Seiichi Takasaki

The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Tokyo-to, Japan

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Publications (76)298.75 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although the importance of carbohydrate recognition by sperm during egg zona pellucida binding has been widely reported, the sperm molecular species that recognize the carbohydrates are poorly characterized. Our previous cytochemical study indicated that two kinds of carbohydrate-binding proteins are expressed on porcine sperm heads-one recognizes N-acetyllactosamine (Galβ1-4GlcNAc-), and the other recognizes the Lewis X structure (Galβ1-4(Fucα1-3)GlcNAc-). For this report, we used proteomic techniques to characterize the sperm proteins that bind N-acetyllactosamine. Porcine sperm plasma membrane was solubilized with a detergent solution and subjected to sequential chromatography with dextran sulfate agarose, affinity, and hydroxyapatite, and the binding activities in the eluates were monitored by a solid-phase binding assay. The tryptic peptides of two proteins most likely associated with the binding activities were subjected to tandem mass spectrometry sequencing. A subsequent database search identified one of the two proteins as predicted disintegrin and metalloprotease domain-containing protein 20-like (XP_003128672). The other protein was identified as disintegrin and metalloprotease domain-containing protein 5 (AB613817) by database searches for homologous amino acid sequences, cDNA cloning, nucleotide sequencing and nucleotide database searches. Furthermore, two-dimensional blue native/SDS-PAGE demonstrated that they formed a variety of non-covalent complexes. Therefore, these ADAM complexes probably are responsible for the N-acetyllactosamine-binding activity. An affinity-purified fraction containing these ADAM complexes showed zona pellucida-binding activity, though the activity was relatively weak, and the presence of another zona pellucida-binding protein that probably works in concert with these ADAM complexes was suggested. Immunofluorescence testing suggested that ADAM20-like was localized on the anterior part of the sperm plasma membrane.
    Journal of Reproduction and Development 11/2011; 58(1):117-25. DOI:10.1262/jrd.11-108N · 1.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To further provide scientific evidence before clinical application, the anti-tumor effects of apoptosis inducing nucleosides (AINs) released from CD57+HLA-DRbright natural suppressor (CD57.DR-NS) cell line on human gastric carcinoma (GCIY)-bearing severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice were examined by monitoring tumor cell growth and change of body weight of mice. The results obtained evidenced that AINs strongly induced apoptosis in the tumor tissues in SCID mice with decrease of tumor size and without loss of body weight. We found that peak 5 and peak 6 (P5 and P6) components among six components (AINs) isolated from CD57.DR-NS cell cultures by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) are the most effective. The anti-tumor effective dosage of P5, P6 and their mixture, P5+P6, were obtained in dose-dependent manner. Thus, the most effective method of administration of AINs for tumor regression without exhaustion was established in the present study. Corresponding to the previous study that AINs could generate apoptosis in malignant cells while lacking the toxicity in normal cells, the results obtained in the present preclinical experiments suggested anti-tumor efficacy of AINs with possible refrainment from side-effects in clinical trials.
    International Journal of Oncology 07/2004; 24(6):1523-8. · 2.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Analysis of glycans from erythrocyte membrane glycoproteins from beta1,4-galactosyltransferase-1 (beta4GalT-1)-deficient mice revealed moderately decreased galactosylation but comparable polylactosamine content compared to control beta4GalT-1(+/-) mice. The increased expression of more branched N-glycans was observed in beta4GalT-1(-/-) mice, and its extent was more remarkable in elder beta4GalT-1(-/-) mice (28 weeks old) than in younger beta4GalT-1(-/-) mice (6-9 weeks old). In relation to this issue, the less galactosylation of biantennary glycans was observed in the elder group, suggesting that beta4GalTs actually compete with N-acetylglucosaminyltransferases IV and V in erythroid cells. In contrast, approximately 80% of core 2 O-glycans were not beta1,4-galactosylated regardless of age of the knockout mice. These results suggest that beta4GalT-1 expressed in erythroid cells may regulate a constant branch formation of N-glycans and plays a predominant role in beta1,4-galactosylation of core 2 O-glycan.
    Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 07/2004; 426(2):258-65. DOI:10.1016/ · 3.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Selectins recognize ligands containing carbohydrate chains such as sialyl Lewis x (sLex) that are mainly presented at the terminus of N-acetyl lactosamine repeats on core 2 O-glycans. Several glycosyltransferases act successively to extend the N-acetyl lactosamine repeats and to synthesize sLex, and beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase (beta4GalT) plays a key role in these processes. Recently isolated 6 beta4GalT genes are candidates, but their individual roles, including those in selectin-ligand biosynthesis, remain to be elucidated. More than 80% of the core 2 O-glycans on the leukocyte membrane glycoproteins of beta4GalT-I-deficient mice lacked galactose residues in beta-1,4 linkage, and soluble P-selectin binding to neutrophils and monocytes of these mice was significantly reduced, indicating an impairment of selectin-ligand biosynthesis. beta4GalT-I-deficient mice exhibited blood leukocytosis but normal lymphocyte homing to peripheral lymph nodes. Acute and chronic inflammatory responses, including the contact hypersensitivity (CHS) and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses, were suppressed, and neutrophil infiltration into inflammatory sites was largely reduced in these mice. Our results demonstrate that beta4GalT-I is a major galactosyltransferase responsible for selectin-ligand biosynthesis and that inflammatory responses of beta4GalT-I-deficient mice are impaired because of the defect in selectin-ligand biosynthesis.
    Blood 10/2003; 102(5):1678-85. DOI:10.1182/blood-2003-03-0836 · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Glycophorin A (GPA) has a large number of sialic acid-containing oligosaccharide chains. GPA is highly conserved among vertebrates, mice with a GPA deletion have not been reported and GPA's physiologic role remains uncertain. GPA-/- homozygotes were obtained by intercrossing GPA+/- heterozygotes based on Mendelian genetics. The amount of O-linked oligosaccharide chains in the erythrocyte membrane of GPA-/- mice decreased to 60% compared to that of the wild-type mice. Flow cytometry and Western blot analysis revealed that the TER antigen that is associated with GPA on the erythrocyte membrane was totally abrogated from the cell surface in GPA-/- mice. Several glycoproteins that were detected with peanut agglutinin (PNA), a lectin that recognizes O-linked oligosaccharide chains, were absent from the GPA-/- erythrocyte membrane. Erythrocytes lacking GPA were more sensitive to hypo-osmotic stress than wild-type erythrocyte. GPA-/- mice show apparently normal phenotypes at least during the early generations. The disappearance of many glycoproteins recognized by PNA lectin on the GPA-/- erythrocyte membrane proteins suggests that GPA has an essential role in the expression of O-linked antigens on the erythrocyte membrane protein. These interactions of GPA and other glycoproteins may contribute to maintaining the physical strength of the erythrocyte membrane.
    Genes to Cells 10/2003; 8(9):769-77. DOI:10.1046/j.1365-2443.2003.00674.x · 2.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, we identified dysadherin, a novel carcinoma-associated glycoprotein, and showed that overexpression of dysadherin in human hepatocarcinoma PLC/PRF/5 cells could suppress E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion and promote tumor metastasis. The present study shows evidence that dysadherin is actually O-glycosylated. This was based on a direct carbohydrate composition analysis of a chimera protein of an extracellular domain of dysadherin fused to an Fc fragment of immunoglobulin. To assess the importance of O-glycosylation in dysadherin function, dysadherin-transfected hepatocarcinoma cells were cultured in a medium containing benzyl-alpha-GalNAc, a modulator of O-glycosylation. This treatment facilitated homotypic cell adhesion among dysadherin transfectants accompanied with morphological changes, indicating that the anti-adhesive effect of dysadherin was weakened. Modification of O-glycan synthesis also resulted in down-regulation of dysadherin expression and up-regulation of E-cadherin expression in dysadherin transfectants but did not affect E-cadherin expression in mock transfectants. Structural analysis of O-glycans released from the dysadherin chimera proteins indicated that a series of O-glycans with core 1 and 2 structures are attached to dysadherin, and their sialylation is remarkably inhibited by benzyl-alpha-GalNAc treatment. However, sialidase treatment of the cells did not affect calcium-dependent cell aggregation, which excluded the possibility that sialic acid itself is directly involved in cell-cell adhesion. We suggest that aberrant O-glycosylation in carcinoma cells inhibits stable expression of dysadherin and leads to the up-regulation of E-cadherin expression by an unknown mechanism, resulting in increased cell-cell adhesion. The carbohydrate-directed approach to the regulation of dysadherin expression might be a new strategy for cancer therapy.
