Chuanling Qiao

Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Charbin, Heilongjiang Sheng, China

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Publications (14)71.01 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: During 2006 and 2007, two swine-origin triple-reassortant influenza A (H1N2) viruses were isolated from pigs in northern China, and the antigenic characteristics of the hemagglutinin protein of the viruses were examined. Genotyping and phylogenetic analyses demonstrated different emergence patterns for the two H1N2 viruses, Sw/Hebei/10/06 and Sw/Tianjin/1/07. Sequences for the other genes encoding the internal proteins were compared with the existing data to determine their origins and establish the likely mechanisms of genetic reassortment. Sw/Hebei/10/06 is an Sw/Indiana/9K035/99-like virus, whereas Sw/Tianjin/1/07 represents a new H1N2 genotype with surface genes of classic swine and human origin and internal genes originating from the Eurasian avian-like swine H1N1 virus. Six-week-old female BALB/c mice infected with the Sw/HeB/10/06 and Sw/TJ/1/07 viruses showed an average weight loss of 12.8% and 8.1%, respectively. Healthy six-week-old pigs were inoculated intranasally with either the Sw/HeB/10/06 or Sw/TJ/1/07 virus. No considerable changes in the clinical presentation were observed post-inoculation in any of the virus-inoculated groups, and the viruses effectively replicated in the nasal cavity and lung tissue. Based on the results, it is possible that the new genotype of the swine H1N2 virus that emerged in China may become widespread in the swine population and pose a potential threat to public health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Veterinary Microbiology 12/2014; 175(2-4). DOI:10.1016/j.vetmic.2014.11.031 · 2.73 Impact Factor
  • Chuanling Qiao · Liping Liu · Huanliang Yang · Yan Chen · Huiyang Xu · Hualan Chen
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    ABSTRACT: The pandemic A/H1N1 influenza viruses emerged in both Mexico and the United States in March 2009, and were transmitted efficiently in the human population. Transmissions of the pandemic 2009/H1N1 virus from humans to poultry and other species of mammals were reported from several continents during the course of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. Reassortant H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 viruses containing genes of the pandemic 2009/H1N1 viruses appeared in pigs in some countries.Study designIn winter of 2012, a total of 2600 nasal swabs were collected from healthy pigs in slaughterhouses located throughout 10 provinces in China. The isolated viruses were subjected to genetic and antigenic analysis. Two novel triple-reassortant H1N2 influenza viruses were isolated from swine in China in 2012, with the HA gene derived from Eurasian avian-like swine H1N1, the NA gene from North American swine H1N2, and the six internal genes from the pandemic 2009/H1N1 viruses. The two viruses had similar antigenic features and some significant changes in antigenic characteristics emerged when compared to the previously identified isolates.Conclusion We inferred that the novel reassortant viruses in China may have arisen from the accumulation of the three types of influenza viruses, which further indicates that swine herds serve as “mixing vessels” for influenza viruses. Influenza virus reassortment is an ongoing process, and our findings highlight the urgent need for continued influenza surveillance among swine herds.
    Journal of Clinical Virology 10/2014; 61(4). DOI:10.1016/j.jcv.2014.10.014 · 3.47 Impact Factor
  • Yunpu Wu · Chuanling Qiao · Huanliang Yang · Yan Chen · Xiaoguang Xin · Hualan Chen
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    ABSTRACT: The H5N1 influenza viruses infect a range of avian species and have recently been isolated from humans and pigs. In this study we generated a replication-defective recombinant adenovirus (rAd-H5HA-EGFP) expressing the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of H5N1 A/Swine/Fujian/1/2001 (SW/FJ/1/01) and evaluated its immunogenicity and protective efficacy in BALB/c mice. The recombinant virus induced high levels of hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody at a median tissue culture infective dose of 10(8) or 10(7). Compared with mice in the control groups, the mice vaccinated with rAd-H5HA-EGFP did not show apparent weight loss after challenge with either the homologous SW/FJ/1/01 or the heterologous H5N1 A/Chicken/Hunan/77/2005 (CK/HuN/77/05). Replication of the challenge virus was partially or completely inhibited, and viruses were detected at significantly lower numbers in the organs of the vaccinated mice, all of which survived the challenge with CK/HuN/77/05, whereas most of the control mice did not. These results indicate that rAd-H5HA-EGFP can provide effective immune protection from highly pathogenic H5N1 viruses in mice and is therefore a promising new candidate vaccine against H5N1 influenza in animals.
    Canadian journal of veterinary research = Revue canadienne de recherche vétérinaire 04/2014; 78(2):117-26. · 0.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A novel influenza A/H1N1 virus, emerging from Mexico and the United States in the spring of 2009, caused the pandemic human infection of 2009-2010. The haemagglutinin (HA) glycoprotein is the major surface antigen of influenza A virus and plays an important role in viral infection. In this study, three hybridoma cell lines secreting specific monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) against the HA protein of pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 virus were generated with the recombinant plasmid pCAGGS-HA as an immunogen. Using Pepscan analysis, the binding sites of these Mabs were identified in a linear region of the HA protein. Further, refined mapping was conducted using truncated peptides expressed as GST-fusion proteins in E. coli. We found that the (250)VPRYA(254) motif was the minimal determinant of the linear epitope that could be recognized by the Mabs. Alignment with sequences from the databases showed that the amino acid residues of this epitope were highly conserved among all pandemic A/H1N1 2009 viruses as well as the classical swine H1N1 viruses isolated to date. These results provide additional insights into the antigenic structure of the HA protein and virus-antibody interactions at the amino acid level, which may assist in the development of specific diagnostic methods for influenza viruses.
