G R Tobin

University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, United States

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Publications (58)171.82 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Restoration of amputations and disfigurement are represented in ancient mythology, but the modern history of composite tissue allotransplantation begins with World War II injuries that generated seminal immunologic experiments by Medawar and co-workers. These studies led to the first successful human allografts in the 1950s by Peacock with composite tissue and Murray and co-workers with solid organs. Pharmacologic immunosuppression brought rapid growth of solid organ transplantation over the next 50 years, but composite tissue transplantation virtually disappeared. This evolution was judged to be a consequence of the greater antigenicity of skin, which that was insurmountable by the available immunosuppression. In the mid-1990s, progress in immunosupression allowed skin-bearing grafts, led by successful hand transplants, which produced a renaissance in composite tissue allotransplantation. Since then, graft types have expanded to over 10, and graft numbers to over 150, with success rates that equal or exceed solid organs. The field has emerged as one of the most exciting in contemporary medicine, although accompanied by substantial challenges and controversy. This paper reviews the origins and progress of this field, assessing its potential for future evolution.
    Transplantation Proceedings 04/2009; 41(2):466-71. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The feasibility of hand allotransplantation has been demonstrated. The purpose of the article is to report the (1) functional return, (2) psychosocial outcomes, (3) clinical and histological assessment for rejection, (4) complications, and (5) graft survival in the 2 American hand transplant recipients. We present 2 patients 106 and 81 months, respectively, after unilateral transplantation of an allogeneic hand and forearm. We analyzed clinical course, number of rejection episodes, adverse events, function of the allograft, and quality of life. Clinical laboratory results, biopsy histology, and patient clinical examinations were used to compare the clinical course. Standard hand function tests were used to evaluate function. Psychological interviews were used to assess acceptance and quality of life. Our patients have allograft survival with improvements in intrinsic muscle activity, total active motion and return of functional grip, pinch strength, and sensibility. Rejection episodes were restricted primarily to the first 6 months after transplantation, and all responded to treatment. The major posttransplantation complications were a cytomegalovirus infection in patient 1 and osteonecrosis of the hip requiring both hips to be replaced, 1 at year 4 and the other at year 6, as well as transient immunosuppression-related diabetes in patient 2. Recently we have weaned both patients off maintenance steroids. Current Carroll scores are fair for patient 1 (72/99) and fair for patient 2 (55/99), although patient 2 has not had good recovery of intrinsic function. Both patients are back at work and report an excellent quality of life at nearly 9 and 7 years, respectively, after transplantation. Our intermediate long-term results of hand transplants have demonstrated functional return similar to that of replants. Graft survival and quality of life after hand transplantation has far exceeded initial expectations. We conclude that allogeneic hand transplant is feasible and holds promise as a treatment modality for catastrophic upper extremity loss. Therapeutic IV.
    The Journal of hand surgery 10/2008; 33(7):1039-47. · 1.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This article reviews the world experience in the newly emerging field of composite tissue allotransplantation. These allografts contain multiple tissues that are usually musculoskeletal structures with a skin or epithelial surface, such as hand, facial structures, larynx, tongue, ear, knee/femur, abdominal wall, and penis. They represent a new transplantation field, with only a 10-year experience and just over 50 clinical cases. This review of the 10-year world experience found uniform technical success, immunologic biology, and immunosuppression regimens very similar to solid organ transplants, and success strongly correlated with adherence to guidelines for psychiatric screening, thorough preparation of patient and families, intense postoperative monitoring, and assurance of medication access. All failures reported have been caused by lapses in these parameters. This early experience shows a great potential for application of these new procedures to the most challenging reconstructive needs.
    Clinics in Plastic Surgery 05/2007; 34(2):271-8, ix-x. · 1.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Successful hand transplantation depends upon an extensive, well-coordinated system with resources and experience in both upper extremity and transplant surgery. This description of such a system is drawn from the experience of the Louisville, Kentucky, Hand Transplant Program, which achieved the world's first successful hand transplant in January 1999, and which is the only United States program to date. The personnel and components of this system are outlined, with a detailed description of the roles, responsibilities, and interaction between components. This system ensures optimal management throughout recipient selection, psychiatric screening, education and preparation, donor limb retrieval, transplant surgery, immunosuppression administration and monitoring, and post-transplant rehabilitation therapy. The lessons learned from the experience of the Louisville team, and the experiences of the other teams world-wide, are presented to guide organization of future teams participating in this pioneering endeavor.
