[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia corresponds to a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders that primarily affect the cerebellum. Here, we report the identification of the causative gene in spinocerebellar ataxia 21, an autosomal-dominant disorder previously mapped to chromosome 7p21.3-p15.1. This ataxia was firstly characterized in a large French family with slowly progressive cerebellar ataxia, accompanied by severe cognitive impairment and mental retardation in two young children. Following the recruitment of 12 additional young family members, linkage analysis enabled us to definitively map the disease locus to chromosome 1p36.33-p36.32. The causative mutation, (c.509C>T/p.P170L) in the transmembrane protein gene TMEM240, was identified by whole exome sequencing and then was confirmed by Sanger sequencing and co-segregation analyses. Index cases from 368 French families with autosomal-dominant cerebellar ataxia were also screened for mutations. In seven cases, we identified a range of missense mutations (c.509C>T/p.P170L, c.239C>T/p.T80M, c.346C>T/p.R116C, c.445G>A/p.E149K, c.511C>T/p.R171W), and a stop mutation (c.489C>G/p.Y163*) in the same gene. TMEM240 is a small, strongly conserved transmembrane protein of unknown function present in cerebellum and brain. Spinocerebellar ataxia 21 may be a particular early-onset disease associated with severe cognitive impairment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: WFS1 mutations are responsible for Wolfram syndrome (WS) characterized by juvenile-onset diabetes mellitus and optic atrophy, and for low-frequency sensorineural hearing loss (LFSNHL). Our aim was to analyse the French cohort of 96 patients with WFS1-related disorders in order (i) to update clinical and molecular data with 37 novel affected individuals, (ii) to described uncommon phenotypes and, (iii) to precise the frequency of large-scale rearrangements in WFS1. We performed quantitative PCR in 13 patients, carrying only one heterozygous variant, to identify large-scale rearrangements in WFS1. Among the 37 novel patients, 15 carried 15 novel deleterious putative mutations, including one large deletion of 17444 base pairs. The analysis of the cohort revealed unexpected phenotypes including (i) late-onset symptoms in 13.8% of patients with a probable autosomal recessive transmission; (ii) 2 siblings with recessive optic atrophy without diabetes mellitus and, (iii) 6 patients from 4 families with dominantly-inherited deafness and optic atrophy. We highlight the expanding spectrum of WFS1-related disorders and we show that, even if large deletions are rare events, they have to be searched in patients with classical WS carrying only one WFS1 mutation after sequencing.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The most common spinocerebellar ataxias (SCA)-SCA1, SCA2, SCA3, and SCA6-are caused by (CAG)n repeat expansion. While the number of repeats of the coding (CAG)n expansions is correlated with the age at onset, there are no appropriate models that include both affected and preclinical carriers allowing for the prediction of age at onset.
We combined data from two major European cohorts of SCA1, SCA2, SCA3, and SCA6 mutation carriers: 1187 affected individuals from the EUROSCA registry and 123 preclinical individuals from the RISCA cohort. For each SCA genotype, a regression model was fitted using a log-normal distribution for age at onset with the repeat length of the alleles as covariates. From these models, we calculated expected age at onset from birth and conditionally that this age is greater than the current age.
For SCA2 and SCA3 genotypes, the expanded allele was a significant predictor of age at onset (-0.105±0.005 and -0.056±0.003) while for SCA1 and SCA6 genotypes both the size of the expanded and normal alleles were significant (expanded: -0.049±0.002 and -0.090±0.009, respectively; normal: +0.013±0.005 and -0.029±0.010, respectively). According to the model, we indicated the median values (90% critical region) and the expectancy (SD) of the predicted age at onset for each SCA genotype according to the CAG repeat size and current age.
These estimations can be valuable in clinical and research. However, results need to be confirmed in other independent cohorts and in future longitudinal studies.
NCT01037777 and NCT00136630 for the French patients.
