Geertrudis A M van den Bos

Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands

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Publications (29)119.55 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To describe subjective caregiver burden of parents of adults with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and to identify factors associated with the level of subjective burden. In a cross-sectional study in 80 parents of 57 adult, severely disabled DMD patients' level of subjective caregiver burden was measured with the Caregiver Strain Index (CSI) and the Self Rated Burden Scale. A visual analogue scale was used to measure happiness. The expanded CSI version, the CarerQoL and open questions were used to analyse caregiving in more depth. In uni and multivariate analyses, associations of objective care characteristics, patient characteristics and caregiver characteristics with burden were explored. Parents indicated substantial burden, but valued giving care as being important and rewarding. Subjective burden was associated with received support, tracheotomy, active coping by the patient and anxiety in patient and parents, together explaining 34%-36% of variance. Living situation was not associated with experienced burden. Caring for an adult son with DMD is burdensome, but rewarding. Subjective caregiver burden of parents may be alleviated by adequate support and respite care, by avoiding tracheotomy and by intervention programs targeting anxiety and promoting active coping by the patient from childhood.
    Disability and Rehabilitation 12/2011; 34(12):988-96. · 1.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To describe the course of social support in spouses of patients with stroke, and to examine direct and indirect relationships between social support and life satisfaction over time. Prospective cohort study (N=180) with measurements at 2 months after discharge from inpatient rehabilitation, 1 year, and 3 years after stroke. Social support was assessed using the Social Support List-12, Life satisfaction with the Life Satisfaction Questionnaire (LiSat-9) and Caregiver strain with the Caregiver Strain Index. Random coefficient analyses was used. Total social support and the 3 subtypes of social support decreased significantly over time. In all models, caregiver strain was associated with lower life satisfaction and social support was associated with higher life satisfaction, but there were no interaction effects between caregiver strain and social support on life satisfaction. Spouses of patients with stroke experienced a decline of social support over time. Social support was positively associated with life satisfaction, regardless of the amount of caregiver strain experienced by the spouses. It is important to discuss with caregivers of stroke patients the importance of maintaining their own social contacts and to facilitate this by arranging support if appropriate.
    Patient Education and Counseling 01/2011; 85(2):e48-52. · 2.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To quantify the long-term use of various types of healthcare services in patients with traumatic brain injury and to estimate the relative contribution of predisposing characteristics, enabling factors and health-related needs to determine whether there is equity in healthcare utilization. Cross-sectional study. Seventy-nine non-institutionalized moderate to severe patients with traumatic brain injury (age range 16-67 years). Healthcare use was measured at 3-5 years post-injury. The relative contribution of predisposing characteristics, enabling factors, and health-related needs to the utilization of various types of care was analysed using logistic regression to determine whether there was equity in healthcare utilization. At least one healthcare service was used by 68% of the patients. Health-related needs explained most of the utilization. However, predisposing characteristics were also related to the use of other medical care and supportive care. Patients with a high internal locus of control were more likely to be users of supportive care, and patients with a high locus of control with the physician were more likely to visit medical specialists. The results suggest that most of our patients who needed care, received care. However, inequity could not be ruled out completely as predisposing characteristics also contributed to some types of healthcare utilization.
    Journal of rehabilitation medicine: official journal of the UEMS European Board of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine 02/2009; 41(1):59-65. · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There exists limited knowledge regarding the relation between depression and healthcare utilization in stroke patients. The objective of this register-based study was to examine the impact of having preexisting depression at the time of hospital admission for acute stroke on length of hospital stay and discharge destination. Data from a general-practice database were linked to those of a hospital database to identify patients hospitalized for stroke and were used to categorize these patients into 3 groups based on preexisting mental health (MH) status at admission, ie, those with preexisting depression, those with another preexisting MH condition, and those without any preexisting MH condition. Multilevel analyses controlling for several potentially important covariates were performed to estimate the associations under study. Both patients with preexisting depression (n=41) and those with another preexisting MH condition (n=62) did not differ significantly from patients without any preexisting MH condition (n=211) regarding length of hospital stay for acute stroke. Among patients who survived hospitalization, those with preexisting depression had significantly higher odds of being discharged to an institution instead of their home than did patients without any preexisting MH condition. Having another preexisting MH condition had no significant effect on discharge destination. Having preexisting depression at admission seems to be a relevant factor in determining discharge to institutional care after acute stroke hospitalization. Further research is needed to determine the mechanism(s) through which preexisting depression decreases the chances of being discharged to home.