    Clinics in Plastic Surgery 05/2007; 34(2):279-89, x. · 1.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Composite tissue allotransplantation (CTA) is the new frontier in transplantation. More than 25 hand allograft transplants have been performed worldwide, and the feasibility has been well established. The classical experimental model of CTA involves rat orthotopic hindlimb transplantation, a time-consuming procedure associated with high mortality and morbidity. We describe a rat heterotopic osteomyocutaneous flap that serves as a nonfunctional CTA, allowing the study of tolerance induction to a highly antigenic vascularized allograft of bone, muscle, and skin while minimizing the morbidity and mortality of full hind limb transplantation. In the present studies, we explored whether establishing chimerism by nonmyeloablative conditioning would induce tolerance to CTA. When compared with the classic hind limb transplantation model, these results demonstrate that our heterotopic hind limb flap is less morbid and as an effective experimental model for the study of CTA tolerance.
    Microsurgery 02/2007; 27(7):630-6. · 1.62 Impact Factor
  • Gordon R Tobin
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    ABSTRACT: Access to medical care in Kentucky is increasingly being lost due to the unjust tort climate created by the state constitution and Jural Rights Doctrine. The primary mechanism underlying this loss of access is migration of physicians to other states with more reasonable tort statutes and lower liability premiums. Access to care in rural settings is particularly impaired. The dimensions of this effect are explored and other harmful effects on access to care in Kentucky are presented in this analysis.
    The Journal of the Kentucky Medical Association 05/2006; 104(4):155.
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    ABSTRACT: The clinical problems of advanced malignancy with invasion of cancers into adjacent organs or structures, fistulizing complications from radiation therapy, postoperative infections, and delayed postoperative healing continue to challenge pelvic surgeons, regardless of subspecialty. The use of autologous muscle and myocutaneous flaps has been applied to the management and prevention of these clinical problems and found to be most helpful. Records of patients undergoing abdominopelvic procedures in a single unit during the 15-year period from 1990 to 2005 were reviewed, and patients undergoing autologous tissue flaps were reviewed with respect to indications, complications, and outcomes. Thirty-four patients underwent 35 autologous muscle or myocutaneous flaps for the following indications: large anticipated defects in primary or reoperative cancer surgery (13 patients); malignant, traumatic, inflammatory, or radiation-induced fistulae (12 patients); excision of (an) adjacent organ(s) with need for reconstruction (7 patients); and chronic nonhealing pelvic wounds (2 patients). Wound complications occurred in 41% of patients; however, primary healing of flaps occurred in 88% of patients. The use of autologous tissue flaps in select patients can be a useful adjunct in pelvic surgery in dealing with a wide variety of problems, specifically in filling large defects, providing vascularized tissue for fistula closure, and avoiding delayed wound healing commonly seen after high-dose radiation.
    The American Journal of Surgery 09/2005; 190(2):186-90. · 2.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This paper reviews the formulation and evolution of the ethical component in one of the earliest clinical composite tissue allograft (CTA) programs, the hand transplantation program in Louisville, Kentucky, USA. The purpose was to derive lessons and define principles to give guidance for future programs and introduction of new CTA. We reviewed the initial ethical considerations, including input from respected ethical scholars, guidelines for innovative procedures transparency in public and professional scrutiny, and compliance with human studies regulations (IRB approval). We found the initial focus on ethics, scholarly input, guidelines for innovative procedures, and human studies protection regulations to be valid. Moreover, we noted the effect of autonomy in subjective, quality-of-life benefits on equipoise and effective risk-benefit analysis in effective informed consent. We found that psychiatric screening and support to be exceptionally valuable in protecting autonomy, suitability for participation, assessing personality organization, and determining compliance ability. We conclude that the program ethical principles were validated. For future CTA programs and procedures, we recommend an ethical emphasis with adherence to high standards and transpire to independence to scrutiny and oversight. We recommend protection of autonomy judgments in equipoise judgment and informed consent. We recommend skilled psychiatric screening and support. We endorse scholarship, scientific accuracy, and data sharing.
    Transplantation Proceedings 04/2005; 37(2):1392-5. · 0.95 Impact Factor
  • Transplantation 01/2004; 78. · 3.78 Impact Factor
  • Human Immunology - HUM IMMUNOL. 01/2003; 64(10).
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    ABSTRACT: The scientific basis for human trials of hand transplantation was both experimental and clinical. Prolonged survival of limb transplants was achieved in small and large animals by using novel immunosuppressive drugs. Further, all tissue components of the hand (skin, muscle, tendon, nerve, bone, and joint) were individually transplanted with success in humans. After appropriate institutional review of the ethics, experimental data, treatment protocol, and informed consent, clinical trials were approved. Thirteen hands have been transplanted onto 10 recipients, with resultant low morbidity and no mortality. With the exception of one recipient who requested amputation after the second year, results of hand transplantation have been highly successful. Functional return mirrored that seen after hand replantation. The limbs were progressively integrated into activities of daily living and professional tasks. The hand and patient survival rate exceeds the initial results of any previously transplanted organ. This success strongly supports continuation of these human trials.
