[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although most vaccines are administered i.m., little is known about the dendritic cells (DCs) that are present within skeletal muscles. In this article, we show that expression of CD64, the high-affinity IgG receptor FcγRI, distinguishes conventional DCs from monocyte-derived DCs (Mo-DCs). By using such a discriminatory marker, we defined the distinct DC subsets that reside in skeletal muscles and identified their migratory counterparts in draining lymph nodes (LNs). We further used this capability to analyze the functional specialization that exists among muscle DCs. After i.m. administration of Ag adsorbed to alum, we showed that alum-injected muscles contained large numbers of conventional DCs that belong to the CD8α(+)- and CD11b(+)-type DCs. Both conventional DC types were capable of capturing Ag and of migrating to draining LNs, where they efficiently activated naive T cells. In alum-injected muscles, Mo-DCs were as numerous as conventional DCs, but only a small fraction migrated to draining LNs. Therefore, alum by itself poorly induces Mo-DCs to migrate to draining LNs. We showed that addition of small amounts of LPS to alum enhanced Mo-DC migration. Considering that migratory Mo-DCs had, on a per cell basis, a higher capacity to induce IFN-γ-producing T cells than conventional DCs, the addition of LPS to alum enhanced the overall immunogenicity of Ags presented by muscle-derived DCs. Therefore, a full understanding of the role of adjuvants during i.m. vaccination needs to take into account the heterogeneous migratory and functional behavior of muscle DCs and Mo-DCs revealed in this study.
The Journal of Immunology 02/2012; 188(4):1751-60. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: NKp46 is a cell surface receptor expressed on natural killer (NK) cells, on a minute subset of T cells, and on a population of innate lymphoid cells that produce IL-22 and express the transcription factor retinoid-related orphan receptor (ROR)-γt, referred to as NK cell receptor (NKR)(+)ROR-γt(+) cells. Here we describe Nkp46(iCre) knock-in mice in which the gene encoding the improved Cre (iCre) recombinase was inserted into the Nkp46 locus. This mouse was used to noninvasively trace cells expressing NKp46 in vivo. Fate mapping experiments demonstrated the stable expression of NKp46 on NK cells and allowed a reappraisal of the sequential steps of NK cell maturation. NKp46 genetic tracing also showed that gut NKR(+)ROR-γt(+) and NK cells represent two distinct lineages. In addition, the genetic heterogeneity of liver NK cells was evidenced. Finally, Nkp46(iCre) mice also represent a unique mouse model of conditional mutagenesis specifically in NKp46(+) cells, paving the way for further developments in the biology of NKp46(+) NK, T, and NKR(+)ROR-γt(+) cells.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 11/2011; 108(45):18324-9. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Partial loss-of-function mutations in several molecules involved in T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling result in inflammation and autoimmunity. How can mutations that reduce TCR signaling output, paradoxically lead to immune pathology? This review summarizes experiments demonstrating that mutations in the linker for activation of T cells (LAT) predispose toward aberrant T cell responses to antigen in the presence of normal thymic selection. In the absence of LAT, antigen-specific T cells give rise to self-perpetuating pro-inflammatory responses and induce the production of autoantibodies independently of TCR engagement. Therefore, some pathological conditions called "autoimmune" might not result from the presence of self-reactive T cells, but from defective mechanisms that normally keep T cell activation in check.
Trends in Immunology 07/2010; 31(7):253-9. · 9.49 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Linker for activation of T cells (LAT) is a membrane adaptor protein that is expressed in T cells and coordinates the assembly of a multiprotein complex-the LAT signalosome-that links the T cell-specific and the ubiquitous components of the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) signaling pathway. The present review focuses on recent LAT knock-in mice that were found to develop lymphoproliferative disorders involving polyclonal CD4(+) T cells that produced excessive amounts of T helper-type 2 cytokines. These mouse models revealed that LAT constitutes more than just a positive regulator of TCR signaling and plays a negative regulatory role that contributes to terminate antigen-driven T cell responses by exerting a repressive function on components of the TCR signaling cassette that lie upstream of LAT or function independently of LAT. In the absence of such a LAT-operated negative regulatory loop that is intrinsic to conventional CD4(+) T cells and of no lesser importance than the extrinsic regulatory mechanisms mediated by regulatory T cells, physiologic, antigen-specific CD4(+) T cell responses evolve into chronic pro-inflammatory responses that perpetuate themselves in a manner that does not depend on engagement of the TCR and that induce the production of massive amounts of antibodies and autoantibodies in a major histocompatibility complex-II-independent, "quasi-mitogenic" mode. As discussed, these data underscore that a novel immunopathology proper to defective LAT signalosomes is likely taking shape, and we propose to call it "LAT signaling pathology."