    Stroke 02/2008; 39(1):132-8. · 6.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This general practice-based case-control study tested the association between cerebrovascular risk factors (CVRFs) and the development of later-life depression by focusing on the impact of exposure duration to CVRFs and the modifying influence of age at depression onset. Cases were 286 patients aged > or = 50 years with a first diagnosis of depression at age > or = 50 years. Nondepressed controls (N=832) were individually matched for age, gender and practice. CVRF diagnoses (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular conditions) prior to depression were determined. Analyses controlled for education, somatic and nondepressive psychiatric disease. No CVRF variable examined was significantly associated with subsequent depression in the total sample. An unexpected impact of age at onset of depression was observed: the odds ratio associated with having any CVRF was smaller for patients with age at onset > or = 70 years than for patients with onset between ages 50-59 years (p=.002) and 60-69 years (p=.067). Subsequent analyses excluding patients with onset at age > or = 70 years revealed that CVRF variables, including long-term exposure to CVRFs, significantly increased the odds of subsequent depression with onset between ages 50 and 69 years. Reliance on GPs' records of morbidity may have resulted in bias towards underestimation in patients with depression onset at age > or = 70 years. Our findings suggest that CVRFs play a relevant role in the development of depression with onset between ages 50 and 69 years, but no evidence was found that they contribute to the occurrence of depression with onset at age > or = 70 years. Replication is warranted to exclude the possibility of bias.
    Journal of Affective Disorders 04/2007; 99(1-3):73-81. · 3.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To comprehensively examine comorbidity in unselected cohorts of patients with depression, stroke, multiple sclerosis (MS), Parkinson's disease/parkinsonism (PD/PKM), dementia, migraine, and epilepsy. This cross-sectional study used morbidity data recorded by Dutch general practitioners. Index disease cohort sizes ranged from 241 patients with MS to 6,641 patients with lifetime depression. Thirty somatic and seven psychiatric disease categories were examined to determine whether they were comorbid with the index diseases by performing comparisons with age- and gender-matched control cohorts. Identified comorbidities were classified as either "possible" or "highly probable" comorbidity. An extensive range of 26 disease categories was found to be comorbid with lifetime depression. The comorbidity profile of stroke was also wide, including 21 disease categories. The comorbidity patterns of migraine and epilepsy comprised each 11 disease categories. Those concerning MS, PD/PKM, and dementia included a small number of disease categories. This study provides comprehensive knowledge of the occurrence of somatic and psychiatric comorbidity in general populations of patients with depression, stroke, MS, PD/PKM, dementia, migraine, and epilepsy. The implications of the findings for clinical practice and research are discussed.
    Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 01/2007; 59(12):1274-84. · 5.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This paper reports the results of the application of the opportunity costs and proxy good methods to determine a monetary value of informal care. We developed a survey in which we asked informal caregivers in The Netherlands to indicate the different types of time forgone (paid work, unpaid work and leisure) in order to be able to provide care. Moreover, we asked informal caregivers how much time they spent on a list of 16 informal care tasks during the week before the interview. Data were obtained from surveys in two different populations: informal caregivers and their care recipients with stroke and with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A total of 218 care recipients with stroke and their primary informal caregivers completed a survey as well as 147 caregivers and their care recipients with RA. The measurement of care according to both methods is more problematic compared to the valuation. This is especially the case for the opportunity costs method and for the housework part in the proxy good method. More precise guidelines are necessary for the consistent application of both methods in order to ensure comparability of results and of economic evaluations of health care.
