Edward M Schaeffer

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States

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Publications (94)355.18 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Rectal swabs can identify men with fluoroquinolone (FQ)-resistant bacteria and reduce rates of infection after transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy (TRUSB) by targeted antimicrobial prophylaxis. We evaluated the rate of FQ resistance in an active surveillance cohort with attention to factors associated with resistance and changes in resistance over time.
    The Journal of urology 08/2014; · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    BJU International 04/2014; · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose Of men with very low risk prostate cancer at biopsy recent evidence shows that black American men are at greater risk for adverse oncologic outcomes after radical prostatectomy. We studied radical prostatectomy specimens from black and white men at very low risk to determine whether there are systematic pathological differences. Materials and Methods Radical prostatectomy specimens were evaluated in men with National Comprehensive Cancer Network® (NCCN) very low risk prostate cancer. At diagnosis all men underwent extended biopsy sampling (10 or more cores) and were treated in the modern Gleason grade era. We analyzed tumor volume, grade and location in 87 black and 89 white men. For each specimen the dominant nodule was defined as the largest tumor with the highest grade. Results Compared to white men, black men were more likely to have significant prostate cancer (61% vs 29%), Gleason 7 or greater (37% vs 11%, each p <0.001) and a volume of greater than 0.5 cm3 (45% vs 21%, p = 0.001). Dominant nodules in black men were larger (median 0.28 vs 0.13 cm3, p = 0.002) and more often anterior (51% vs 29%, p = 0.003). In men who underwent pathological upgrading the dominant nodule was also more frequently anterior in black than in white men (59% vs 0%, p = 0.001). Conclusions Black men with very low risk prostate cancer at diagnosis have a significantly higher prevalence of anterior cancer foci that are of higher grade and larger volume. Enhanced imaging or anterior zone sampling may detect these significant anterior tumors, improving the outcome in black men considering active surveillance.
    The Journal of Urology. 01/2014; 191(1):60–67.
  • Debasish Sundi, Edward M Schaeffer
    Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.) 01/2014; 28(1):83, 85. · 3.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background:Outcomes in men with National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) high-risk prostate cancer (PCa) can vary substantially-some will have excellent cancer-specific survival, whereas others will experience early metastasis even after aggressive local treatments. Current nomograms, which yield continuous risk probabilities, do not separate high-risk PCa into distinct sub-strata. Here, we derive a binary definition of very-high-risk (VHR) localized PCa to aid in risk stratification at diagnosis and selection of therapy.Methods:We queried the Johns Hopkins radical prostatectomy database to identify 753 men with NCCN high-risk localized PCa (Gleason sum 8-10, PSA >20 ng ml(-1), or clinical stage T3). Twenty-eight alternate permutations of adverse grade, stage and cancer volume were compared by their hazard ratios for metastasis and cancer-specific mortality. VHR criteria with top-ranking hazard ratios were further evaluated by multivariable analyses and inclusion of a clinically meaningful proportion of the high-risk cohort.Results:The VHR cohort was best defined by primary pattern 5 present on biopsy, or 5 cores with Gleason sum 8-10, or multiple NCCN high-risk features. These criteria encompassed 15.1% of the NCCN high-risk cohort. Compared with other high-risk men, VHR men were at significantly higher risk for metastasis (hazard ratio 2.75) and cancer-specific mortality (hazard ratio 3.44) (P<0.001 for both). Among high-risk men, VHR men also had significantly worse 10-year metastasis-free survival (37% vs 78%) and cancer-specific survival (62% vs 90%).Conclusions:Men who meet VHR criteria form a subgroup within the current NCCN high-risk classification who have particularly poor oncological outcomes. Use of these characteristics to distinguish VHR localized PCa may help in counseling and selection optimal candidates for multimodal treatments or clinical trials.Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Disease advance online publication, 5 November 2013; doi:10.1038/pcan.2013.46.
    Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases 11/2013; · 2.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background:Due to their varied outcomes, men with biochemical recurrence (BCR) following radical prostatectomy (RP) present a management dilemma. Here, we evaluate Decipher, a genomic classifier (GC), for its ability to predict metastasis following BCR.Methods:The study population included 85 clinically high-risk patients who developed BCR after RP. Time-dependent receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, weighted Cox proportional hazard models and decision curves were used to compare GC scores to Gleason score (GS), PSA doubling time (PSAdT), time to BCR (ttBCR), the Stephenson nomogram and CAPRA-S for predicting metastatic disease progression. All tests were two-sided with a type I error probability of 5%.Results:GC scores stratified men with BCR into those who would or would not develop metastasis (8% of patients with low versus 40% with high scores developed metastasis, P<0.001). The area under the curve for predicting metastasis after BCR was 0.82 (95% CI, 0.76-0.86) for GC, compared to GS 0.64 (0.58-0.70), PSAdT 0.69 (0.61-0.77) and ttBCR 0.52 (0.46-0.59). Decision curve analysis showed that GC scores had a higher overall net benefit compared to models based solely on clinicopathologic features. In multivariable modeling with clinicopathologic variables, GC score was the only significant predictor of metastasis (P=0.003).Conclusions:When compared to clinicopathologic variables, GC better predicted metastatic progression among this cohort of men with BCR following RP. While confirmatory studies are needed, these results suggest that use of GC may allow for better selection of men requiring earlier initiation of treatment at the time of BCR.Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Disease advance online publication, 22 October 2013; doi:10.1038/pcan.2013.49.
    Prostate cancer and prostatic diseases 10/2013; · 2.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report the 30-year institutional experience of radical prostatectomy (RP) for men with clinically localized prostate cancer (PC) found to have lymph node (LN) metastases at surgery. The Johns Hopkins RP Database (1982-2011) was queried for 505 (2.5%) men with node-positive (N1) PC. Survival analysis was completed using the Kaplan-Meier method and proportional hazard regression models. The proportion of men with N1PC was 8.3%, 3.5%, and 1.4% in the pre- (1982-1990), early- (1991-2000), and contemporary-PSA eras (2001-2011), respectively. A trend toward decreasing PSA, less palpable disease but more advanced Gleason sum was noted in the most contemporary era. Median total and positive nodes were 13.2 (1-41) and 1.7 (1-12), respectively. Of 135 patients with a unilateral tumor, 80 (59.3%), 28 (20.7%), and 15 (11.1%) had ipsilateral, contralateral, and bilateral positive LN. 15-year biochemical-recurrence free, metastases-free and cancer-specific survival was 7.1%, 41.5%, and 57.5%, respectively. Predictors of biochemical-recurrence, metastases and death from PC in multivariate analysis included Gleason sum at RP, the number and percent of positive LN; notably total number of LN dissected did not predict outcome. In this highly-selected RP cohort, men found to have N1PC disease at RP can experience a durable long-term metastases-free and cancer-specific survival. Predictors of survival include Gleason sum, number, and percentage of positive LN. While total number of LN dissected was not predictive, approximately 30% of men with N1PC will have positive LN contralateral to the primary prostatic lesion highlighting the importance of a thorough, bilateral pelvic LN dissection. Prostate © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    The Prostate 09/2013; · 3.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: WHAT'S KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT? AND WHAT DOES THE STUDY ADD?: Standard clinical care pathways to discharge have been established for a number of operations including radical prostatectomy (RP). The pathway after RP has changed dramatically over the past two decades due to improvements in surgical technique, anaesthesia and most recently, the introduction of minimally invasive RP (MIRP). This study adds evidence that the emergence of MIRP is associated with a decrease in LOS for all patients undergoing RP. In addition, it catalogues the development of the clinical care pathway over 20 years at a large, tertiary care hospital with extensive experience in RP. Finally, it defines the common reasons patients fall 'off-pathway' (ileus, urine leak, anaemia and re-exploration for bleeding) and defines the immediate perioperative morbidity profile of RP. Specifically, it addresses approach-specific morbidities and indicates that MIRP is associated with higher rates of 'off-pathway' discharge, most often due to ileus. To investigate the development of the clinical care pathway to discharge after radical