    Glycobiology 08/2003; 13(7):521-7. DOI:10.1093/glycob/cwg065 · 3.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To understand the contribution of beta 1,4-galactosyltransferase (beta 4Gal-T)-1 to galactosylation in vivo, N-glycans of hepatic membrane glycoproteins and plasma glycoproteins from beta 4Gal-T1 wild-type (beta 4Gal-T1(+/+)) and beta 4Gal-T1 knockout mice were compared. Unexpectedly, glycoproteins from the knockout mice were found to express considerable amounts of sialylated, galactosylated N-glycans. A striking contrast was that galactose residues were largely beta 1,4-linked to GlcNAc residues in the beta 4Gal-T1(+/+) mouse glycans but beta 1,3-linked in the knockout mouse glycans, thus resulting in the shift of the backbone structure from type 2 chain (Gal beta 1-->4GlcNAc) to type 1 chain (Gal beta 1-->3GlcNAc). Detailed analysis of plasma glycoproteins revealed that the expression of sialyl linkage in N-glycans was shifted from the Sia alpha 2-->6Gal to the Sia alpha 2-->3Gal, and oversialylated type 1 chains were, remarkably, found in the knockout mouse glycans. Thus beta 4Gal-T1 deficiency was primarily compensated for by beta1,3-galactosyltransferases, which resulted in different sialyl linkages being formed on the outer chains and altered backbone structures, depending on the acceptor specificities of sialyltransferases. These results suggest that beta 4Gal-T1 in mouse liver plays a central role in the synthesis of type 2 chain and is also involved in the regulation of sialylation of N-glycans. The knockout mice may prove useful in investigation of the mechanism which regulates the tissue-dependent terminal glycosylation.
    Biochemical Journal 09/2001; 357(Pt 3):827-34. DOI:10.1042/0264-6021:3570827 · 4.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In addition to the N-glycan that is evidently conserved in G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), O-glycans in the N-terminus of GPCRs have been suggested. Using a combination of enzymatic and manual Edman degradation in conjunction with G-protein coupled receptor mass spectrometry, the structure and sites of O-glycans in octopus rhodopsin are determined. Two N-acetylgalactosamine residues are O-linked to Thr4 and Thr5 in the N-terminus of octopus rhodopsin. Further, we found chicken iodopsin, but not bovine rhodopsin, contains N-acetylgalactosamine. This is the first direct evidence to determine the structure and sites of O-glycans in GPCRs.
    FEBS Letters 06/2001; 496(1):19-24. DOI:10.1016/S0014-5793(01)02392-4 · 3.34 Impact Factor
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    N Yoshitani, E Mori, S Takasaki
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    ABSTRACT: Two kinds of molecules, one recognizing the sialo-/asialo-N-acetyllactosamine structures and the other recognizing the Lewis X structure in a divalent cation-independent manner, were detected on the head of boar sperm prepared from cauda epididymis by fluorescence-labeled or biotinylated dextran-based multivalent oligosaccharide probes. The N-acetyllactosamine recognition molecule(s) is weakly detected on uncapacitated sperm and becomes strongly detectable on capacitated sperm. On the other hand, the Lewis X recognition molecule is detected at a moderate level before capacitation and at a high level after capacitation. Both molecules disappear from the sperm head after induction of acrosome reaction and also by mild detergent treatment. Thus, the two kinds of carbohydrate molecules are expressed on the plasma membrane of boar sperm depending on their physiological state. Inhibition study of the oligosaccharide-dextran probe binding to isolated sperm plasma membrane by various glycoproteins, oligosaccharides, and sulfated polysaccharides also supported the occurrence of the two distinct kinds of molecules.