    Social Science [?] Medicine 03/2006; 62(4):835-45. · 2.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the next decades, the number of stroke patients is expected to increase. Furthermore, organizational changes, such as stroke services, are expected to be implemented on a large scale. The purpose of this study is to estimate the future healthcare costs by taking into account the expected increase of stroke patients and a nationwide implementation of stroke services. By means of a dynamic multistate life table, the total number of stroke patients can be projected. The model calculates the annual number of patients by age and gender. The total healthcare costs are calculated by multiplying the average healthcare costs specified by age, gender, and healthcare sector with the total number of stroke patients specified by age and gender. In the year 2000, the healthcare costs for stroke amounted to euro 1.62 billion. This amount is approximately 4.4 percent of the total national healthcare budget. Projections of the total costs of stroke based on current practice result in an increase of 28 percent (euro 2.08 billion) in the year 2020. A nationwide implementation of stroke services in 2020 would result in a substantial reduction of the costs of stroke (euro 1.81 billion: 13 percent cost reduction) compared with the regular care scenario. A nationwide implementation of stroke services is a strong policy tool for cost containment of health care in an aging population like that in the Netherlands. Policy makers should optimize the organization of stroke care.
    International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care 02/2006; 22(4):518-24. · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Comorbidity has been shown to intensify health care utilization and to increase medical care costs for patients with diabetes. However, most studies have been focused on one health care service, mainly hospital care, or limited their analyses to one additional comorbid disease, or the data were based on self-reported questionnaires instead of health care registration data. The purpose of this study is to estimate the effects a broad spectrum of of comorbidities on the type and volume of medical health care utilization of patients with diabetes. By linking general practice and hospital based registrations in the Netherlands, data on comorbidity and health care utilization of patients with diabetes (n = 7,499) were obtained. Comorbidity was defined as diabetes-related comorbiiabetes-related comorbidity. Multilevel regression analyses were applied to estimate the effects of comorbidity on health care utilization. Our results show that both diabetes-related and non diabetes-related comorbidity increase the use of medical care substantially in patients with diabetes. Having both diabeterelated and non diabetes-related comorbidity incrases the demand for health care even more. Differences in health care utilization patterns were observed between the comorbidities. Non diabetes-related comorbidity increases the health care demand as much as diabetes-related comorbidity. Current single-disease approach of integrated diabetes care should be extended with additional care modules, which must be generic and include multiple diseases in order to meet the complex health care demands of patients with diabetes in the future.
    BMC Health Services Research 02/2006; 6:84. · 1.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objectives were to investigate the predictive value of hierarchy levels and sum score of disability and change in disability on depressive symptoms. Longitudinal data of 723 men age 70 and older from the Finland, Italy, and the Netherlands Elderly Study were collected in 1990 and 1995. Self-reported disability was based on three disability domains (instrumental activities, mobility, and basic activities) and depressive symptoms on the Zung questionnaire. Severity levels of disability were positively associated with depressive symptoms. Men with no disability scored 5 to 17 points lower (p < .01) on depressive symptoms than did those with disability in all domains. Among men with mild disability, those who had worsening of disability status in the preceding 5 years scored 5 points higher (p = .004) on depressive symptoms than did men who improved. Hierarchic severity levels, sum score of disability, and preceding changes in disability status are risk factors for depressive symptoms.
