[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antinucleosome antibodies (AnuA) are increasingly recognized as an important biomarker in the diagnosis and subset stratification of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The aim of the study was to determine the sensitivity, specificity, and clinico-serological correlates of AnuA in black South Africans with SLE. We performed a cross-sectional study of 86 SLE patients attending a tertiary center and 87 control subjects. AnuA were tested using a second-generation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of AnuA were 45.3, 94.3, 88.6, and 63.6%, respectively. The presence of AnuA were strongly associated with the co-presence of anti-dsDNA antibodies (OR = 3.4, p < 0.0005) and antihistone antibodies (OR = 15.7, p < 0.00001). Patients who were seropositive for AnuA were more likely to have skin involvement (discoid lupus and/or malar rash) and had higher SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI) scores and Systemic Lupus International Collaborative Clinics/American College of Rheumatology (SLICC/ACR) damage scores (p < 0.05). IgG anticardiolipin antibody (aCL) levels showed a significant correlation with AnuA ratios (p < 0.01). Our findings provide further evidence that AnuA are a sensitive and specific diagnostic biomarker in SLE. Moreover, our finding that the presence of AnuA, but not anti-dsDNA antibodies, are associated with worse SLICC/ACR damage scores suggest that AnuA may have a role in predicting disease outcome. The correlation between IgG aCL and AnuA is a novel finding that merits further studies to determine possible common peptide specificities of the antibodies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the prevalence and clinical correlates of anti-phospholipid antibodies (aPL), including anti-cardiolipin antibodies (aCL), lupus anti-coagulant (LA), anti-beta2-glycoprotein 1 (abeta2GP1), and anti-prothrombin (aPT) antibodies, in Black South African patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
A cross-sectional study of 100 SLE patients in whom clinical characteristics, including features of the anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS), disease activity, and damage were documented, and sera tested for aCL, abeta2GP, and aPT of all isotypes, and LA.
Positive aCL, abeta2GPI, aPT, and LA were found in 53, 84, 20, and 2 patients, respectively. Immunoglobulin (Ig)A aCL and IgG abeta2GPI were the commonest aCL (49.1%) and abeta2GPI (47%) isotypes, respectively. IgA abeta2GPI were associated with both a history of thrombosis alone (p<0.05) and a history of any clinical feature, thrombosis, and/or spontaneous abortion of the APS (p<0.05); IgA aCL were associated with a history of any clinical APS event (p<0.05); and abeta2GPI of any isotype were associated with a history of arthritis (p<0.001).
Our findings provide further evidence that screening for abeta2GPI and IgA aCL isotypes may improve the risk assessment for APS in SLE patients of African extraction. Further prospective studies are warranted to determine the clinical utility of these tests and to elucidate the genetic basis for the increased IgA aPL response in SLE patients of African extraction.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is mainly a disease of young women. The problem of coexistent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a growing problem in sub-Saharan Africa. We describe a case of active life-threatening neuropsychiatric lupus in a patient with underlying HIV infection. The challenges of interpreting physical signs and laboratory features that are common to both conditions, and the dilemma of treating active SLE with cytotoxics in the immunocompromised patient, are discussed.