[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:Tremelimumab, a fully human cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 monoclonal antibody, and PF-3512676, a Toll-like receptor-9 agonist, are targeted immune modulators that elicit durable single-agent antitumour activity in advanced cancer.Methods:To determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of these agents combined during this phase I study, patients received intravenous tremelimumab (6.0, 10.0, or 15.0 mg kg(-1)) every 12 weeks plus subcutaneous PF-3512676 (0.05, 0.10, or 0.15 mg kg(-1)) weekly. Primary end points were safety and tolerability; secondary end points included pharmacokinetics and antitumour activity.Results:Twenty-one patients with stage IV melanoma (n=17) or advanced solid tumours (n=4) were enrolled. Injection-site reactions (n=21; 100%), influenza-like illness (n=18; 86%), and diarrhoea (n=13; 62%) were the most common treatment-related adverse events (TAEs). Grade 3 TAEs were reported (n=7; 33%). Dose-limiting toxicities (prespecified 6-week observation) occurred in one of the six patients in the 10 mg kg(-1) tremelimumab plus 0.05 mg kg(-1) PF-3512676 cohort (grade 3 hypothalamopituitary disorder) and two of the six patients in the 15 mg kg(-1) tremelimumab plus 0.05 mg kg(-1) PF-3512676 cohort (grade 3 diarrhoea). Consequently, 15 mg kg(-1) tremelimumab plus 0.05 mg kg(-1) PF-3512676 exceeded the MTD. Two melanoma patients achieved durable (170 days) partial response. No human antihuman antibody responses to tremelimumab were observed.Conclusion:Weekly PF-3512676 (0.15 mg kg(-1)) plus tremelimumab (10 mg kg(-1) every 12 weeks) was tolerable.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 7 May 2013; doi:10.1038/bjc.2013.227 www.bjcancer.com.
British Journal of Cancer 05/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSEIn phase I/II trials, the cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4-blocking monoclonal antibody tremelimumab induced durable responses in a subset of patients with advanced melanoma. This phase III study evaluated overall survival (OS) and other safety and efficacy end points in patients with advanced melanoma treated with tremelimumab or standard-of-care chemotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS
Patients with treatment-naive, unresectable stage IIIc or IV melanoma were randomly assigned at a ratio of one to one to tremelimumab (15 mg/kg once every 90 days) or physician's choice of standard-of-care chemotherapy (temozolomide or dacarbazine). RESULTS: 10.7% in the tremelimumab arm and 9.8% in the chemotherapy arm. However, response duration (measured from date of random assignment) was significantly longer after tremelimumab (35.8 v 13.7 months; P = .0011). Diarrhea, pruritus, and rash were the most common treatment-related adverse events in the tremelimumab arm; 7.4% had endocrine toxicities. Seven deaths in the tremelimumab arm and one in the chemotherapy arm were considered treatment related by either investigators or sponsor. CONCLUSION
This study failed to demonstrate a statistically significant survival advantage of treatment with tremelimumab over standard-of-care chemotherapy in first-line treatment of patients with metastatic melanoma.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 01/2013; · 18.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A significant barrier to effective immune clearance of cancer is loss of antitumor cytotoxic T cell activity. Antibodies to block pro-apoptotic/downmodulatory signals to T cells are currently being tested. Because invariant natural killer T cells (iNKT) can regulate the balance of Th1/Th2 cellular immune responses, we characterized the frequencies of circulating iNKT cell subsets in 21 patients with melanoma who received the anti-CTLA4 monoclonal antibody tremelimumab alone and 8 patients who received the antibody in combination with MART-126-35 peptide-pulsed dendritic cells (MART-1/DC). Blood T cell phenotypes and functionality were characterized by flow cytometry before and after treatment. iNKT cells exhibited the central memory phenotype and showed polyfunctional cytokine production. In the combination treatment group, high frequencies of pro-inflammatory Th1 iNKT CD8(+) cells correlated with positive clinical responses. These results indicate that iNKT cells play a critical role in regulating effective antitumor T cell activity.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(10):e76829. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: CTLA4 blocking monoclonal antibodies provide a low frequency but durable tumor responses in patients with metastatic melanoma, which led to the regulatory approval of ipilimumab based on two randomized clinical trials with overall survival advantage. The similarly fully human anti-CTLA4 antibody tremelimumab had been developed in the clinic at a fixed rate infusion, resulting in very prolonged infusion times. A new formulation of tremelimumab allowed testing a shorter infusion time. METHODS: A phase 1 multi-center study to establish the safety and tolerability of administering tremelimumab as a 1-hour infusion to patients with metastatic melanoma. Secondary endpoints included pharmacokinetic and clinical effects of tremelimumab. RESULTS: No grade 3 or greater infusion-related adverse events or other adverse events preventing the administration of the full tremelimumab dose were noted in 44 treated patients. The overall side effect profile was consistent with prior experiences with anti-CTLA4 antibodies. Objective tumor responses were noted in 11% of evaluable patients with metastatic melanoma, which is also consistent with the prior experience with CTLA4 antagonistic antibodies. CONCLUSIONS: This study did not identify any safety concerns when tremelimumab was administered as a 1-hour infusion. These data support further clinical testing of the 1-hour infusion of tremelimumab. (Clinical trial registration number NCT00585000).