    Journal of Aging and Health 02/2006; 18(1):125-41. · 1.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the effect of disability severity and the contribution of self-rated health and depressive symptoms to 10-year mortality. Longitudinal data were collected from 1141 men aged 70 to 89 years from the Finland, Italy, and the Netherlands Elderly Study from 1990 to 2000. Disability severity was classified into 4 categories: no disability, instrumental activities, mobility, and basic activities of daily living. Self-rated health and depressive symptoms were classified into 2 and 3 categories, respectively. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate mortality risks. Men with severe disability had a risk of mortality that was more than 2-fold higher (hazard ratio [HR]=2.41; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.84, 3.16) than that of men without disability. Men who had severe disability and did not feel healthy had the highest mortality risk (HR = 3.30; 95% CI = 2.52, 4.33). This risk was lower at lower levels of disability and higher levels of self-rated health. The same trend was observed for depressive symptoms. For adequate prognoses on mortality or for developing intervention strategies, not only physical aspects of health but also other health outcomes should be taken into account.
    American Journal of Public Health 12/2005; 95(11):2029-34. · 3.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Depression is highly co-morbid with both psychiatric and chronic somatic disease. These types of co-morbidity have been shown to exert opposite effects on underdiagnosis of depression by general practitioners (GPs). However, past research has not addressed their combined effect on underdiagnosis of depression. Co-morbidity data on 191 depressed primary-care patients selected by a two-stage sampling procedure were analysed. Diagnoses of major depression and/or dysthymia in the last 12 months were assessed using a standardized psychiatric interview (CIDI) and compared with depression diagnoses registered by GPs in patient contacts during the same period. Presence of psychiatric and chronic somatic co-morbidity was determined using the CIDI and contact registration, respectively. Regression analysis showed a significant interaction effect between psychiatric and chronic somatic co-morbidity on GPs' diagnosis of depression, while taking into account the effects of sociodemographic variables, depression severity and number of GP contacts. Subsequent stratified analysis revealed that in patients without chronic somatic co-morbidity, a lower educational level, a less severe depression, and fewer GP contacts all significantly increased the likelihood of not being diagnosed as depressed. In contrast, in patients with chronic somatic co-morbidity, only having no psychiatric co-morbidity significantly decreased the likelihood of receiving a depression diagnosis. Our results indicate that the effects of psychiatric co-morbidity and other factors on underdiagnosis of depression by GPs differ between depressed patients with and without chronic somatic co-morbidity. Efforts to improve depression diagnosis by GPs seem to require different strategies for depressed patients with and without chronic somatic co-morbidity.
    Psychological Medicine 09/2005; 35(8):1185-95. · 5.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the near future, the number of stroke patients and their related healthcare costs are expected to rise. The purpose of this study was to estimate this expected increase in stroke patients in the Netherlands. We sought to determine what the future developments in the number of stroke patients due to demographic changes and trends in the prevalence of smoking and hypertension in terms of the prevalence, incidence, and potential years of life lost might be. A dynamic, multistate life table was used, which combined demographic projections and existing stroke morbidity and mortality data. It projected future changes in the number of stroke patients in several scenarios for the Dutch population for the period 2000 to 2020. The model calculated the annual number of new patients by age and sex by using incidence rates, defined by age, sex, and major risk factors. The change in the annual number of stroke patients is the result of incident cases minus mortality numbers. Demographic changes in the population suggest an increase of 27% in number of stroke patients per 1000 in 2020 compared with 2000. Extrapolating past trends in the prevalence of smoking behavior, hypertension, and stroke incidence resulted in an increase of 4%. The number of stroke patients in the Netherlands will rise continuously until the year 2020. Our study demonstrates that a large part of this increase in the number of patients is an inevitable consequence of the aging of the population.
    Stroke 09/2005; 36(8):1648-55. · 6.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the relationship between duration and intensity of physical activity and disability 10 years later, and to investigate the possible effect of selective mortality. Longitudinal data of 560 men aged 70?-?89 years, without disability at baseline from the Finland, Italy and The Netherlands Elderly (FINE) Study was used. Physical activity in 1990 was based on activities like walking, bicycling and gardening. Disability severity (three categories) in 1990 and 2000 was based on instrumental activities, mobility and basic activities of daily living. Men in the highest tertile of total physical activity had a lower risk of disability than men in the lowest tertile (odds ratio (OR) 0.46; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.26-0.84). This was due to duration of physical activity (OR highest tertile 0.42; 95% CI: 0.23-0.78 compared to the lowest tertile). Intensity of physical activity was not associated with disability. Addition of deceased men as fourth category leaded to weaker associations between physical activity and disability (OR highest tertile 0.67; 95% CI: 0.44-1.02). Even in old age among relatively healthy men, a physically active lifestyle was inversely related to disability. To prevent disability duration of physical activity seems to be more important than intensity.
