago
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 1999–2015
    • Emory University
      • School of Medicine
      Atlanta, Georgia, United States
    • Saint Louis University
      Сент-Луис, Michigan, United States
  • 2012
    • Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc
      • Division of Nephrology
      Brussels, BRU, Belgium
  • 2006–2008
    • University of Alabama at Birmingham
      • Department of Medicine
      Birmingham, Alabama, United States
  • 2002–2005
    • University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston
      • Human Genetics Center
      Houston, TX, United States
  • 2001–2005
    • Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research
      • • Division of Nephrology and Hypertension
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      Scottsdale, AZ, United States
  • 1992
    • University of Denver
      Denver, Colorado, United States
  • 1990
    • University of Colorado Hospital
      • Department of Medicine
      Denver, Colorado, United States