    Glycobiology 05/2001; 11(4):313-20. DOI:10.1093/glycob/11.4.313 · 3.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies have shown that O-mannosyl glycans are present in several mammalian glycoproteins. Although knowledge on the functional roles of these glycans is accumulating, their biosynthetic pathways are poorly understood. Here we report the identification and initial characterization of a novel enzyme capable of forming GlcNAc beta 1-2Man linkage, namely UDP-N-acetylglucosamine: O-linked mannose beta-1,2-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase in the microsome fraction of newborn rat brains. The enzyme transfers GlcNAc to beta-linked mannose residues, and the formed linkage was confirmed to be beta 1-2 on the basis of diplococcal beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase susceptibility and by high-pH anion-exchange chromatography. Its activity is linearly dependent on time, protein concentration, and substrate concentration and is enhanced in the presence of manganese ion. Its activity is not due to UDP-N-acetylglucosamine: alpha-3-D-mannoside beta-1,2-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I (GnT-I) or UDP-N-acetylglucosamine: alpha-6-D-mannoside beta-1,2-D-acetylglucosaminyltransferase II (GnT-II), which acts on the early steps of N-glycan biosynthesis, because GnT-I or GnT-II expressed in yeast cells did not show any GlcNAc transfer activity against a synthetic mannosyl peptide. Taken together, the results suggest that the GlcNAc transferase activity described here is relevant to the O-mannosyl glycan pathway in mammals.
    Glycobiology 02/2001; 11(1):37-45. DOI:10.1093/glycob/11.1.37 · 3.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: By means of hybridoma technology, we obtained six hydriboma cell lines producing monoclonal antibody (mAb) to porcine zona pellucid (ZP), two of which recognizes the steric structure of common antigens between porcine ZP and humans. Furthermore, we have analyzed all or partial structures of N- and O-linked sugar chains of ZP glycprotein from porcine or murine oocytes. Then, we have clarified that beta-galactose and Le(X) residues on ZP played the binding roles to sperm cells in porcine and murine fertilization. We have also succeeded Sp38 cDNA cloning from cDNA library of porcine testis. We found that Sp38 protein bind to porcine ZP2 and expressed in murine and human sperm cells. Corresponding to the presence of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II on murine sperm, CD4 on the murine egg plasma membrane was clearly shown by indirect IIF and immunoprecipitation test. Furthermore, the transcriptional expression of CD4/p56(lck) in eggs was confirmed by RT-PCR method. In addition, the p56(lck) associated with CD4 underneath the plasma membrane of eggs was autophosphorylated after cross-linking of CD4 with anti CD4 mAb. The binding between eggs or Sf9-CD4 cells labeled with anti-CD4 mAb and sperm cells labeled with anti-monomorphic region of class II mAb was completely blocked. Considering these findings together with the fact that an interspecies' heterogeneity is present in CD4 amino acid sequence at the interactive site with class II, we elucidated that one of species' specific intercellular adhesions between two gametes at the fusion step in fertilization is definitely mediated by class II located on the posterior region of sperm head and CD4/p56(lck) complex on the plasma membrane of egg.
    Journal of Reproductive Immunology 08/2000; 47(2):139-58. DOI:10.1016/S0165-0378(00)00055-3 · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recognition of defined carbohydrate structures by boar sperm was studied on the basis of oligosaccharide structures of porcine zona pellucida glycoproteins so far elucidated. Boar sperm abundantly adhered to fetuin-Sepharose beads, moderately to asialofetuin-Sepharose beads, but not at all to galactosidase (beta1-4-linkage-specific)-digested asialofetuin-Sepharose beads. The sperm also adhered to Le(x) oligosaccharide probe-coupled avidin-Sepharose beads. These adhesive activities were retained in the medium containing EDTA instead of calcium ion but abolished after induction of acrosome reaction by preincubation of sperm with calcium ionophore. Inhibition study of sperm adhesion to the beads by soluble ligands demonstrated that boar sperm express at least two kinds of carbohydrate recognition molecules, one recognizing both sialyl and nonsialyl N-acetyllactosamines but not the Le(x) structure and the other recognizing the Le(x) structure but not N-acetyllactosamines. Sperm binding to the zona pellucida on fixed porcine oocytes was inhibited by N-glycans of fetuin and their asialo form but not by the asialo, agalacto-N-glycans. Finally, dextran-based multivalent oligosaccharide polymers were prepared and their inhibitory activities in sperm-oocyte binding were examined. The result indicated that the polymer composed of fetuin N-glycans, its asialo-N-glycans, or lacto-N-fucopentaose III causes a remarkable inhibition at the oligosaccharide-based concentration of 50 microM. Thus, boar sperm are suggested to express multiple carbohydrate recognition molecules which may be involved in the sperm-egg interaction.
    Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 03/2000; 374(1):86-92. DOI:10.1006/abbi.1999.1642 · 3.04 Impact Factor
  • E. Mori, N. Yoshitani, T. Mori, S. Takasaki
    Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 01/2000; 374(1). DOI:10.1016/abbi.1999.1642 · 3.04 Impact Factor
  • S Takasaki, E Mori, T Mori
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 01/2000; 1473(1):206-15. DOI:10.1016/S0304-4165(99)00180-4 · 4.66 Impact Factor
  • Naoei Yoshitani, Seiichi Takasaki
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    ABSTRACT: We developed a convenient method for the synthesis of dextran-based multivalent probes containing N-linked oligosaccharides which is efficient even in a small scale. Oligosaccharides were derivatized with succinic dihydrazide and dimethylamine borane under a mild acidic condition. The derivatized oligosaccharides were then conjugated in a good yield to periodate-oxidized dextran (500 kDa). Thus, the conjugates containing 120 to 140 oligosaccharide chains per dextran molecule were successfully synthesized. Their practical advantage was shown by the example that the asialofetuin oligosaccharide-dextran conjugate has much higher affinity to Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA-I) than asialofetuin oligosaccharide itself or asialofetuin. The conjugates were further labeled with fluorescent reagent or biotinylation reagent containing a hydrazino group by the use of the unreacted aldehyde groups of the oxidized dextran, yielding probes with similar densities of fluorophores or biotin groups. Direct binding of the biotinylated asialofetuin oligosaccharide-dextran probe to RCA-I coated on the titer plate at a concentration of 50 ng/50 microl was easily detected using 50 fmol (as oligosaccharides) of the probe. The method for the synthesis of dextran-based oligosaccharide probes will facilitate the investigation of carbohydrate-mediated molecular interactions based on the native oligosaccharide structures.
    Analytical Biochemistry 01/2000; 277(1):127-34. DOI:10.1006/abio.1999.4392 · 2.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: O- and N-glycans included in erythrocyte membrane glycoproteins from beta1,4-galactosyltransferase I (GalT-I) knockout mice were analyzed to examine how this enzyme deficiency affects glycosylation of proteins in erythroid cells. The results indicated that greater than 80% of core 2 O-glycans from GalT-I-/- mice are not galactosylated by beta1,4 linkage, resulting in the expression of Neu5Acalpha2 --> 3Galbeta1 --> 3(GlcNAcbeta1 --> 6)GalNAc, while core 2 O-glycans from GalT-I+/+ mice are fully galactosylated and occur as Neu5Acalpha2 --> 3Galbeta1 --> 3(Neu5Acalpha2 --> 3Galbeta1 --> 4GlcNAcbeta1 --> 6)GalNAc. On the other hand, beta1, 4-galactosylation of N-glycans of the mutant was approximately 60% that of the wild type. Thus, it is suggested that GalT-I is predominantly responsible for beta1,4-galactosylation of the core 2 O-glycan branch in erythroid cells.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 07/1999; 260(1):94-8. DOI:10.1006/bbrc.1999.0872 · 2.28 Impact Factor
  • Norihiro Kotani, Seiichi Takasaki
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    ABSTRACT: To establish high-pH anion-exchange chromatography with fluorometric detection (HPAEC-FD) for the sensitive oligosaccharide analysis, the system for HPAEC with pulsed amperometric detection (PAD) was modified by placing the anion micromembrane suppressor between PAD and fluoromonitor to neutralize the alkaline eluate and connecting the flow path. N-Linked oligosaccharides were released from various glycoproteins by hydrazinolysis followed by labeling with 2-aminobenzamide, and their asialooligosaccharides were analyzed by HPAEC-FD using an isocratic elution with 0.3 M NaOH solution. The results indicated that the new system using FD offers fine separation of oligosaccharides at the subpicomole level. Coinjection of reduced dextran oligomers as internal standards which are detected by PAD permits us to express elution positions of the fluorescent oligosaccharides as glucose units, resulting in a much more reliable analysis. The system was also effectively used for structural analysis of oligosaccharides by sequential glycosidase digestion. Thus, HPAEC-FD promises to be an alternative tool for the sensitive analysis of oligosaccharides.