    Archives of Virology 01/2014; 159(6). DOI:10.1007/s00705-013-1955-5 · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A newly emerged H7N9 virus has caused 132 human infections with 37 deaths in China since 18 February 2013. Control measures in H7N9 virus-positive live poultry markets have reduced the number of infections; however, the character of the virus, including its pandemic potential, remains largely unknown. We systematically analyzed H7N9 viruses isolated from birds and humans. The viruses were genetically closely related and bound to human airway receptors; some also maintained the ability to bind to avian airway receptors. The viruses isolated from birds were nonpathogenic in chickens, ducks, and mice; however, the viruses isolated from humans caused up to 30% body weight loss in mice. Most importantly, one virus isolated from humans was highly transmissible in ferrets by respiratory droplets. Our findings indicate nothing to reduce the concern that these viruses can transmit between humans.
    Science 07/2013; 341(6144). DOI:10.1126/science.1240532 · 31.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The pandemic A/H1N1 influenza viruses emerged in both Mexico and the United States in March 2009, and were transmitted efficiently in the human population. They were transmitted occasionally from humans to other mammals including pigs, dogs and cats. In this study, we report the isolation and genetic analysis of novel viruses in pigs in China. These viruses were related phylogenetically to the pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza viruses isolated from humans and pigs, which indicates that the pandemic virus is currently circulating in swine populations, and this hypothesis was further supported by serological surveillance of pig sera collected within the same period. Furthermore, we isolated another two H1N1 viruses belonging to the lineages of classical swine H1N1 virus and avian-like swine H1N1 virus, respectively. Multiple genetic lineages of H1N1 viruses are co-circulating in the swine population, which highlights the importance of intensive surveillance for swine influenza in China.
    Infection, genetics and evolution: journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases 11/2012; 13(1). DOI:10.1016/j.meegid.2012.09.021 · 3.26 Impact Factor
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    Huanliang Yang · Chuanling Qiao · Xu Tang · Yan Chen · Xiaoguang Xin · Hualan Chen
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    ABSTRACT: In investigating influenza in an immunodeficient child in China, in December 2010, we found that the influenza virus showed high sequence identity to that of swine. Serologic evidence indicated that viral persistence in pigs was the source of infection. Continued surveillance of pigs and systemic analysis of swine influenza isolates are needed.
    Emerging Infectious Diseases 07/2012; 18(7):1144-6. DOI:10.3201/eid1807.120009 · 7.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Influenza A (H1N1) virus has caused human influenza outbreaks in a worldwide pandemic since April 2009. Pigs have been found to be susceptible to this influenza virus under experimental and natural conditions, raising concern about their potential role in the pandemic spread of the virus. In this study, we generated a high-growth reassortant virus (SC/PR8) that contains the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes from a novel H1N1 isolate, A/Sichuan/1/2009 (SC/09), and six internal genes from A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8) virus, by genetic reassortment. The immunogenicity and protective efficacy of this reassortant virus were evaluated at different doses in a challenge model using a homologous SC/09 or heterologous A/Swine/Guangdong/1/06(H1N2) virus (GD/06). Two doses of SC/PR8 virus vaccine elicited high-titer serum hemagglutination inhibiting (HI) antibodies specific for the 2009 H1N1 virus and conferred complete protection against challenge with either SC/09 or GD/06 virus, with reduced lung lesions and viral shedding in vaccine-inoculated animals compared with non-vaccinated control animals. These results indicated for the first time that a high-growth SC/PR8 reassortant H1N1 virus exhibits properties that are desirable to be a promising vaccine candidate for use in swine in the event of a pandemic H1N1 influenza.
    Veterinary Microbiology 04/2011; 152(3-4):229-34. DOI:10.1016/j.vetmic.2011.04.032 · 2.73 Impact Factor
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    Antiviral Research 10/2009; 84(1):98-99. DOI:10.1016/j.antiviral.2009.07.019 · 3.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Asymmetric reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and microarrays were combined to distinguish 4 viruses, including Avian influenza virus (AIV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV), Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), and Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), and hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes H5, H7, and H9, and neuraminidase (NA) subtypes N1 and N2 of AIV. The AIV matrix protein (M), and HA and NA genes, IBV nucleoprotein (NP) gene, NDV NP gene, and IBDV A fragment gene were cloned into plasmids. These genes were amplified from these positive recombinant plasmids, which included the inserted target genes by PCR. The PCR products were purified and printed on the amino-modified slides as the probes. RNA was extracted from samples and labeled by asymmetric RT-PCR using a cyanine (Cy)3-labeled primers. The labeled complementary (c)DNA was hybridized to the probes immobilized on the glass slides. After hybridization, the microarrays were scanned, and the hybridization pattern agreed perfectly with the known location of each probe. No cross-hybridization could be detected. Results demonstrated that microarray based on asymmetric RT-PCR is an effective way to distinguish AIV, IBV, NDV, and IBDV simultaneously.
