Min-Sung Kim

Pohang University of Science and Technology, Andong, North Gyeongsang, South Korea

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Publications (9)83.78 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Escherichia coli FucU (Fucose Unknown) is a dual fucose mutarotase and ribose pyranase, which shares 44% sequence identity with its human counterpart. Herein, we report the structures of E. coli FucU and mouse FucU bound to L-fucose and delineate the catalytic mechanisms underlying the interconversion between stereoisomers of fucose and ribose. E. coli FucU forms a decameric toroid with each active site formed by two adjacent subunits. While one subunit provides most of the fucose-interacting residues including a catalytic tyrosine residue, the other subunit provides a catalytic His-Asp dyad. This active-site feature is critical not only for the mutarotase activity toward L-fucose but also for the pyranase activity toward D-ribose. Structural and biochemical analyses pointed that mouse FucU assembles into four different oligomeric forms, among which the smallest homodimeric form is most abundant and would be the predominant species under physiological conditions. This homodimer has two fucose-binding sites that are devoid of the His-Asp dyad and catalytically inactive, indicating that the mutarotase and the pyranase activities appear dispensable in vertebrates. The defective assembly of the mouse FucU homodimer into the decameric form is due to an insertion of two residues at the N-terminal extreme, which is a common aspect of all the known vertebrate FucU proteins. Therefore, vertebrate FucU appears to serve for as yet unknown function through the quaternary structural alteration.
    Journal of Molecular Biology 07/2009; 391(1):178-91. · 3.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Drosophila host defense against gram-negative bacteria is mediated by the Imd pathway upon sensing of peptidoglycan by the peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP)-LC. Here we report a functional analysis of PGRP-LB, a catalytic member of the PGRP family. We show that PGRP-LB is a secreted protein regulated by the Imd pathway. Biochemical studies demonstrate that PGRP-LB is an amidase that specifically degrades gram-negative bacteria peptidoglycan. In agreement with its amidase activity, PGRP-LB downregulates the Imd pathway. Hence, activation of PGRP-LB by the Imd pathway provides a negative feedback regulation to tightly adjust immune activation to infection. Our study also reveals that PGRP-LB controls the immune reactivity of flies to the presence of ingested bacteria in the gut. Our work highlights the key role of PGRPs that encode both sensors and scavengers of peptidoglycan, which modulate the level of the host immune response to the presence of infectious microorganisms.
    Immunity 05/2006; 24(4):463-73. · 19.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Drosophila peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP)-LCx and -LCa are receptors that preferentially recognize meso-diaminopimelic acid (DAP)-type peptidoglycan (PGN) present in Gram-negative bacteria over lysine-type PGN of gram-positive bacteria and initiate the IMD signaling pathway, whereas PGRP-LE plays a synergistic role in this process of innate immune defense. How these receptors can distinguish the two types of PGN remains unclear. Here the structure of the PGRP domain of Drosophila PGRP-LE in complex with tracheal cytotoxin (TCT), the monomeric DAP-type PGN, reveals a buried ionic interaction between the unique carboxyl group of DAP and a previously unrecognized arginine residue. This arginine is conserved in the known DAP-type PGN-interacting PGRPs and contributes significantly to the affinity of the protein for the ligand. Unexpectedly, TCT induces infinite head-to-tail dimerization of PGRP-LE, in which the disaccharide moiety, but not the peptide stem, of TCT is positioned at the dimer interface. A sequence comparison suggests that TCT induces heterodimerization of the ectodomains of PGRP-LCx and -LCa in a closely analogous manner to prime the IMD signaling pathway, except that the heterodimer formation is nonperpetuating.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 04/2006; 281(12):8286-95. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Transport protein particle (TRAPP) comprises a family of two highly related multiprotein complexes, with seven common subunits, that serve to target different classes of transport vesicles to their appropriate compartments. Defining the architecture of the complexes will advance our understanding of the functional differences between these highly related molecular machines. Genetic analyses in yeast suggested a specific interaction between the TRAPP subunits Bet3p and Trs33p. A mammalian bet3-trs33 complex was crystallized, and the structure was solved to 2.2 angstroms resolution. Intriguingly, the overall fold of the bet3 and trs33 monomers was similar, although the proteins had little overall sequence identity. In vitro experiments using yeast TRAPP subunits indicated that Bet3p binding to Trs33p facilitates the interaction between Bet3p and another TRAPP subunit, Bet5p. Mutational analysis suggests that yeast Trs33p facilitates other Bet3p protein-protein interactions. Furthermore, we show that Trs33p can increase the Golgi-localized pool of a mutated Bet3 protein normally found in the cytosol. We propose that one of the roles of Trs33p is to facilitate the incorporation of the Bet3p subunit into assembling TRAPP complexes.