    Analytical Biochemistry 12/1998; 264(1):66-73. DOI:10.1006/abio.1998.2820 · 2.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Structures of acidic N-glycans released from porcine zona pellucida glycoproteins by hydrazinolysis were studied. The results indicated that the acidic glycans are of mono- to tetraantennary complex-type with and without N-acetyllactosamine repeating units. Sulfated residues are not only located at the C-6 position of GlcNAc included in the N-acetyllactosamine repeating units, but also at the C-6 position of GlcNAc in the non-repeated antennae and at the C-3 position of reducing terminal GlcNAc residue. Analysis of the oligosaccharide fragments released by endo-beta-galactosidase digestion and by hydrazine/nitrous acid treatment also revealed that various sulfated and non-sulfated forms of fucosylated structures such as Fucalpha1 --> 2Galbeta1 --> 4(+/-SO3- --> 6)GlcNAc (type 2H), Galbeta1 --> 4(Fucalpha1 --> 3)(+/-SO3- --> 6)GlcNAc(Lex) and Fucalpha1 --> 3 or 4(+/-SO3- --> 6)GlcNAc, are expressed in the repeated outer chain moieties.
    Glycoconjugate Journal 05/1998; 15(5):447-56. DOI:10.1023/A:1006926801717 · 1.95 Impact Factor
  • K Kusui, S Takasaki
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    ABSTRACT: Our previous study showed that non-reducing terminal galactose residues of N-linked sugar chains present in sheep erythrocyte membrane glycoproteins are important for rosette formation with T lymphoblastic cells [Ogasawara et al. (1995) Immunol Lett 48: 35-38]. As a first step to elucidate the significant structures of sugar chains involved in rosette formation, we analysed N-linked sugar chains released from the membrane glycoproteins by hydrazinolysis. The oligosaccharides were labeled with NaB3H4 and fractionated using columns of Aleuria aurantia lectin-Sepharose, MonoQ and Bio-Gel P-4. Structural analyses of oligosaccharides by sequential exoglycosidase digestion in combination with methylation analysis revealed that the membrane glycoproteins contain bi- (19%), tri- (33%), and tetraantennary (44%) complex-type oligosaccharides and that the oligosaccharides having exposed galactose residues amount to 40% of the total.
    Glycoconjugate Journal 01/1998; 15(1):3-10. DOI:10.1023/A:1006967614009 · 1.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The N-linked sugar chains were liberated as oligosaccharides from octopus rhodopsin by hydrazinolysis. Most of the oligosaccharides were neutral, and separated into two major components by column chromatography using immobilized lectins and Bio-Gel P-4. Structural analysis of the one major component by sequential exoglycosidase digestion, chemical fragmentation in combination with methylation analysis revealed that it is a nonasaccharide; Man alpha1-->6(Gal beta1-->3GlcNAc beta1-->2Man alpha1-->3)Man beta1--> 4GlcNAc beta1-->4(Gal beta1-->4Fuc alpha1-->6)GlcNAc. This structure is quite unique in that a novel galactosylated fucose residue is attached to the reducing terminal N-acetylglucosamine residue.
    Glycobiology 12/1997; 7(8):1153-8. DOI:10.1093/glycob/7.8.1153 · 3.75 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
298.75 Total Impact Points


  • 1984–2011
    • The University of Tokyo
      • • Institute of Medical Science
      • • Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences
      Tokyo, Tokyo-to, Japan
  • 1997
    • Himeji Institute of Technology
      • Department of Life Science
      Himezi, Hyōgo, Japan
  • 1991
    • University of California, Davis
      Davis, California, United States
    • Gunma University
      Maebashi, Gunma, Japan