prostatectomy (RP) at a large, academic medical centre over the past 20 years, focusing on the rates and reasons for deviation. In all, 18 049 men were identified from the Johns Hopkins RP database who had undergone surgery since 1991. Patients in whom the length of stay (LOS) was ≤95th percentile, defined the clinical care pathway to discharge and those in whom LOS was ≥98th percentile were termed 'off-pathway'. The mean LOS decreased from 7.7 days in 1991 to 1.6 days in 2010. Of 7126 patients undergoing RP since 2005, 1803(25.3%), 4881(68.5%) and 312 (4.4%) were discharged on postoperative day (POD) 1, 2 and 3, respectively; 126 (1.8%) patients, discharged on POD4-21 were 'off-pathway'. The most common reasons for delay of discharge were ileus (44, 0.615%), urine leak (12, 0.17%), anaemia requiring blood transfusion (nine, 0.126%) and bleeding requiring re-exploration (six, 0.08%). The proportion of patients 'off-pathway' was 1.20%, 1.06% and 4.01% for retropubic RP (RRP), laparoscopic RP (LRP) and robot-assisted laparoscopic RP (RALRP), respectively (P < 0.001). Ileus delayed discharge in 0.28%, 0.37% and 1.9% of patients undergoing RRP, LRP and RALRP, respectively (P < 0.001). The clinical care pathway to discharge after RP has changed dramatically at our institution over the past 20 years. RALRP appears to result in a higher proportion of 'off-pathway' patients, primarily due to ileus, compared with RRP and LRP. However, very few patients were discharged 'off-pathway'.
    BJU International 07/2013; 112(1):45-53. · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSEActive surveillance (AS) is a treatment option for men with very low-risk prostate cancer (PCa); however, favorable outcomes achieved for men in AS are based on cohorts that under-represent African American (AA) men. To explore whether race-based health disparities exist among men with very low-risk PCa, we evaluated oncologic outcomes of AA men with very low-risk PCa who were candidates for AS but elected to undergo radical prostatectomy (RP). PATIENTS AND METHODS We studied 1,801 men (256 AA, 1,473 white men, and 72 others) who met National Comprehensive Cancer Network criteria for very low-risk PCa and underwent RP. Presenting characteristics, pathologic data, and cancer recurrence were compared among the groups. Multivariable modeling was performed to assess the association of race with upgrading and adverse pathologic features.ResultsAA men with very low-risk PCa had more adverse pathologic features at RP and poorer oncologic outcomes. AA men were more likely to experience disease upgrading at prostatectomy (27.3% v 14.4%; P < .001), positive surgical margins (9.8% v 5.9%; P = .02), and higher Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment Post-Surgical scoring system (CAPRA-S) scores. On multivariable analysis, AA race was an independent predictor of adverse pathologic features (odds ratio, [OR], 3.23; P = .03) and pathologic upgrading (OR, 2.26; P = .03). CONCLUSIONAA men with very low-risk PCa who meet criteria for AS but undergo immediate surgery experience significantly higher rates of upgrading and adverse pathology than do white men and men of other races. AA men with very low-risk PCa should be counseled about increased oncologic risk when deciding among their disease management options.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 06/2013; · 18.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Among men with very-low-risk prostate cancer (PCa) at biopsy, recent evidence has shown that African American men (AA) are at greater risk for adverse oncologic outcomes after radical prostatectomy (RP). We studied RP specimens from very-low-risk AA and Caucasian men to determine if there were systematic pathological differences. MATERIALS AND METHODS: RP specimens were evaluated for men with National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) very-low-risk PCa. All men underwent extended biopsy sampling at diagnosis (≥10 cores) and were treated in the modern Gleason grading era. Tumor volumes, grades, and locations in 87 AA and 89 Caucasians were analyzed. For each specimen, the dominant nodule was defined as the largest tumor with highest grade. RESULTS: Compared to Caucasians, AA men were more likely to have significant PCa (61% vs 29%, p<0.001); Gleason ≥7 (37% vs 11%, p<0.001) and volume >0.5cm(3) (45% vs 21%, p=0.001). Dominant nodules in AA men were larger (median 0.28 cm(3) vs 0.13 cm(3), p=0.002) and more often anterior (51% vs 29%, p=0.003). Among men who underwent pathologic upgrading, the dominant nodule was also anterior more frequently in AA than in Caucasians (59% vs 0%, p=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: AA men with very-low-risk PCa at diagnosis have a significantly higher prevalence of anteriorly-located cancer foci that are of higher grade and larger volume. Enhanced imaging or anterior zone sampling may detect these significant, anterior tumors, thereby improving outcomes of AA men considering active surveillance.