    Traffic 01/2006; 6(12):1183-95. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: CAD/DFF40 is responsible for the degradation of chromosomal DNA into nucleosomal fragments and subsequent chromatin condensation during apoptosis. It exists as an inactive complex with its inhibitor ICAD/DFF45 in proliferating cells but becomes activated upon cleavage of ICAD/DFF45 into three domains by caspases in dying cells. The molecular mechanism underlying the control and activation of CAD/DFF40 was unknown. Here, the crystal structure of activated CAD/DFF40 reveals that it is a pair of molecular scissors with a deep active-site crevice that appears ideal for distinguishing internucleosomal DNA from nucleosomal DNA. Ensuing studies show that ICAD/DFF45 sequesters the nonfunctional CAD/DFF40 monomer and is also able to disassemble the functional CAD/DFF40 dimer. This capacity requires the involvement of the middle domain of ICAD/DFF45, which by itself cannot remain bound to CAD/DFF40 due to low binding affinity for the enzyme. Thus, the consequence of the caspase-cleavage of ICAD/DFF45 is a self-assembly of CAD/DFF40 into the active dimer.
    Molecular Cell 06/2004; 14(4):531-9. · 15.28 Impact Factor
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    Min-Sung Kim, Minji Byun, Byung-Ha Oh
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    ABSTRACT: The family of peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) are associated with the recognition of the peptidoglycan of microbes and subsequent activation of signaling pathways for immune response. Here the crystal structure of Drosophila PGRP-LB is determined at a resolution of 2.0 A and shows an active-site cleft with a zinc cage. Poor conservation of surface residues at the cleft predicts a widely varying individual specificity of PGRPs for molecular patterns on microbial cell walls. At the back of this cleft is a putatively conserved distinctive groove. The location and mainly hydrophobic nature of the groove indicate that the back face serves for subsequent signaling after clustering of PGRP molecules by binding to polymeric cell wall components.
    Nature Immunology 09/2003; 4(8):787-93. · 26.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: RbsD is the only protein whose biochemical function is unknown among the six gene products of the rbs operon involved in the active transport of ribose. FucU, a paralogue of RbsD conserved from bacteria to human, is also the only protein whose function is unknown among the seven gene products of the l-fucose regulon. Here we report the crystal structures of Bacillus subtilis RbsD, which reveals a novel decameric toroidal assembly of the protein. Nuclear magnetic resonance and other studies on RbsD reveal that the intersubunit cleft of the protein binds specific forms of d-ribose, but it does not have an enzyme activity toward the sugar. Likewise, FucU binds l-fucose but lacks an enzyme activity toward this sugar. We conclude that RbsD and FucU are cytoplasmic sugar-binding proteins, a novel class of proteins whose functional role may lie in helping influx of the sugar substrates.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2003; 278(30):28173-80. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Over 20 enzymes denoted as cyclomaltodextrinase, maltogenic amylase, or neopullulanase that share 40-86% sequence identity with each other are found in public data bases. These enzymes are distinguished from typical alpha-amylases by containing a novel N-terminal domain and exhibiting preferential substrate specificities for cyclomaltodextrins (CDs) over starch. In this research field, a great deal of confusion exists regarding the features distinguishing the three groups of enzymes from one another. Although a different enzyme code has been assigned to each of the three different enzyme names, even a single differentiating enzymatic property has not been documented in the literature. On the other hand, an outstanding question related to this issue concerns the structural basis for the preference of these enzymes for CDs. To clarify the confusion and to address this question, we have determined the structures of two enzymes, one from alkalophilic Bacillus sp. I-5 and named cyclomaltodextrinase and the other from a Thermus species and named maltogenic amylase. The structure of the Bacillus enzyme reveals a dodecameric assembly composed of six copies of the dimer, which is the structural and functional unit of the Thermus enzyme and an enzyme named neopullulanase. The structure of the Thermus enzyme in complex with beta-CD led to the conclusion that Trp47, a well conserved N-terminal domain residue, contributes greatly to the preference for beta-CD. The common dimer formation through the novel N-terminal domain, which contributes to the preference for CDs by lining the active-site cavity, convincingly indicates that the three groups of enzymes are not different enough to preserve the different names and enzyme codes.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/2002; 277(24):21891-7. · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • Biochemistry - BIOCHEMISTRY-USA. 01/2001; 40(23):6828-6835.