Journal of Medical Genetics 04/2014; · 5.70 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Huntington's disease (HD) is a rare multi-factorial neurodegenerative disease. Both its natural course and any placebo effect are poorly known. All are obstacles to design randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We conducted meta-analyses of RCTs and cohorts on all parameters of the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale to determine the most appropriate outcomes and to minimize the number of patients required to design RCTs in HD.Twenty-four RCTs were included, involving 838 patients with a mean age of 50.0 ± 2.3 years and a mean Total Functional Capacity (TFC) score of 9.8 ± 0.6. Nineteen cohorts were included involving 1939 patients with a mean age of 48.9 ± 2.3 years and a mean TFC of 10.1 ± 0.7.Significant deterioration was observed in RCTs for all scores except behavioral score. Effect sizes were comparable between RCTs and cohorts for each test except that there was a significant difference for TFC. The weighted mean deterioration per year on the TFC scale was -0.5 (0.2) in RCTs and -0.8 (0.2) in cohorts. The lowest number of patients required per group in a RCT was for TFC (19 per group), whereas 30 patients would be required per group for the Total Motor Score (TMS). For cognition, the Verbal Fluency test required the smallest number of patients: 104 per group.In conclusion, TMS and TFC are the most appropriate outcomes to design RCTs on HD likewise the Verbal Fluency test for cognition. Our results suggest an effect of placebo administration on the Total Functional Capacity.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology 04/2014; · 1.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: Huntington's disease is a rare condition. Patients are commonly treated with antipsychotics and tetrabenazine. The evidence of their effect on disease progression is limited and no comparative study between these drugs has been conducted. We therefore compared the effectiveness of antipsychotics on disease progression. Methods: 956 patients from the Huntington French Speaking Group were followed for up to 8 years between 2002 and 2010. The effectiveness of treatments was assessed using Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS) scores and then compared using a mixed model adjusted on a multiple propensity score. Results: 63% of patients were treated with antipsychotics during the survey period. The most commonly prescribed medications were dibenzodiazepines (38%), risperidone (13%), tetrabenazine (12%) and benzamides (12%). There was no difference between treatments on the motor and behavioural declines observed, after taking the patient profiles at the start of the drug prescription into account. In contrast, the functional decline was lower in the dibenzodiazepine group than the other antipsychotic groups (Total Functional Capacity: 0.41±0.17 units per year vs. risperidone and 0.54±0.19 vs. tetrabenazine, both p<0.05). Benzamides were less effective than other antipsychotics on cognitive evolution (Stroop interference, Stroop color and Literal fluency: p<0.05). Conclusions: Antipsychotics are widely used to treat patients with Huntington's disease. Although differences in motor or behavioural profiles between patients according to the antipsychotics used were small, there were differences in drug effectiveness on the evolution of functional and cognitive scores.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e85430. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia 2 (ARCA2) is a recently identified recessive ataxia due to ubiquinone deficiency and biallelic mutations in the ADCK3 gene. The phenotype of the twenty-one patients reported worldwide varies greatly. Thus, it is difficult to decide which ataxic patients are good candidates for ADCK3 screening without evidence of ubiquinone deficiency. We report here the clinical and molecular data of 10 newly diagnosed patients from seven families and update the disease history of four additional patients reported in previous articles to delineate the clinical spectrum of ARCA2 phenotype and to provide a guide to the molecular diagnosis. First signs occurred before adulthood in all 14 patients. Cerebellar atrophy appeared in all instances. The progressivity and severity of ataxia varied greatly, but no patients had the typical inexorable ataxic course that characterizes other childhood-onset recessive ataxias. The ataxia was frequently associated with other neurological signs. Importantly, stroke-like episodes contributed