    Journal of veterinary diagnostic investigation: official publication of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, Inc 10/2009; 21(5):623-32. DOI:10.1177/104063870902100506 · 1.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: H1N2 is one of the main subtypes of influenza, which circulates in swine all over the world. To investigate the prevalence and genetic of H1N2 in swine of China. Two H1N2 swine influenza viruses were isolated from Tianjin and Guangdong province of China in 2004 and 2006, respectively. The molecular evolution of eight gene segments was analyzed. A/Swine/Tianjin/1/2004 has low identity with A/Swine/Guangdong/2006; in the phylogenetic tree of PA gene, A/Swine/Guangdong/1/2006 and A/Swine/Guangxi/1/2006 along with the H1N2 swine isolates of North America formed a cluster; and A/Swine/Tianjin/2004 and A/Swine/Zhejiang/2004, along with the classical H1N1 swine isolates formed another cluster; except that NA gene of A/Swine/Tianjin/1/2004 fell into the cluster of the H3N2 human influenza virus, indicating the reassortment between H3N2 human and H1N1 swine influenza viruses. Two different genotypes of H1N2 appeared among pigs in China. A/swine/Guangdong/1/06 was probably from H1N2 swine influenza viruses of North America; while A/swine/Tianjin/1/04 maybe come from reassortments of classical H1N1 swine and H3N2 human viruses prevalent in North America.
    Journal of clinical virology: the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology 08/2009; 46(2):192-5. DOI:10.1016/j.jcv.2009.06.022 · 3.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: With the widespread presence of influenza virus H5N1 in poultry and wildlife species, particularly migrating birds, vaccination has become an important control strategy for avian influenza (AI). In this study, the immune efficacy and hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody responses induced by a recombinant fowlpox virus (FPV) vector-based rFPV-HA-NA vaccine was evaluated in SPF and commercial chickens. Four-week old SPF chickens vaccinated with one dose of vaccine containing 2 x 10(3) plaque forming units (PFU) of virus were completely protected from H5N1 AI virus 1 week after vaccination, and protective immunity lasted for at least 40 weeks. Two-week old commercial layer chickens were vaccinated with the rFPV-HA-NA vaccine and boosted with the same dose of vaccine following an interval of 18 weeks. The HI antibody titers higher than 4log2 lasted for 52 weeks after the booster immunization. We also examined the efficacy of the rFPV-HA-NA vaccine in SPF chickens administrated by different routes. The results showed that effective application of rFPV-HA-NA vaccine in poultry may be restricted to wing-web puncture, intramuscular or subcutaneous injection. These results demonstrate that the rFPV-HA-NA vaccine is effective in the prevention of infection of H5N1 AI virus.
    Antiviral research 03/2009; 81(3):234-8. DOI:10.1016/j.antiviral.2008.12.002 · 3.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Since the first detection of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus from sick goose in Guangdong province in China in 1996, scientists in China started to develop vaccines for avian influenza pandemic preparedness. An H5N2 inactivated vaccine was produced from a low pathogenic virus, A/turkey/England/N-28/73, and was used for the buffer zone vaccination in the H5N1 outbreaks in 2004 in China. We also generated a low pathogenic H5N1 reassortant virus A/Harbin/Re-1/2003 (Re-1) that derives its HA and NA genes from GSGD/96 virus and six internal genes from the high-growth A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8) virus by using plasmid-based reverse genetics. The inactivated vaccine derived from Re-1 strain could induce more than 10 months protective immune response in chickens after one dose inoculation, and most importantly, this vaccine is immunogenic for geese and ducks. An H5N1 fowlpox vectored live vaccine was also generated by inserting the HA and NA genes of GSGD/96 virus in the genome of a fowlpox vaccine strain. Laboratory tests indicated that after one dose of immunization of this vaccine, chickens could develop an over than 40 weeks protective immune response against H5N1 virus challenge.
    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 11/2006; 1081(1):182-92. DOI:10.1196/annals.1373.022 · 4.31 Impact Factor
  • C Qiao · K Yu · Y Jiang · C Li · G Tian · X Wang · H Chen
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    ABSTRACT: The genetic stability of the recombinant fowlpox virus (named rFPV-HA-NA) was confirmed by serial passage on chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cells. The immune efficacy, safety, the minimum immunising dose, the time of immunity induced and the immune duration of the vector-based vaccine was evaluated in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens. The recombinant virus vaccine containing 100 plaque form units (PFU) could induce complete protection against challenge with H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV). The immune efficacy, protecting chickens from clinical signs and death after challenge, was obtained one week after the immunisation with this vaccine. Protective immunity could last for 40 weeks post-immunisation. So the recombinant fowlpox vaccine is a safe and highly effective gene engineering vaccine candidate, and will be used to prevent H5 subtype avian influenza in the future.
    Developments in biologicals 02/2006; 124:127-32.