    The Journal of urology 06/2013; · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Outcomes for poor-risk localized prostate cancers treated with radiation are still insufficient. Targeting the "non-oncogene" addiction or stress response machinery is an appealing strategy for cancer therapeutics. Heat-shock-protein-90 (Hsp90), an integral member of this machinery, is a molecular chaperone required for energy-driven stabilization and selective degradation of misfolded "client" proteins that is commonly overexpressed in tumor cells. Hsp90 client proteins include critical components of pathways implicated in prostate cancer cell survival and radioresistance, such as androgen receptor signaling and the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway. We examined the effects of a novel non-geldanamycin Hsp90 inhibitor, AUY922, combined with radiation (RT) on two prostate cancer cell lines, Myc-CaP and PC3, using in vitro assays for clonogenic survival, apoptosis, cell cycle distribution, γ-H2AX foci kinetics and client protein expression in pathways important for prostate cancer survival and radioresistance. We then evaluated tumor growth delay and effects of the combined treatment (RT-AUY922) on the PI3K-Akt-mTOR and AR pathways in a hind-flank tumor graft model. We observed that AUY922 caused supra-additive radiosensitization in both cell lines at low nanomolar doses with enhancement ratios between 1.4-1.7 (p < 0.01). RT-AUY922 increased apoptotic cell death compared with either therapy alone, induced G 2-M arrest and produced marked changes in client protein expression. These results were confirmed in vivo, where RT-AUY922 combination therapy produced supra-additive tumor growth delay compared with either therapy by itself in Myc-CaP and PC3 tumor grafts (both p < 0.0001). Our data suggest that combined RT-AUY922 therapy exhibits promising activity against prostate cancer cells, which should be investigated in clinical studies.
    Cancer biology & therapy 01/2013; 14(4). · 3.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: WHAT'S KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT? AND WHAT DOES THE STUDY ADD?: The ideal treatment for men with high-risk prostate cancer is controversial, although most physicians agree that a multimodal approach, including radiation and hormone therapy with or without surgery, offers the best chance of cancer control. Minimally-invasive radical prostatectomy has emerged as a treatment option for clinically localized cancer; however, critics argue that the open approach may afford advantages of tactile feedback and a better lymph node dissection. The present study demonstrates that open and minimally-invasive radical prostatectomy offer equivalent short-term outcomes for men with high-risk prostate cancer at a highly experienced centre. OBJECTIVES: To analyze pathological and short-term oncological outcomes in men undergoing open and minimally-invasive radical prostatectomy (MIRP) for high-risk prostate cancer (HRPC; prostate-specific antigen level [PSA] >20 ng/mL, ≥ cT2c, Gleason score 8-10) in a contemporaneous series. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In total, 913 patients with HRPC were identified in the Johns Hopkins Radical Prostatectomy Database subsequent to the inception of MIRP at this institution (2002-2011) Of these, 743 (81.4%) underwent open radical retropubic prostatectomy (ORRP), 105 (11.5%) underwent robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALRP) and 65 (7.1%) underwent laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP) for HRPC. Appropriate comparative tests were used to evaluate patient and prostate cancer characteristics. Proportional hazards regression models were used to predict biochemical recurrence. RESULTS: Age, race, body mass index, preoperative PSA level, clinical stage, number of positive cores and Gleason score at final pathology were similar between ORRP and MIRP. On average, men undergoing MIRP had smaller prostates and more organ-confined (pT2) disease (P = 0.02). The number of surgeons and surgeon experience were greatest for the ORRP cohort. Overall surgical margin rate was 29.4%, 34.3% and 27.7% (P = 0.52) and 1.9%, 2.9% and 6.2% (P = 0.39) for pT2 disease in men undergoing ORRP, RALRP and LRP, respectively. Biochemical recurrence-free survival among ORRP, RALRP and LRP was 56.3%, 67.8% and 41.1%, respectively, at 3 years (P = 0.6) and the approach employed did not predict biochemical recurrence in regression models. CONCLUSIONS: At an experienced centre, MIRP is comparable to open radical prostatectomy for HRPC with respect to surgical margin status and biochemical recurrence.