Journal of Translational Medicine 11/2012; 10(1):236. · 3.46 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CTLA4 blocking monoclonal antibodies provide durable clinical benefit in a subset of patients with advanced melanoma mediated by intratumoral lymphocytic infiltrates. A key question is defining whether the intratumoral infiltration (ITI) is a differentiating factor between patients with and without tumor responses.
Paired baseline and postdosing tumor biopsy specimens were prospectively collected from 19 patients with metastatic melanoma, including 3 patients with an objective tumor response, receiving the anti-CTLA4 antibody tremelimumab within a clinical trial with primary endpoint of quantitating CD8(+) cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) infiltration in tumors. Samples were analyzed for cell density by automated imaging capture and further characterized for functional lymphocyte properties by assessing the cell activation markers HLA-DR and CD45RO, the cell proliferation marker Ki67, and the regulatory T-cell marker FOXP3.
There was a highly significant increase in ITI by CD8(+) cells in biopsy samples taken after tremelimumab treatment. This included increases between 1-fold and 100-fold changes in 14 of 18 evaluable cases regardless of clinical tumor response or progression. There was no difference between the absolute number, location, or cell density of infiltrating cells between clinical responders and patients with nonresponding lesions that showed acquired intratumoral infiltrates. There were similar levels of expression of T-cell activation markers (CD45RO, HLA-DR) in both groups and no difference in markers for cell replication (Ki67) or the suppressor cell marker FOXP3.
CTLA4 blockade induces frequent increases in ITI by T cells despite which only a minority of patients have objective tumor responses.
Clinical Cancer Research 06/2011; 17(12):4101-9. · 7.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Preclinical models predict that blockade of the coinhibitory molecule cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA4) on lymphocytes results in the release of a cell cycle inhibitory checkpoint, allowing lymphocyte proliferation, tumor targeting, and regression. However, there is a paucity of data demonstrating that lymphocyte proliferation does occur in humans treated with CTLA4-blocking antibodies.
We tested the role of whole-body molecular imaging in patients with advanced melanoma receiving the CTLA4-blocking antibody tremelimumab, allowing the analysis of changes in glucose metabolism using the PET probe (18)F-FDG and cell replication with the PET probe 3'-deoxy-3'-(18)F-fluorothymidine ((18)F-FLT).
PET/CT scans obtained at a median of 2 mo after initial dosing did not demonstrate significant changes in lesion size or (18)F-FDG or (18)F-FLT uptake when focusing on metastatic lesions. Similarly, there was no difference in (18)F-FDG uptake in the non-melanoma-involved spleen. However, there were significant increases in standardized uptake values for (18)F-FLT in the spleen using post- and pretremelimumab treatment scans.
Molecular imaging with the PET probe (18)F-FLT allows mapping and noninvasive imaging of cell proliferation in secondary lymphoid organs after CTLA4 blockade in patients with metastatic melanoma.