    Disability and Rehabilitation 04/2005; 27(6):341-7. · 1.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This longitudinal study examined patterns of psychological distress in couples facing colorectal cancer within 6 months after surgery. In addition, correspondence in psychological distress was investigated between patients and their spouses, taking into account the gender of the patient. The study had a longitudinal design, involving three assessment points; (T1) within 2 weeks after surgery, (T2) 3 months after baseline and (T3) 6 months after baseline. At T1, respondents were asked to indicate how they felt during the week prior to surgery. At T2 and T3, respondents reported their feelings during the preceding week. Psychological distress was measured using the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) in 137 couples. Concerning the week prior to surgery, females reported more distress being a patient, whereas males reported more distress being a spouse. In comparison with a reference group, females as well as males, regardless of their role, showed increased levels of psychological distress prior to surgery. At 3 and 6 months following surgery, increased levels of distress continued to exist in females, whereas males' distress returned to normal levels. Neither within female-patient couples, nor within male-patient couples, were associations between patients' and spouses' distress found. We demonstrated a considerable impact of the cancer diagnosis on both female and male patients and their spouses before and 3 months after surgery. Six months after surgery, females, in particular, appear to be vulnerable to distress.
    British Journal of Health Psychology 12/2004; 9(Pt 4):465-78. · 2.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To multidimensionally assess fatigue in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to evaluate the impact of fatigue on health-related quality of life (HRQOL). The study was conducted in 1999 among 490 RA patients with varying disease duration. Fatigue was measured with the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI-20) and HRQOL with a validated Dutch version of the RAND 36-Item Health Survey. We evaluated the impact of fatigue on HRQOL by multiple linear regression analyses taking into account RA-related pain and depressive symptoms. Different aspects of fatigue selectively explained different dimensions of HRQOL. The MFI-20 was entered last to the linear regression models, resulting in an additional increase of explained variance of 1% (mental health) to 14% (vitality). The multidimensional portrayal of RA-related fatigue can be used to develop intervention strategies targeted to specific aspects of fatigue. Fatigue, supplementary to RA-related pain and depressive symptoms, appears to be a feasible and treatable target in the clinical management of RA to increase HRQOL.
    Arthritis & Rheumatology 09/2004; 51(4):578-85. · 7.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To improve understanding of the nature and magnitude of the burden of informal care and also to indicate important areas for improving the current ways in which informal care is investigated. Information on objective burden (such as care tasks performed and time investment), subjective burden (using the Caregiver Reaction Assessment instrument and a self-rated burden score), and quality of life (using the EuroQoL instrument) were collected in a postal questionnaire of 153 informal caregivers who provide care for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Caregivers had been caring for the RA patients on average for >11 years, reflecting the chronic nature of RA. They provide a substantial amount of care (27.4 hours per week) and are moderately strained (24.6 on the self-rated burden scale). Caregivers are relatively healthy on average but caregivers of more severe RA patients are relatively unhealthy, which may indicate health losses due to caregiving. Informal care can be burdensome in the context of RA. More information may help assist informal caregivers in caring for RA patients and help to avoid health problems and high subjective burden.