    BJU International 01/2013; · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Among Medicare participants, we recently reported an increasing risk over time of hospitalization following an initial prostate biopsy. Less is known about the relative risks of repeat prostate biopsies, which are frequently performed in prostate cancer screening and in active surveillance programs. Our goal was to determine whether repeat biopsies are associated with an increased risk of hospitalization compared to initial biopsy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER)-linked Medicare data from 1991 to 2007, we identified 13,883 men who underwent a single prostate biopsy and 3640 with multiple biopsies. 30-day hospitalization rates were compared between these groups, and with a randomly selected control population (n=134,977). ICD-9 codes were then used to examine the frequency of serious infectious and non-infectious urological complications as the primary diagnosis for admissions. RESULTS: Both initial and repeat biopsies were associated with a significantly increased risk of hospitalization within a 30 day period compared to randomly selected controls (p<0.0001). However, the repeat biopsy session was not associated with a greater risk of infectious (OR 0.81, 95% 0.49-1.32, p=0.39) or serious non-infectious urological complications (OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.54-1.62, p=0.82) compared to the initial biopsy procedure. CONCLUSIONS: Each biopsy procedure is associated with significant risk of complications compared to randomly selected controls. However, the repeat biopsy procedure itself was not associated with a greater risk of serious complications requiring hospital admission compared to the initial biopsy.
    The Journal of urology 10/2012; · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death among United States men. However, disease aggressiveness is varied, with low-grade disease often being indolent and high-grade cancer accounting for the greatest density of deaths. Outcomes are also disparate among men with high-grade prostate cancer, with upwards of 65% having disease recurrence even after primary treatment. Identification of men at risk for recurrence and elucidation of the molecular processes that drive their disease is paramount, as these men are the most likely to benefit from multimodal therapy. We previously showed that androgen-induced expression profiles in prostate development are reactivated in aggressive prostate cancers. Herein, we report the down-regulation of one such gene, Sparcl1, a secreted protein, acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) family matricellular protein, during invasive phases of prostate development and regeneration. We further demonstrate a parallel process in prostate cancer, with decreased expression of SPARCL1 in high-grade/metastatic prostate cancer. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that SPARCL1 loss increases the migratory and invasive properties of prostate cancer cells through Ras homolog gene family, member C (RHOC), a known mediator of metastatic progression. By using models incorporating clinicopathologic parameters to predict prostate cancer recurrence after treatment, we show that SPARCL1 loss is a significant, independent prognostic marker of disease progression. Thus, SPARCL1 is a potent regulator of cell migration/invasion and its loss is independently associated with prostate cancer recurrence.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 09/2012; 109(37):14977-14982. · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Androgens initiate a complex network of signals within the UGS that trigger prostate lineage commitment and bud formation. Given its contributions to organogenesis in other systems, we investigated a role for canonical Wnt signaling in prostate development. We developed a new method to achieve complete deletion of beta-catenin, the transcriptional coactivator required for canonical Wnt signaling, in early prostate development. Beta-catenin deletion abrogated canonical Wnt signaling and yielded prostate rudiments that exhibited dramatically decreased budding and failed to adopt prostatic identity. This requirement for canonical Wnt signaling was limited to a brief critical period during the initial molecular phase of prostate identity specification. Deletion of beta-catenin in the adult prostate did not significantly affect organ homeostasis. Collectively, these data establish that beta-catenin and Wnt signaling play key roles in prostate lineage specification and bud outgrowth.