Journal of Nuclear Medicine 02/2010; 51(3):340-6. · 5.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This phase II study assessed the antitumor activity of tremelimumab, a fully human, anti-CTL-associated antigen 4 monoclonal antibody, in patients with melanoma.
Patients with refractory/relapsed melanoma received 15 mg/kg tremelimumab every 90 days. After 4 doses, patients with tumor response or stable disease were eligible to receive < or =4 additional doses. Primary endpoint was best overall tumor response assessed by an independent endpoint review committee, and secondary endpoints included duration of response, overall survival, progression-free survival, and safety.
Of 251 patients enrolled, 246 (241 response-evaluable) received tremelimumab. Objective response rate was 6.6% (16 partial responses); duration of response was 8.9 to 29.8 months. Eight (50%) objective responses occurred in patients with stage IV M(1c) disease, and 11 (69%) were ongoing at last tumor assessment. Eight (3.3%) patients achieved responses in target lesions (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors) despite progressive disease within the first cycle. All 8 survived for >20 months; 5 (63%) remained alive. Clinical benefit rate (overall response + stable disease) was 21% (16 partial responses and 35 stable disease), and median overall survival was 10.0 months. Progression-free survival at 6 months was 15%, and survival was 40.3% at 12 months and 22% at 24 months. Common treatment-related adverse events were generally mild to moderate, and grade 3/4 adverse events included diarrhea (n = 28, 11%), fatigue (n = 6, 2%), and colitis (n = 9, 4%). There were 2 (0.8%) treatment-related deaths.
Tremelimumab showed an objective response rate of 6.6%, with all responses being durable > or =170 days since enrollment, suggesting a potential role for tremelimumab in melanoma.
Clinical Cancer Research 02/2010; 16(3):1042-8. · 7.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects on cell signalling networks upon blockade of cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA4) using the monoclonal antibody tremelimumab were studied in peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples from patients with metastatic melanoma.
Findings Intracellular flow cytometry was used to detect phosphorylated (p) signaling molecules downstream of the T cell receptor (TCR) and cytokine receptors. PBMC from tremelimumab-treated patients were characterized by increase in pp38, pSTAT1 and pSTAT3, and decrease in pLck, pERK1/2 and pSTAT5 levels. These changes were noted in CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes but also in CD14 monocytes. A divergent pattern of phosphorylation of Zap70, LAT, Akt and STAT6 was noted in patients with or without an objective tumor response.
The administration of the CTLA4-blocking antibody tremelimumab to patients with metastatic melanoma influences signaling networks downstream of the TCR and cytokine receptors both in T cells and monocytes. The strong modulation of signaling networks in monocytes suggests that this cell subset may be involved in clinical responses to CTLA4 blockade.
clinicaltrials.gov; Registration numbers NCT00090896 and NCT00471887.
PLoS ONE 01/2010; 5(9):e12711. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tumor antigen-loaded dendritic cells (DC) are believed to activate antitumor immunity by stimulating T cells, and CTL-associated antigen 4 (CTLA4)-blocking antibodies should release a key negative regulatory pathway on T cells. The combination was tested in a phase I clinical trial in patients with advanced melanoma.
Autologous DC were pulsed with MART-1(26-35) peptide and administered with a dose escalation of the CTLA4-blocking antibody tremelimumab. Sixteen patients were accrued to five dose levels. Primary end points were safety and immune effects; clinical efficacy was a secondary end point.
Dose-limiting toxicities of grade 3 diarrhea and grade 2 hypophysitis developed in two of three patients receiving tremelimumab at 10 mg/kg monthly. Four patients had an objective tumor response, two partial responses and two complete responses, all melanoma free between 2 and 4 years after study initiation. There was no difference in immune monitoring results between patients with an objective tumor response and those without a response. Exploratory gene expression analysis suggested that immune-related gene signatures, in particular for B-cell function, may be important in predicting response.
The combination of MART-1 peptide-pulsed DC and tremelimumab results in objective and durable tumor responses at the higher range of the expected response rate with either agent alone.
Clinical Cancer Research 10/2009; 15(19):6267-76. · 7.84 Impact Factor