to significant deterioration of the neurological status in two patients. Ubidecarenone therapy markedly improved the movement disorders, including ataxia, in two other patients. The 7 novel ADCK3 mutations found in the 10 new patients were two missense and five truncating mutations. There was no apparent correlation between the genotype and the phenotype. Our series reveals that the clinical spectrum of ARCA2 encompasses a range of ataxic phenotypes. On one end, it may manifest as a pure ataxia with very slow progressivity and, on the other end, as a severe infantile encephalopathy with cerebellar atrophy. The phenotype of most patients, however, lies in between. It is characterized by a very slowly progressive or apparently stable ataxia associated with other signs of central nervous system involvement. We suggest undergoing the molecular analysis of ADCK3 in patients with this phenotype and in those with cerebellar atrophy and a stroke-like episode. The diagnosis of patients with a severe ARCA2 phenotype may also be performed on the basis of biological data, i.e. low ubiquinone level or functional evidence of ubiquinone deficiency. This diagnosis is crucial since the neurological status of some patients may be improved by ubiquinone therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSPs) form a heterogeneous group of neurological disorders. A whole-genome linkage mapping effort was made with three HSP-affected families from Spain, Portugal, and Tunisia and it allowed us to reduce the SPG26 locus interval from 34 to 9 Mb. Subsequently, a targeted capture was made to sequence the entire exome of affected individuals from these three families, as well as from two additional autosomal-recessive HSP-affected families of German and Brazilian origins. Five homozygous truncating (n ¼ 3) and missense (n ¼ 2) mutations were identified in B4GALNT1. After this finding, we analyzed the entire coding region of this gene in 65 additional cases, and three mutations were identified in two subjects. All mutated cases presented an early-onset spastic paraplegia, with frequent intellectual disability, cerebellar ataxia, and peripheral neuropathy as well as cortical atrophy and white matter hyperin-tensities on brain imaging. B4GALNT1 encodes b-1,4-N-acetyl-galactosaminyl transferase 1 (B4GALNT1), involved in ganglioside biosynthesis. These findings confirm the increasing interest of lipid metabolism in HSPs. Interestingly, although the catabolism of gan-gliosides is implicated in a variety of neurological diseases, SPG26 is only the second human disease involving defects of their biosyn-thesis. Hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSPs) constitute a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative conditions. They are characterized by a slowly progressive spasticity of the lower extremities resulting from the axonal degeneration and/or dysfunction observed in long axons of the corticospinal tracts. 1,2 HSPs are classified according to the following criteria: (1) absence (uncompli-cated or pure HSP) or presence (complicated or complex HSP) of additional neurological signs and symptoms, including intellectual disability, cerebellar ataxia, periph-eral neuropathy, retinopathy, cataract, epilepsy, and ich-thyosis; and (2) mode of inheritance in the case of familial forms, which can be autosomal-dominant, autosomal-recessive (AR), mitochondrial, or X-linked. 3 To date, more than 55 HSP loci (denoted SPG) have been mapped. Among them, mutations have been found in ~33 genes; the proteins encoded by these genes are often involved
The American Journal of Human Genetics 06/2013; · 11.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Habitual consumption of caffeine, a non-selective adenosine receptors (ARs) antagonist, has been suggested to be beneficial in Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. Experimental evidence support that ARs play a role in Huntington's disease (HD) raising the hypothesis that caffeine may be a life-style modifier in HD. To determine a possible relationship between caffeine consumption and age at onset (AAO) in HD, we retrospectively assessed caffeine consumption in 80 HD patients using a dietary survey and determined relationship with AAO. Following adjustment for gender, smoking status and CAG repeat length, caffeine consumption greater than 190 mg/day was significantly associated with an earlier AAO. These data support an association between habitual caffeine intake and AAO in HD patients, but further studies are warranted to understand the link between these variables.