    Developmental Biology 08/2012; 371(2):246-55. · 3.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer is one of the most common malignancies and the second leading cause of death from cancer in men. The molecular mechanisms driving prostate carcinogenesis are complex; with several lines of evidence suggesting that the reexpression of conserved developmental programs plays a key role. In this study, we used conditional gene targeting and organ grafting, to describe conserved roles for the transcription factor Sox9 in the initiation of both prostate organogenesis and prostate carcinogenesis in murine models. Abrogation of Sox9 expression prior to the initiation of androgen signaling blocks the initiation of prostate development. Similarly, Sox9 deletion in two genetic models of prostate cancer (TRAMP and Hi-Myc) prevented cancer initiation. Expression profiling of Sox9-null prostate epithelial cells revealed that the role of Sox9 in the initiation of prostate development may relate to its regulation of multiple cytokeratins and cell adherence/ polarity. Due to its essential role in cancer initiation, manipulation of Sox9 targets in at-risk men may prove useful in the chemoprevention of prostate cancer.
    Oncotarget 07/2012; 3(6):651-63. · 6.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Study Type - Diagnostic (exploratory cohort) Level of Evidence 2b What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Men with high-risk prostate cancer experience recurrence, metastases and death at the highest rate in the prostate cancer population. Pathological stage at radical prostatectomy (RP) is the greatest predictor of recurrence and mortality in men with high-grade disease. Preoperative models predicting outcome after RP are skewed by the large proportion of men with low- and intermediate-risk features; there is a paucity of data about preoperative criteria to identify men with high-grade cancer who may benefit from RP. The present study adds comprehensive biopsy data from a large cohort of men with high-grade prostate cancer at biopsy. By adding biopsy parameters, e.g. number of high-grade cores and >50% involvement of any core, to traditional predictors of outcome (prostate-specific antigen concentration, clinical stage and Gleason sum), we can better inform men who present with high-grade prostate cancer as to their risk of favourable or unfavourable disease at RP. •  To investigate preoperative characteristics that distinguish favourable and unfavourable pathological and clinical outcomes in men with high biopsy Gleason sum (8-10) prostate cancer to better select men who will most benefit from radical prostatectomy (RP). •  The Institutional Review Board-approved institutional RP database (1982-2010) was analysed for men with high-Gleason prostate cancer on biopsy; 842 men were identified. •  The 10-year biochemical-free (BFS), metastasis-free (MFS) and prostate cancer-specific survival (CSS) were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method to verify favourable pathology as men with Gleason <8 at RP or ≤ pT3a compared with men with unfavourable pathology with Gleason 8-10 and pT3b or N1. •  Preoperative characteristics were compared using appropriate comparative tests. •  Logistic regression determined preoperative predictors of unfavourable pathology. •  There was favourable pathology in 656 (77.9%) men. The 10-year BFS, MFS and CSS were 31.0%, 60.9% and 74.8%, respectively. •  In contrast, men with unfavourable pathological findings had significantly worse 10-year BFS, MFS and CSS, at 4.3%, 29.1% and 52.3%, respectively (all P < 0.001). •  In multivariable logistic regression, a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration of >10 ng/mL (odds ratio [OR] 2.24, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.38-3.62, P= 0.001), advanced clinical stage (≥ cT2b; OR 2.55, 95% CI 1.55-4.21, P < 0.001), Gleason pattern 9 or 10 at biopsy (OR 2.55, 95% CI 1.59-4.09, P < 0.001), increasing number of cores positive with high-grade cancer (OR 1.16, 95% CI 1.01-1.34, P= 0.04) and >50% positive core involvement (OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.17-4.35, P= 0.015) were predictive of unfavourable pathology. •  Men with high-Gleason sum at biopsy are at high risk for biochemical recurrence, metastasis and death after RP; men with high Gleason sum and advanced pathological stage (pT3b or N1) have the worst prognosis. •  Among men with high-Gleason sum at biopsy, a PSA concentration of >10 ng/mL, clinical stage ≥ T2b, Gleason pattern 9 or 10, increasing number of cores with high-grade cancer and >50% core involvement are predictive of unfavourable pathology.