Seminars in Immunopathology 06/2010; 32(2):117-25. · 5.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite compromised T cell antigen receptor (TCR) signaling, mice in which tyrosine 136 of the adaptor linker for activation of T cells (LAT) was constitutively mutated (Lat(Y136F) mice) accumulate CD4(+) T cells that trigger autoimmunity and inflammation. Here we show that equipping postthymic CD4(+) T cells with LATY136F molecules or rendering them deficient in LAT molecules triggers a lymphoproliferative disorder dependent on prior TCR engagement. Therefore, such disorders required neither faulty thymic T cell maturation nor LATY136F molecules. Unexpectedly, in CD4(+) T cells recently deprived of LAT, the proximal triggering module of the TCR induced a spectrum of protein tyrosine phosphorylation that largely overlapped the one observed in the presence of LAT. The fact that such LAT-independent signals result in lymphoproliferative disorders with excessive cytokine production demonstrates that LAT constitutes a key negative regulator of the triggering module and of the LAT-independent branches of the TCR signaling cassette.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thymus-specific serine protease (TSSP) was initially reported as a putative protease specifically expressed in the endosomal compartment of cortical thymic epithelial cells (cTEC). As such, TSSP is potentially involved in the presentation of the self-peptides that are bound to MHC class II molecules expressed at the cTEC surface and are involved in the positive selection of CD4(+) thymocytes. We tested this hypothesis by generating mutant mice deprived of Prss16, the gene encoding TSSP. TSSP-deficient mice produced normal numbers of T cells, despite a decrease in the percentage of cTEC expressing high surface levels of MHC class II. By using sensitive transgenic models expressing MHC class II-restricted TCR transgenes (Marilyn and OT-II), we showed that the absence of TSSP markedly impaired the selection of Marilyn and OT-II CD4(+) T cells. In contrast, selection of CD8(+) T cells expressing an MHC class I-restricted TCR transgene (OT-I) was unaffected. Therefore, TSSP is involved in the positive selection of some CD4(+) T lymphocytes and likely constitutes the first serine protease to play a function in the intrathymic presentation of self-peptides bound to MHC class II complexes.
European Journal of Immunology 04/2009; 39(4):956-64. · 4.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The spleen is a major homing site for NK cells. How they traffic to and within this site in homeostatic or inflammatory conditions is, however, mostly unknown. Here we show that NK cells enter the spleen through the marginal sinus and home to the red pulp via a pertussis toxin-insensitive mechanism. Upon inflammation induced by poly(I:C) injection or mouse cytomegalovirus infection, many NK cells left the red pulp while others transiently entered the white pulp, predominantly the T cell area. This migration was dependent on both CXCR3 and CCL5, suggesting a synergy between CXCR3 and CCR5, and followed the path lined by fibroblastic reticular cells. Thus, the entry of NK cells in the white pulp is limited by the expression of pro-inflammatory chemokines. This phenomenon ensures the segregation of NK cells outside of the white pulp and might contribute to the control of immunopathology.