Neurobiology of Disease 05/2013; · 5.62 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Early onset epileptic encephalopathies (EOEEs) are dramatic heterogeneous conditions in which aetiology, seizures and/or interictal EEG have a negative impact on neurological development. Several genes have been associated with EOEE and a molecular diagnosis workup is challenging since similar phenotypes are associated with mutations in different genes and since mutations in one given gene can be associated with very different phenotypes. Recently, de novo mutations in KCNQ2, have been found mutated in about 10% of EOEE patients. Our objective was to confirm that KCNQ2 was an important gene to include in the diagnosis workup of EOEEs and to fully describe the clinical and EEG features of mutated patients. METHODS: We have screened KCNQ2 in a cohort of 71 patients with an EOEE, without any brain structural abnormality. To be included in the cohort, patient's epilepsy should begin before three months of age and be associated with abnormal interictal EEG and neurological impairment. Brain MRI should not show any structural abnormality that could account for the epilepsy. RESULTS: Out of those 71 patients, 16 had a de novo mutation in KCNQ2 (23%). Interestingly, in the majority of the cases, the initial epileptic features of these patients were comparable to those previously described in the case of benign familial neonatal epilepsy (BFNE) also caused by KCNQ2 mutations. However, in contrast to BFNE, the interictal background EEG was altered and displayed multifocal spikes or a suppression-burst pattern. The ongoing epilepsy and development were highly variable but overall severe: 15/16 had obvious cognitive impairment, half of the patients became seizure-free, 5/16 could walk before the age of 3 and only 2/16 patient acquired the ability to speak. CONCLUSION: This study confirms that KCNQ2 is frequently mutated in neonatal onset epileptic encephalopathy. We show here that despite a relatively stereotyped beginning of the condition, the evolution is highly variable in terms of epilepsy and of cognitive evolution.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) are autosomal, dominantly inherited, fully penetrant neurodegenerative diseases. Our aim was to study the preclinical stage of the most common SCAs: SCA1, SCA2, SCA3, and SCA6. METHODS: Between Sept 13, 2008, and Dec 1, 2011, offspring or siblings of patients with SCA1, SCA2, SCA3, or SCA6 were enrolled into a prospective, longitudinal observational study at 14 European centres. To be eligible for inclusion in our study, individuals had to have no ataxia and be aged 18-50 years if directly related to individuals with SCA1, SCA2, or SCA3, or 35-70 years if directly related to individuals with SCA6. We did anonymous genetic testing to identify mutation carriers. We assessed participants with clinical scales, questionnaires, and performance-based coordination tests. In eight of the 14 centres, participants underwent MRI. We analysed relations between outcome variables and time from onset (defined as the difference between present age and estimated age at ataxia onset). This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01037777. FINDINGS: 276 participants met inclusion criteria and agreed to participate, of whom 12 (4%) were excluded from final analysis because DNA samples were missing or genotyping failed. Estimated time from onset was -9 years (IQR -13 to -6) in 50 carriers of the SCA1 mutation, -12 years (-15 to -9) in 31 SCA2 mutation carriers, -8 years (-11 to -6) in 26 SCA3 mutation carriers, and -18 years (-22 to -16) in 16 SCA6 mutation carriers. Compared with non-carriers of each mutation, SCA1 mutation carriers had higher median scores on the scale for the assessment and rating of ataxia (SARA; 0·5 [IQR 0-1·0] vs 0 [0-0]; p=0·0052), as did SCA2 mutation carriers (0·5 [0-2·0] vs 0 [0-0·5]; p=0·0037). SCA2 mutation carriers had lower SCA functional index scores than did non-carriers (-0·43 [-0·91 to -0·07] vs 0·09 [-0·30 to 0·56]; p=0·0007). SCA2 mutation carriers had worse composite cerebellar functional scores than did their non-carrier counterparts (0·915 [0·861-0·959] vs 0·849 [0·764-0·886]; p=0·0039). All other differences between carriers and non-carriers were non-significant. In SCA1 and SCA2 mutation carriers, SARA scores were increased in participants who were closer to the estimated age at onset (SCA1: r=0·36, p=0·0112; SCA2: r=0·50, p=0·0038). 83 individuals (30%) underwent MRI. Voxel-based morphometry showed grey-matter loss in the brainstem and cerebellum in SCA1 and SCA2 mutation carriers, and normalised brainstem volume was lower in SCA2 mutation carriers (median 0·015, range 0·012-0·016) than in non-carriers (0·019, 0·017-0·021; p=0·0107). INTERPRETATION: Preclinical SCA1 and SCA2 mutation carriers seem to have mild coordination deficits and abnormalities in the brain that are more common in carriers who are closer to the estimated onset of ataxia. Individuals in this early disease stage could be targeted in future preventive trials. FUNDING: ERA-Net E-Rare and Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education.