    BJU International 02/2012; 110(8):1122-8. · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? With the present study, we aimed to provide a global picture of the molecular processes that are activated by CN injury. The present study used genomic expression profiling to identify candidate genes that might be useful targets in the CN recovery process and, thus, the ultimate preservation of penile erection. Regeneration of the CN and axonal outgrowth clearly involve changes in multiple biochemical pathways that have never been investigated by microarray analysis. We analyzed global gene expression in the major pelvic ganglion at early stages (48 h and 14 days) after CN injury and focused on the detection of changes in genes related to nervous tissue repair and proliferation. The findings of the present study provide important insight into the molecular systems affected by CN injury and identify candidate genes that may be utilized for novel molecular-based therapies for the preservation and protection of the CN during RP. To to examine the complexity of the many molecular systems involved in supporting cavernous nerve (CN) repair and regeneration in a rat model of bilateral crush injury utilizing a microarray analysis approach. Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common clinical complication after prostate cancer treatment by radical prostatectomy, and recovery of erectile function can take as long as 2 years. There are gaps in our understanding of the autonomic pelvic innervation of the penis that still need to be addressed for the development of an adequate treatment strategy for post-prostatectomy ED. The molecular mechanisms of the intrinsic ability of CN to regenerate after an injury have not been elucidated. We analyzed global gene expression in the major pelvic ganglion 48 h and 14 days after CN injury. Overall, a comparative analysis showed that 325 genes changed at the 48-h time point and 114 genes changed at 14 days. There were 60 changed genes in common with both time points. Using the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis® system (Ingenuity Systems, Inc., Redwood City, CA, USA), we were able to analyze the significantly changed genes that were unique and common to each time point by biological function. We focused on the detection of changes related to nervous tissue repair and proliferation, molecular networks of neurotrophic factors, stem cell regulation and synaptic transmission. There was strong evidence of the early mobilization of genes involved in repair and neuroprotection mechanisms (SERPINF1, IGF1, PLAU/PLAUR, ARG1). Genes related to nervous system development (ATF3 GJA1, PLAU, SERPINE1), nerve regeneration (SERPINE2, IGF1, ATF3, ARG1) and synaptic transmission (GJC1, GAL) were changed. Several genes related to proliferation as well as apoptosis (A2M, ATF3, C3, EGR4, FN1, GJA1, GAL) were also changed, possibly as part of a protective mechanism or the initiation of remodelling. The results obtained show that multiple biological processes are associated with injury and repair of the CN and provide a systematic genome-wide screen for neurotrophic and/or inhibitory pathways of nerve regeneration. These data identify the candidate genes that may be utilized in novel molecular-based therapies for the preservation and protection of the CN during radical prostatectomy.