European Journal of Immunology 08/2008; 38(8):2076-84. · 4.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antigen recognition by T cell antigen receptors (TCRs) is thought to 'unmask' a proline-rich sequence (PRS) present in the CD3epsilon cytosolic segment, which allows it to trigger T cell activation. Using 'knock-in' mice with deletion of the PRS, we demonstrate here that elimination of the CD3epsilon PRS had no effect on mature T cell responsiveness. In contrast, in preselection CD4+CD8+ thymocytes, the CD3epsilon PRS acted together with the adaptor protein SLAP to promote CD3zeta degradation, thereby contributing to downregulation of TCR expression on the cell surface. In addition, analysis of CD4+CD8+ thymocytes of TCR-transgenic mice showed that the CD3epsilon PRS enhanced TCR sensitivity to weak ligands. Our results identify previously unknown functions for the evolutionarily conserved CD3epsilon PRS at the CD4+CD8+ developmental stage and suggest a rather limited function in mature T cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Natural killer (NK) cells are large granular lymphocytes of the innate immune system that participate in the early control of microbial infections and cancer. NK cells can induce the death of autologous cells undergoing various forms of stress, recognizing and providing non-microbial 'danger' signals to the immune system. NK cells are widely distributed in lymphoid and non-lymphoid organs. NK cell precursors originate from the bone marrow and go through a complex maturation process that leads to the acquisition of their effector functions, to changes in their expression of integrins and chemotactic receptors, and to their redistribution from the bone marrow and lymph nodes to blood, spleen, liver, and lung. Here, we describe the tissue localization of NK cells, using NKp46 as an NK cell marker, and review the current knowledge on the mechanisms that govern their trafficking in humans and in mice.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: LIME (Lck-interacting membrane protein) is a transmembrane adaptor that associates with the Lck and Fyn protein tyrosine kinases and with the C-terminal Src kinase (Csk). To delineate the role of LIME in vivo, LIME-deficient mice were generated. Although Lime transcripts were expressed in immature and mature B and T cells, the absence of LIME impeded neither the development nor the function of B and T cells. TCR transgenic mice deprived of LIME showed, however, a 1.8-fold enhancement in positive selection. Since B cells and activated T cells express LIME and the related adaptor NTAL, mice lacking both adaptors were generated. Double-deficient mice showed no defect in the development and function of B and T cells, and the lack of LIME had no effect on the autoimmune syndrome that develops in aged NTAL-deficient mice. In contrast to a previous report, we further showed that this autoimmune syndrome develops in the absence of T cells. Therefore, our in vivo results refute all the previous roles postulated for LIME on the basis of studies of transformed B and T cells and demonstrate that LIME has no seminal role in the signaling cassette operated by antigen receptors and coreceptors.
European Journal of Immunology 12/2007; 37(11):3259-69. · 4.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Binding degeneracy is thought to constitute a fundamental property of the T-cell antigen receptor (TCR), yet its structural basis is poorly understood. We determined the crystal structure of a complex involving the BM3.3 TCR and a peptide (pBM8) bound to the H-2K(bm8) major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecule, and compared it with the structures of the BM3.3 TCR bound to H-2K(b) molecules loaded with two peptides that had a minimal level of primary sequence identity with pBM8. Our findings provide a refined structural view of the basis of BM3.3 TCR cross-reactivity and a structural explanation for the long-standing paradox that a TCR antigen-binding site can be both specific and degenerate. We also measured the thermodynamic features and biological penalties that incurred during cross-recognition. Our data illustrate the difficulty for a given TCR in adapting to distinct peptide-MHC surfaces while still maintaining affinities that result in functional in vivo responses. Therefore, when induction of protective effector T cells is used as the ultimate criteria for adaptive immunity, TCRs are probably much less degenerate than initially assumed.
The EMBO Journal 05/2007; 26(7):1972-83. · 9.82 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Linker for activation of T cells (LAT) is essential for T cell activation. Mice with mutations of distinct LAT tyrosine residues (LatY136F and Lat3YF) develop lymphoproliferative disorders involving TCR alphabeta or gammadelta T cells that trigger symptoms resembling allergic inflammation. We analyzed whether these T cells share a pattern of gene expression that may account for their pathogenic properties. Both LatY136F alphabeta and Lat3YF gammadelta T cells expressed high levels of the type 1 cysteinyl leukotriene receptor (CysLT(1)). Upon binding to the 5(S)-hydroxy-6(R)-S-cysteinylglycyl-7,9-trans-11,14-cis-eicosatetraenoic acid (LTD(4)) cysteinyl leukotriene, CysLT(1) induced Ca(2+) flux and caused chemotaxis in both LatY136F alphabeta and Lat3YF gammadelta T cells. Wild-type in vitro-activated T cells, but not resting T cells, also migrated toward LTD(4) however with a lower magnitude than T cells freshly isolated from LatY136F and Lat3YF mice. These results suggest that CysLT(1) is likely involved in the recruitment of activated alphabeta and gammadelta T cells to inflamed tissues.
The Journal of Immunology 08/2005; 175(2):713-9. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: NTAL (non-T-cell activation linker, also called LAB) and LAT (linker for activation of T cells) are evolutionarily related transmembrane adaptor proteins that are phosphorylated upon immunoreceptor engagement. Using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, both NTAL and LAT were found to be expressed in B cells. However, LAT expression was limited to early B cells, whereas NTAL expression typified mature B cells. To delineate their roles in B-cell development and function, Ntal-deficient mice were generated and crossed with Lat-deficient mice. B cells developed in Lat(-/-) Ntal(-/-) double-deficient mice and in mice lacking either of the two adaptors with the same efficiency as in wild-type mice. Upon B-cell antigen receptor cross-linking, Ntal(-/-) B cells exhibited slightly increased Ca(2+) mobilization and proliferation. In addition, Ntal-deficient mice had increased levels of natural antibodies and slightly increased humoral response to a T-dependent antigen. Normal titers of serum-specific immunoglobulins were produced in response to a T-cell-independent antigen. Although NTAL is also expressed in plasma cells, its absence did not affect the hypergammaglobulinemia E and G1 that developed in mice with a mutation in tyrosine 136 of LAT. Therefore, NTAL does not play a role in B cells symmetric to the role played by LAT in T cells.
Molecular and Cellular Biology 07/2005; 25(11):4455-65. · 5.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: T cell receptor (TCR) binding degeneracy lies at the heart of several physiological and pathological phenomena, yet its structural basis is poorly understood. We determined the crystal structure of a complex involving the BM3.3 TCR and an octapeptide (VSV8) bound to the H-2K(b) major histocompatibility complex molecule at a 2.7 A resolution, and compared it with the BM3.3 TCR bound to the H-2K(b) molecule loaded with a peptide that has no primary sequence identity with VSV8. Comparison of these structures showed that the BM3.3 TCR complementarity-determining region (CDR) 3alpha could undergo rearrangements to adapt to structurally different peptide residues. Therefore, CDR3 loop flexibility helps explain TCR binding cross-reactivity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The elongated complementary-determining region (CDR) 3beta found in the unliganded KB5-C20 TCR protrudes from the antigen binding site and prevents its docking onto the peptide/MHC (pMHC) surface according to a canonical diagonal orientation. We now present the crystal structure of a complex involving the KB5-C20 TCR and an octapeptide bound to the allogeneic H-2K(b) MHC class I molecule. This structure reveals how a tremendously large CDR3beta conformational change allows the KB5-C20 TCR to adapt to the rather constrained pMHC surface and achieve a diagonal docking mode. This extreme case of induced fit also shows that TCR plasticity is primarily restricted to CDR3 loops and does not propagate away from the antigen binding site.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The extraordinary sensitivity of CD8+ T cells to recognize antigen impinges to a large extent on the coreceptor CD8. While several studies have shown that the CD8beta chain endows CD8 with efficient coreceptor function, the molecular basis for this is enigmatic. Here we report that cell-associated CD8alphabeta, but not CD8alphaalpha or soluble CD8alphabeta, substantially increases the avidity of T cell receptor (TCR)-ligand binding. To elucidate how the cytoplasmic and transmembrane portions of CD8beta endow CD8 with efficient coreceptor function, we examined T1.4 T cell hybridomas transfected with various CD8beta constructs. T1.4 hybridomas recognize a photoreactive Plasmodium berghei circumsporozoite (PbCS) peptide derivative (PbCS (4-azidobezoic acid [ABA])) in the context of H-2K(d), and permit assessment of TCR-ligand binding by TCR photoaffinity labeling. We find that the cytoplasmic portion of CD8beta, mainly due to its palmitoylation, mediates partitioning of CD8 in lipid rafts, where it efficiently associates with p56(lck). In addition, the cytoplasmic portion of CD8beta mediates constitutive association of CD8 with TCR/CD3. The resulting TCR-CD8 adducts exhibit high affinity for major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-peptide. Importantly, because CD8alphabeta partitions in rafts, its interaction with TCR/CD3 promotes raft association of TCR/CD3. Engagement of these TCR/CD3-CD8/lck adducts by multimeric MHC-peptide induces activation of p56(lck) in rafts, which in turn phosphorylates CD3 and initiates T cell activation.
Journal of Experimental Medicine 12/2001; 194(10):1485-95. · 13.21 Impact Factor