    The Journal Of Hand Surgery 10/2002; 27(5):760-70. · 1.57 Impact Factor
  • Wayne K Stadelmann, Gordon R Tobin
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    ABSTRACT: Postoperative groin lymphoceles that fail to resolve spontaneously or with interventional therapy present a formidable problem that is associated with a high degree of morbidity. Numerous interventional methods and operative techniques have been described to treat these fluid collections, yet recurrence rates remain high. The use of lymphatic mapping has gained widespread use in the treatment of cutaneous malignancies and breast cancer and has been proven effective in delineating the course of lymphatic channels. We present here a series of 17 consecutive patients with 19 problematic groin lymphoceles who were treated with the assistance of intraoperative lymphatic mapping using isosulfan blue dye. To date there have been no recurrences and minimal morbidity associated with the technique and prescribed postoperative treatment regimen.
    Plastic &amp Reconstructive Surgery 05/2002; 109(4):1274-80. · 3.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the acute and chronic urodynamic effects of electrically stimulated detrusor myoplasty in dogs. Eight female mongrel dogs were studied acutely and six dogs chronically (0 to 12 weeks postoperatively). Bladders were wrapped with the rectus abdominis muscle, keeping an intact blood supply and at least two intercostal nerves of the flap preserved. Bladders were electrically stimulated with bipolar electrodes inserted into the muscle. Urodynamics and post void residual were measured post operatively in the acute studies and every 2 weeks for 3 months in chronic studies. Acutely, the increase in intravesical pressure was 45+/-7 cm H(2)O, which resulted in a postvoid residual of 26+/-3%. In the chronic study, increases of intravesical pressure sufficient to empty the bladder during myoplasty electrical stimulation were not sustained, although detrusor compliance and flap viability were preserved. The electrically stimulated detrusor myoplasty worked well acutely to increase vesical pressure sufficient to empty the bladder, but the chronically stimulated myoplasty did not maintain efficient bladder emptying primarily due to electrode problems. Further studies with improved electrode material and placement are required before clinical application of the electrically stimulated detrusor myoplasty can be assessed.
    Neurourology and Urodynamics 02/2002; 21(5):516-21. · 2.67 Impact Factor
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    The Lancet 10/2001; 358(9286):1018. · 39.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fecal stomal incontinence is a problem that continues to defy surgical treatment. Previous attempts to create continent stomas using dynamic myoplasty have had limited success due to denervation atrophy of the muscle flap used in the creation of the sphincter and because of muscle fatigue resulting from continuous electrical stimulation. To address the problem of denervation atrophy, a stomal sphincter was designed using the most caudal segment of the rectus abdominis muscle, preserving its intercostal innervation as well as its vascular supply. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether this rectus abdominis muscle island flap sphincter design could maintain stomal continence acutely. In this experiment, six dogs were used to create eight rectus abdominis island flap stoma sphincters around a segment of distal ileum. Initially, the intraluminal stomal pressures generated by the sphincter using different stimulation frequencies were determined. The ability of this stomal sphincter to generate continence at different intraluminal bowel pressures was then assessed. In all cases, the rectus abdominis muscle sphincter generated peak pressures well above those needed to maintain stomal continence (60 mmHg). In addition, each sphincter was able to maintain stomal continence at all intraluminal bowel pressures tested.
    Plastic &amp Reconstructive Surgery 03/2001; 107(2):478-84. · 3.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Several attempts to create a continent stomal sphincter using dynamic myoplasty with limited success have been reported. Denervation atrophy and early muscle fatigue have plagued all reported attempts to make a continent stoma a reality. To address this problem in a series of experiments, we designed a stomal sphincter using the most caudal segment of the rectus abdominis muscle. Then, we performed a study to determine whether a sphincter created with a rectus abdominis muscle island flap could maintain stomal continence in the short term. We found that when stimulated using two different electrical stimulation protocols, in all cases the rectus abdominis muscle sphincter generated peak pressures well above those needed to maintain stomal continence (60 mm Hg). All sphincters were able to maintain stomal continence at all intraluminal bowel pressures tested. We found one of these protocols to be far superior and reached 4 hours of stomal continence after 8 to 10 weeks of electrical stimulation.
    Microsurgery 02/2001; 21(6):248-55. · 1.62 Impact Factor
  • Journal of the American College of Surgeons 10/2000; 191(4). · 4.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many children with spina bifida and other causes of neurogenic bladder rely on clean intermittent catheterization to empty the hyporeflexic or areflexic bladder. Direct bladder and sacral nerve root stimulation have been met with limited success. We studied the electrical stimulation of a rectus abdominis muscle flap wrapped around the bladder to achieve bladder contractility and emptying. The feasibility of performing rectus detrusor myoplasty in humans was first studied in 8 cadavers. In male and female cadavers it was possible to wrap the distended bladder completely with the rectus abdominis muscle. The rectus abdominis muscle was surgically dissected with preservation of its insertion on the pubis bone and rotation of its mid section behind the bladder to effect a complete bladder wrap. The deep inferior epigastric artery and veins, and 2 most caudal intercostal nerves were preserved. This unilateral rectus abdominis muscle flap was then electrically stimulated with 2 pairs of bipolar electrodes inserted into the muscle near the nerve entrance. Stimulation frequencies of 40, 60 and 80 Hz. were used in each of the 8 dogs. The increase in intravesical pressure over baseline, compliance and post-void residual were measured. Paired Student's t tests were used for statistical comparisons. The increase in intravesical pressure ranged 35 +/- 5 to 45 +/- 7 cm. H2O at stimulation frequency 40 and 80 Hz., respectively. Post-void residual was 27 +/- 4%, 22 +/- 3% and 26 +/- 3% at stimulation frequencies 40, 60 and 80 Hz., respectively. Intravesical pressure was significantly increased over baseline bladder pressure (p <0.05). Electrically stimulated detrusor myoplasty results in uniform increases in intravesical pressure and reasonable bladder emptying in an animal model. We are currently investigating detrusor myoplasty in a chronic study to determine whether it can be used for enhanced bladder emptying in children with poor detrusor contractility.
    The Journal of Urology 10/2000; 164(3 Pt 2):969-72. · 3.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In reconstructing patients with massive midface losses, the authors required a vascularized bone graft that could be used to reconstruct the palate and orbital floor, provide vertical maxillary support, and provide soft tissue. The inferior angle of the scapula appears to be a promising source of vascularized bone stock, and until now, there has been no clear description of its vascular anatomy. The purpose of this study was to define the vascular anatomy of the inferior angle of the scapula. Thirteen fresh cadavers were studied. The subscapular artery was injected with Microfil (Flow Tec, Carver, MA) at its origin. Two branches of the subscapular artery were found to converge on the angle of the scapula: the descending osseous branch of the circumflex scapular, and the transverse branch of the thoracodorsal. The descending osseous branch of the circumflex scapular artery supplied the inferior angle of the scapula in 100 percent of cases. The transverse branch of the thoracodorsal artery supplied it in 76 percent of cases. The descending osseous branch of the circumflex scapular artery is the principal artery supplying the inferior angle of the scapula.
    Journal of Reconstructive Microsurgery 05/2000; 16(3):207-11. · 1.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ischemia of the distal latissimus dorsi muscle flap occurs when the entire muscle is acutely elevated. Although this level of ischemia may not be critical if the muscle is to be used as a conventional muscle flap, the ischemia causes decreased distal muscle function if it is used for dynamic muscle flap transfer. This experiment was designed to determine whether or not the administration of exogenous basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), combined with a sublethal ischemic insult (i.e., vascular delay), would further augment muscle perfusion and function. Both latissimus dorsi muscles of nine canines were subjected to a bipedicle vascular delay procedure immediately followed by thoracodorsal intraarterial injection of 100 microg of bFGF on one side and by intraarterial injection of vehicle on the other. Ten days later, both latissimus dorsi muscles were raised as thoracodorsally based island flaps, with perfusion determined by laser-Doppler fluximetry. The muscles were wrapped around silicone chambers, simulating cardiomyoplasty, and stimulating electrodes were placed around each thoracodorsal nerve. The muscles were then subjected to an experimental protocol to determine muscle contractile function. At the end of the experiment, latissimus dorsi muscle biopsies were obtained for measurement of bFGF expression. The results demonstrated that the administration of 100 microg of bFGF immediately after the vascular delay procedure increases expression of native bFGF. In the distal and middle muscle segments, it also significantly increased muscle perfusion by approximately 20 percent and fatigue resistance by approximately 300 percent. The administration of growth factors may serve as an important adjuvant to surgical procedures using dynamic muscle flap transfers.
    Plastic &amp Reconstructive Surgery 04/2000; 105(3):964-71. · 3.54 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
171.82 Total Impact Points


  • 1988–2009
    • University of Louisville
      • • Department of Surgery
      • • Department of Medicine
      Louisville, KY, United States
  • 1999
    • Temple University
      • Department of Medicine
      Philadelphia, PA, United States
  • 1994
    • Universität des Saarlandes
      Saarbrücken, Saarland, Germany