    BJU International 02/2012; 109(10):1552-64. · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Finasteride (Proscar) and dutasteride (Avodart) are 5-α reductase inhibitors (5-ARIs) used to treat LUTS in men with benign prostatic enlargement. Because these drugs suppress androgens, the theory has been put forward that 5-ARIs might prevent the development of prostate cancer. Careful analysis of two randomized controlled trials, however, showed that, in the clinical setting, this was not the case, and that these drugs can increase the occurrence of more aggressive high-grade disease. Because of this, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration did not approve 5-ARIs for the primary prevention of prostate cancer and notified healthcare professionals about a change in the 'Warnings and Precautions' for these drugs. Interest remains among some for using 5-ARIs in men diagnosed with very low-risk prostate cancer to delay the progression from clinically indolent disease to clinically significant disease requiring treatment. The present study investigated whether 5-ARI use among men with very low-risk prostate cancer in an active surveillance (AS) programme would reduce the number of cancers reclassified to clinically significant disease on surveillance biopsy. Our results do not support the use of 5-ARIs for slowing or preventing cancer progression in men with low-risk prostate cancer, but do suggest that men with very low-risk prostate cancer who take 5-ARIs for LUTS are unlikely to be at increased risk for the development of high grade disease during AS. To determine whether 5-α reductase inhibitor (5-ARI) use delays cancer reclassification in an active surveillance (AS) cohort. We performed a retrospective study of 587 men enrolled in an AS programme, who had no history of 5-ARI use. Chi-squared and t-tests were used to compare characteristics of 5-ARI users and non-users. Univariable and multivariable proportional hazards models, treating 5-ARI use as a time-dependent covariate, were used to evaluate the influence of 5-ARIs on the risk of a subsequent biopsy no longer meeting criteria for continued AS (i.e. reclassification). 5-ARI use was initiated in 47 men while on AS. Men using 5-ARIs had larger prostates and higher PSA levels at diagnosis. During 5-ARI use, PSA levels and prostate volume deceased by mean values of 47% and 11%, respectively. Men using 5-ARIs had a mean of 2.5 surveillance biopsies while on the drug. Reclassification occurred in 17% of 5-ARI users compared with 31% of non-users (P = 0.04). Multivariable models (adjusting for age, α-blocker use, PSA level, %free PSA, PSA density, prostate volume and number/percent biopsy core involvement at diagnosis) showed nonsignificant risk reductions for reclassification in 5-ARI users as determined by either tumour extent (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.37 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.12 to 1.13), P = 0.08) or grade (HR = 0.8 (95% CI 0.25-2.59), P = 0.7). Treatment with 5-ARIs did not significantly alter the outcome of biopsy reclassification by grade in men with very low-risk prostate cancer.
    BJU International 01/2012; 110(5):651-7. · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The optimal management strategy for men with newly diagnosed clinically localized prostate cancer remains a matter of debate. Numerous series have reported cancer control and quality-of-life (QoL) outcomes following treatment with radical prostatectomy (RP). Critically review published oncologic and functional outcomes after RP, and evaluate factors associated with these outcome measures. A review of the literature was performed using the Medline and Web of Sciences databases. Relevant reports published between 1980 and 2011 identified using the keywords prostate cancer, radical prostatectomy, prostate-specific antigen, biochemical recurrence, incontinence, and erectile dysfunction were reviewed and summarized. Cancer control rates following RP largely depend on the definition of treatment efficacy. While up to 40% of men have been reported to experience postoperative biochemical recurrence on long-term follow-up, death from prostate cancer has been noted in <10% of men at 15 yr after surgery in contemporary series. For men with high-risk disease, surgery affords pathologic staging, thereby facilitating the selective application of secondary therapies, and has been associated with decreased mortality risk versus radiation in retrospective series. Reported functional outcomes after surgery, particularly urinary continence and erectile dysfunction, have varied greatly to date. These assessments have been limited by nonstandardized reporting methodology. The use of robot-assisted radical prostatectomy has increased in recent years, and while follow-up is thus far short, available data do not suggest the superiority of either approach in terms of functional or oncologic outcomes. RP is associated with excellent long-term cancer control. Continued efforts to conduct prospective assessments of postoperative functional outcomes are necessary using validated QoL instruments. The importance of surgical approach will also require further study, incorporating comparative oncologic, functional, and economic data.
    European Urology 12/2011; 61(4):664-75. · 10.48 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

805 Citations
355.18 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2008–2014
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • • Department of Pathology
      • • Department of Medicine
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2003–2014
    • Johns Hopkins Medicine
      • Department of Urology
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2012
    • CUNY Graduate Center
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2010
    • Northwestern University
      • Department of Urology
      Evanston, IL, United States