The Lancet Neurology 05/2013; · 23.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clinical experience and prior studies suggest that Huntington disease (HD) patients have low insight into their motor disturbances and poor real-time awareness (concurrent awareness) of chorea. This has been attributed to sensory deficits but, until now, concurrent awareness of choreic movements has not been compared to the degree of insight that presymptomatic carriers of the HD gene and healthy control subjects have into non-pathological involuntary movements. To further investigate loss of insight into motor dysfunction in HD patients, we administered a video-recorded interview and 4 experimental tasks to 68 subjects from the TRACK-HD cohort, including 28 high-functioning patients in early stages of HD, 28 premanifest mutation carriers and 12 controls. All underwent full neurological and neuropsychological evaluations and 3T MRI examinations. Subjects were asked to assess the presence, body location, frequency, practical consequences and probable causes of motor impairments, as well as the presence and body location of involuntary movements during 4 experimental tasks. The accuracy of their judgments, assessed by comparison with objective criteria, was used as a measure of their insight into motor disturbances and of their concurrent awareness of involuntary movements. Insight was poor in early HD patients: motor symptoms were nearly always underestimated. In contrast, concurrent awareness of involuntary movements, although also poor, was essentially indistinguishable across the 3 groups of subjects: non-pathological involuntary movements were as difficult to perceive by controls and premanifest carriers as was chorea for early HD patients. GLM analysis suggested that both concurrent awareness and perception of practical consequences of movement disorder had a positive effect on intellectual insight, and that mental flexibility is involved in concurrent awareness. Our results suggest that low insight into motor dysfunction in early HD, although marginally modulated by cognitive factors, is mainly non-pathological, and parallels a general tendency, shared by healthy subjects, to neglect self-generated involuntary movements in real time. This tendency, combined with the paucity of functional consequences of incipient chorea, could explain the difficulty of its discovery by the patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although ataxia is by definition the prominent symptom of ataxia disorders, there are various neurological signs that may accompany ataxia in affected patients. Reliable and quantitative assessment of these signs is important because they contribute to disability, but may also interfere with ataxia. Therefore we devised the Inventory of Non-Ataxia Signs (INAS), a list of neurological signs that allows determining the presence and severity of non-ataxia signs in a standardized way. INAS underwent a rigorous validation procedure that involved a trial of 140 patients with spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) for testing of inter-rater reliability and another trial of 28 SCA patients to assess short-term intra-rater reliability. In addition, data of the ongoing EUROSCA natural history study were used to determine the reproducibility, responsiveness and validity of INAS. Inter-rater reliability and short-term test-retest reliability was high, both for the total count and for most of the items. However, measures of responsiveness, such as the smallest detectable change and the clinically important change were not satisfactory. In addition, INAS did not differentiate between subjects that were subjectively stable and those that worsened in the 2-year observation period. In summary, INAS and INAS count showed good reproducibility, but unsatisfactory responsiveness. The present analysis and published data from the EUROSCA natural history study suggest that INAS is a valid measure of extracerebellar involvement in progressive ataxia disorders. As such, it is useful as a supplement to the measures of ataxia, but not as a primary outcome measure in future interventional trials.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Fragile X-associated tremor ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) is defined by FMR1 premutation, cerebellar ataxia, intentional tremor, and middle cerebellar peduncle (MCP) hyperintensities. We delineate the clinical, neurophysiologic, and morphologic characteristics of FXTAS. METHODS: Clinical, morphologic (brain MRI, (123)I-ioflupane SPECT), and neurophysiologic (tremor recording, nerve conduction studies) study in 22 patients with FXTAS, including 4 women. RESULTS: A total of 43% of patients had no family history of fragile X syndrome (FXS), which contrasts with previous FXTAS series. A total of 86% of patients had tremor and 81% peripheral neuropathy. We identified 3 electroclinical tremor patterns: essential-like (35%), cerebellar (29%), and parkinsonian (12%). Two electrophysiologic patterns evocative of non-length-dependent (56%) and length-dependent sensory neuropathy (25%) were identified. Corpus callosum splenium (CCS) hyperintensity was as frequent (68%) as MCP hyperintensities (64%). Sixty percent of patients had parkinsonism and 47% abnormal (123)I-ioflupane SPECT. Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale motor score was correlated to abnormal (123)I-ioflupane SPECT (p = 0.02) and to CGG repeat number (p = 0.0004). Scale for the assessment and rating of ataxia correlated with dentate nuclei hyperintensities (p = 0.03) and CCS hyperintensity was a marker of severe disease progression (p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: We recommend to include in the FXTAS testing guidelines both CCS hyperintensity and peripheral neuropathy and to consider them as new major radiologic and minor clinical criterion, respectively, for the diagnosis of FXTAS. FXTAS should also be considered in women or when tremor, MCP hyperintensities, or family history of FXS are lacking. Our study broadens the spectrum of tremor, peripheral neuropathy, and MRI abnormalities in FXTAS, hence revealing the need for revised criteria.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations in the spastic paraplegia 7 (SPG7) gene encoding paraplegin are responsible for autosomal recessive hereditary spasticity. We screened 135 unrelated index cases, selected in five different settings: SPG7-positive patients detected during SPG31 analysis using SPG31/SPG7 multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (n = 7); previously reported ambiguous SPG7 cases (n = 5); patients carefully selected on the basis of their phenotype (spasticity of the lower limbs with cerebellar signs and/or cerebellar atrophy on magnetic resonance imaging/computer tomography scan and/or optic neuropathy and without other signs) (n = 24); patients with hereditary spastic paraparesis referred consecutively from attending neurologists and the national reference centre in a diagnostic setting (n = 98); and the index case of a four-generation family with autosomal dominant optic neuropathy but no spasticity linked to the SPG7 locus. We identified two SPG7 mutations in 23/134 spastic patients, 21% of the patients selected according to phenotype but only 8% of those referred directly. Our results confirm the pathogenicity of Ala510Val, which was the most frequent mutation in our series (65%) and segregated at the homozygous state with spastic paraparesis in a large family with autosomal recessive inheritance. All SPG7-positive patients tested had optic neuropathy or abnormalities revealed by optical coherence tomography, indicating that abnormalities in optical coherence tomography could be a clinical biomarker for SPG7 testing. In addition, the presence of late-onset very slowly progressive spastic gait (median age 39 years, range 18-52 years) associated with cerebellar ataxia (39%) or cerebellar atrophy (47%) constitute, with abnormal optical coherence tomography, key features pointing towards SPG7-testing. Interestingly, three relatives of patients with heterozygote SPG7 mutations had cerebellar signs and atrophy, or peripheral neuropathy, but no spasticity of the lower limbs, suggesting that SPG7 mutations at the heterozygous state might predispose to late-onset neurodegenerative disorders, mimicking autosomal dominant inheritance. Finally, a novel missense SPG7 mutation at the heterozygous state (Asp411Ala) was identified as the cause of autosomal dominant optic neuropathy in a large family, indicating that some SPG7 mutations can occasionally be dominantly inherited and be an uncommon cause of isolated optic neuropathy. Altogether, these results emphasize the clinical variability associated with SPG7 mutations, ranging from optic neuropathy to spastic paraplegia, and support the view that SPG7 screening should be carried out in both conditions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Benign hereditary chorea (BHC) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterised by childhood onset that tends to improve in adulthood. The associated gene, NKX2-1 (previously called TITF1), is essential for organogenesis of the basal ganglia, thyroid and lungs. The aim of the study was to refine the movement disorders phenotype. We also studied disease course and response to therapy in a large series of genetically proven patients.
We analysed clinical, genetic findings and follow-up data in 28 NKX2-1 mutated BHC patients from 13 families.
All patients had private mutations, including seven new mutations, three previously reported mutations and three sporadic deletions encompassing the NKX2-1 gene. Hypotonia and chorea were present in early infancy, with delayed walking ability (25/28); dystonia, myoclonus and tics were often associated. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was present in seven. Among the 14 patients followed-up until adulthood, nine had persistent mild chorea, two had near total resolution of chorea but persistent disabling prominent myoclonus and three recovered completely. Learning difficulties were observed in 20/28 patients, and three had mental retardation. Various combinations of BHC, thyroid (67%) and lung (46%) features were noted. We found no genotype-phenotype correlation. A rapid and sustained beneficial effect on chorea was obtained in 5/8 patients treated with tetrabenazine.
Early onset chorea preceded by hypotonia is suggestive of BHC. Associated thyroid or respiratory disorders further support the diagnosis and call for genetic studies. Tetrabenazine may be an interesting option to treat disabling chorea.
Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry 07/2012; 83(10):956-62. · 4.87 Impact Factor