    Arthritis & Rheumatology 08/2004; 51(4):570-7. · 7.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the prevalence of unmet health care demands among rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, and to determine if these unmet demands indicate underuse. A total of 679 patients with RA participated in a questionnaire survey and clinical examination. Unmet health care demands and health care use were assessed for orthopedic care, allied health care, home care, and psychosocial care. Indications for underuse were determined by comparing health outcomes of patients with unmet health care demands and of health care users. Of the 679 patients, 28.7% had an unmet demand for 1 of the 4 services: 13.4% for allied health care, 9.7% for orthopedic care, 9.4% for home care, and 6.2% for psychosocial care. Underuse of allied health care, home care and psychosocial care was observed. Unmet demands for health care are frequent among RA patients. Most unmet demands indicate underuse. Health care professionals should therefore be more responsive to the demands of patients.
    Arthritis & Rheumatology 07/2004; 51(3):440-6. · 7.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: With the rapid international spread of interventions, there is a need to understand the economic implications of these changes and to interpret these economic implications on the international level. The purpose of this study is to systematically compare total health care expenditures on stroke, the costs of stroke per capita, and the distribution of stroke costs within different countries, with special attention to the allocation of resources among different health care facilities. Studies for this literature review were selected by conducting a literature search from January 1966 to July 2003. Key methodological, country-related, and monetary issues of the selected stroke cost studies were evaluated using a checklist. After selection, 25 stroke cost studies were reviewed. Although the selected cost of illness studies used different methodologies, the estimated expenditures for stroke are approximately similar. The proportion of national health care in the 8 countries studied is unequivocal for the more recent studies, ie, approximately 3% of total health care expenditures. A shift is observed from the inpatient treatment costs (in the first year) toward outpatient treatment and long-term care costs (in the latter years). Furthermore, it is remarkable that in the studies, little attention is paid to costs borne by the patient and family or to the costs of comorbidity. This study highlights the importance of studying the economic consequences of stroke and of interpreting the results on the international level. The results of stroke cost studies provide insight into the distribution of the costs of stroke and the impact of stroke on the national expenditure on health care.
    Stroke 06/2004; 35(5):1209-15. · 6.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate in different countries the effects of becoming widowed, duration of widowhood, and household composition of widowed men on disability onset in different disability domains. Longitudinal data from a cohort study collected around 1990, 1995, and 2000. Three cohorts from Finland, The Netherlands, and Italy. Seven hundred thirty-six men, aged 70 and older at baseline. Disability was measured using standardized questionnaire on activities of daily living (ADLs). Three domains were assessed: instrumental ADLs (IADLs), mobility, and basic ADLs (BADLs). Duration of widowhood was divided into less than 5 years and 5 or more years and household composition into living alone and living with family or in an institution. Men who became widowed developed more IADL disabilities (odds ratio (OR)=2.15; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.22-3.81) and mobility (OR=1.84; 95% CI=1.15-2.96) than men who were still married. Men who had been widowed for less than 5 years developed more IADL disabilities than those who had been widowed for 5 years or more (OR=2.27; 95% CI=1.14-4.54). Widowed men living alone showed fewer disabilities in mobility (OR=0.25; 95% CI=0.09-0.73) and BADLs (OR=0.02; 95% CI=0.001-0.33) than those living with others. The effects on disability onset did not differ between countries. Widowhood in elderly men is a risk factor for dependency in IADLs and mobility. The growth in the number of widowers may lead to higher demands on family care and professional care.
    Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 04/2004; 52(3):353-8. · 4.22 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

823 Citations
119.55 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2009
    • Erasmus MC
      • Department of Rehabilitation Medicine
      Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 2003–2007
    • University of Amsterdam
      • Faculty of Medicine AMC
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 2003–2006
    • National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM)
      • Centre for Prevention and Health Services Research (PZO)
      Utrecht, Provincie Utrecht, Netherlands
  • 2005
    • Nederlands Instituut voor onderzoek van de Gezondheidszorg
      Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands
  • 2001–2005
    • Academisch Medisch Centrum Universiteit van Amsterdam
      • Department of Social Medicine
      Amsterdam, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 2004
    • Maastricht University
      Maestricht, Limburg, Netherlands
    • Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam
      Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 1999
    • University of Groningen
      Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands