Jeong Jun Kim, Ling Xie, Ji Hee Han, Sang Yeob Lee
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, the Q biotype of tobacco whitefly has been recognized as the most hazardous strain of Bemisia tabaci worldwide, because of its increased resistance to some insecticide groups. As an alternative control agent, we selected an Isaria javanica isolate as a candidate for the development of a mycopesticide against the Q biotype of sweet potato whitefly. To select optimal mass production media for solid-state fermentation, we compared the production yield and virulence of conidia between 2 substrates (barley and brown rice), and we also compared the effects of various additives on conidia production and virulence. Barley was a better substrate for conidia production, producing 3.43 × 10(10) conidia/g, compared with 3.05 × 10(10) conidia/g for brown rice. The addition of 2% CaCO3 + 2% CaSO4 to barley significantly increased conidia production. Addition of yeast extract, casein, or gluten also improved conidia production on barley. Gluten addition (3% and 1.32%) to brown rice improved conidia production by 14 and 6 times, respectively, relative to brown rice without additives. Conidia cultivated on barley produced a mortality rate of 62% in the sweet potato whitefly after 4-day treatment, compared with 53% for conidia cultivated on brown rice. The amendment of solid substrate cultivation with additives changed the virulence of the conidia produced; the median lethal time (LT50) was shorter for conidia produced on barley and brown rice with added yeast extract (1.32% and 3%, respectively), KNO3 (0.6% and 1%), or gluten (1.32% and 3%) compared with conidia produced on substrates without additives.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to identify the characteristic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE) and to investigate the association between MRI findings and neuropsychiatric manifestations in SLE. Brain MRIs with a diagnosis of SLE from 2002 to 2013 from three tertiary university hospitals were screened. All clinical manifestations evaluated by brain MRI were retrospectively reviewed. If the clinical manifestations were compatible with the 1999 NPSLE American College of Rheumatology (ACR) nomenclature and case definitions, the brain MRIs were assessed for the presence of white matter hyperintensities, gray matter hyperintensities, parenchymal defects, atrophy, enhancement, and abnormalities in diffusion-weighted images (DWI). The number, size, and location of each lesion were evaluated. The neuropsychiatric manifestation of each brain MRI was classified according to the 1999 ACR NPSLE case definitions. The associations between MRI findings and NPSLE manifestations were examined. In total, 219 brain MRIs with a diagnosis of SLE were screened, and 133 brain MRIs met the inclusion criteria for NPSLE. The most common MRI abnormality was white matter hyperintensities, which were observed in 76 MRIs (57.1 %). Gray matter hyperintensities were observed in 41 MRIs (30.8 %). Parenchymal defects were found in 31 MRIs (23.3 %), and atrophy was detected in 20 MRIs (15.0 %). Patients who had seizures were more associated with gray matter hyperintensities than patients with other neuropsychiatric manifestations. Patients with cerebrovascular disease were more associated with gray matter hyperintensity, parenchymal defects, and abnormal DWI than patients with other neuropsychiatric manifestations. In addition to white matter hyperintensities, which were previously known as SLE findings, we also noted the presence of gray matter hyperintensities, parenchymal defects, and abnormal DWI in a substantial portion of SLE patients, particularly in those with cerebrovascular disease or seizures.
Rheumatology International 10/2014; · 1.63 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We aimed to evaluate whether methotrexate (MTX) in vitro induces apoptosis in synoviocytes obtained from rheumatoid arthritis patients and whether the apoptosis inducing effect of MTX to synoviocytes is correlated with the clinical responsiveness to MTX in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We evaluated 18 patients with RA taking MTX 15-20 mg/week as the subject group (nine responders and nine non-responders) and ten patients with osteoarthritis (OA) and nine patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) as the control group. Synoviocytes, cultured from the synovial fluid of the knee joint of each subject, were used for experiments between passages 4 and 6, and were treated with MTX. The induction of apoptosis was determined by the quantification of DNA hypoploidy by flow cytometry, nuclear morphology, caspases activation, DNA electrophoresis, and mitochondrial membrane potential measurements. The viability of synoviocytes treated with MTX was different between the MTX responders and nonresponders. MTX induced apoptosis in cultured synoviocytes by mitochondria- and caspase-dependent manners in the MTX responders but did not in the MTX non-responder, OA, and AS patients. The apoptotic responsiveness of the synoviocytes to MTX predicts the sensitivity to MTX treatment and provides a method determine the early application of an anti-tumor necrosis factor-α agent in RA treatment.
Archives of Pharmacal Research 03/2014; · 1.54 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An isolate of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum CC110 was selected as an effective antagonist for biological control of cucumber downy mildew caused by Pseudoperonospora cubensis. Temperature range for growth of CC110 isolate was , and its optimal temperature at . pH range for growth of CC110 isolate was 4.5~9.5, and its optimal pH at 7.0. In this study, the most effective sources of carbon and nitrogen for growth of CC110 isolate were fructose and yeast extract, respectively. The volatile of CC110 isolate was found to be effective to control downy mildew on cucumber showing no diseased area whereas that of control was 13.2% using the I plate bioassay. The culture broth and cells of isolate CC110 cultured in TSB media for 48 hours at inhibited occurrence of cucumber downy mildew. The cells and culture broth were transformed into sporangia of P. cubensis by in observation under light microscope and scanning electron microscope.
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science. 12/2013; 17(4).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bacillus amyloliquefaciens M27 was selected as a control agent for the biological control of cucumber powdery mildew. The new mixture of B.amyloliquefaciens M27 and plant (Eucalytus) extract was developed to improve the control activity of B.amyloliquefaciens M27 against cucumber powdery mildew. The mixed formulation showed the high preventive and curative control effect against cucumber powdery mildew when it was diluted at 500 times and foliar-sprayed. Its control effect was higher in preventive spraying than curative spraying. When 500-fold diluted solution of the formulation was sprayed preventively four times at five-day intervals, three times at seven-day intervals and twice at ten-day intervals, the diseased leaf area was shown to be 4.4%, 8.0%, 27.9%, respectively; Whereas the diseased leaf area in the control plot was 45.4%. When the 500-fold diluted formulation was sprayed curatively four times at five-day intervals, three times at seven-day intervals and twice at ten-day intervals after occurred cucumber powdery mildew, the diseases leaf area was 11.5%, 25.2%, 51.8%, respectively; whereas in the control plot, the diseases leaf area was 64.3%. When the 500-fold diluted formulation was treated four times at five-day intervals in the plastic house, its control effect was higher than that treated three times at seven-day intervals and twice at ten-day intervals. As the results, the mixed formulation of B.amyloliquefaciens M27 and plant extract could be a promising candidate of bio-fungicides for the environment-friendly control of powdery mildew of cucumber.
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science. 12/2013; 17(4).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to select antagonists for biological control of downy mildew of cucumber, 126 bacteria were isolated from cucumber plants collected from several locations in Korea. Among them, Five isolates were selected as potential biocontrol agents of cucumber downy mildew using a leaf disc bioassay method. In preventive and curative effect tests, the isolate CC110 was found to be effective to control downy mildew on cucumber showing diseased area by 0% whereas that of control was 15.0~18.0%. A bacterium isolate CC110 was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum based on phylogenetic analysis using gyrB gene sequence. The culture liquid of isolate CC110 in TSB media were more effective for the control of the disease than those cultured in LB, NB, and KB media in leaf disk bioassay. when undiluted liquid, two-fold, five-fold diluted culture broth, and undiluted liquid, two-fold, five-fold diluted filtrate of isolate CC110 in TSB media were treated, diseased area of cucumber powdery mildew were 0%, 3.0%, 8.0%, 0%, 4.0% and 7.0%, respectively, whereas diseased area in the control was 21.0%. In the cucumber seedling tests, when the culture broth of isolate CC110 in TSB media was treated, diseased area were 35.0%, whereas that of control was 82.0%. When B. amyloliquefaciens CC110 was treated four times at five-day interval in the vinylhouse test, the control effect of cucumber downy mildew was higher than that treated three at seven-day interval.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pseudo-pseudo Meigs' syndrome or Tjalma syndrome is a rare manifestation of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus defined by the presence of ascites, pleural effusions, and an elevated cancer antigen 125 level. In this case, we described a patient with lupus who presented with sudden impaired renal function and subsequent development of massive ascites with marked high serum ferritin. Hyperferritinemia is one of the abnormal laboratory findings in severe inflammation with ferritin functioning as an inflammatory marker. However, its correlation with lupus activity remains unclear. Therefore, a review of the literature regarding pseudo-pseudo Meigs' syndrome associated with lupus and high ferritin level in this disease was carried out.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to test effect of fungicides on the spore germination and mycelial growth of BotaniGard(Beauveria bassiana GHA). Eight fungicides, which are using for plant disease control in cucumber cultivation, with different concentration were mixed with conidia of GHA isolate for 0.5, 2, and 4 hours. The fungicides trifluminazol, fenarimol, ethaboxam, copper hydroxide and tetraconazol did significantly not inhibit on spore germination and mycelial growth. The trifluminazol, propineb and tetraconazol on high concentrations inhibited the mycelial growth of GHA. However, mixing time of fungicide with conidia of GHA did not affect in spore germination and mycelial growth. These results suggest that fungicide effect needed be checked before mycopesticide is applied in the field.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bacillus amyloliquefaciens M27 was isolated from the cotton-waste compost for cultivation of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus). B. amyloliquefaciens M27 is a biocontrol agent with antagonistic activities against a wide range of fungal pathogens. The aim of this work was to evaluate the possibility of exploiting antagonistic bacteria, B. amyloliquefaciens M27, in the biological control of the cucumber powdery mildew fungus, Podosphaera fusca. In greenhouse tests, the isolate was found to be very effective to control powdery mildew on cucumber leaves showing 4.0% diseased area, whereas diseased area in the control was 80.5%. The filtrate of the isolate cultured on MH and LB media were more effective for control of the disease than those cultured on TSB, NB, and KB media. When two, five, ten, 20, 50 and 100-fold diluted culture broth of isolate on LB media were treated, disease areas were 0%, 0%, 0%, 1.3%, 3.1% and 5.0%, respectively, whereas diseased area in the control was 60.0%. The filtrate of the isolate cultured on LB media was treated to cucumber plants on July, October and December just before the outbreak of the powdery mildew occurred. When 10-fold diluted filtrate of the isolate was treated, control efficacy was 88.9~98.9% in the treated seasons. The results showed that the culture filtrate of B. amyloliquefaciens M27 was very effective to control powdery mildew of cucumber.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sclerotium cepivorum is a causal agent of white rot disease on different plants including Allium species such as garlic. A mycoparasite, Paraconiothyrium minitans S134 was selected for biological control of sclerotinia rot of garlic caused by S. cepivorum. The experiment was carried out in a garlic field in Taean from October in 2011 to June in 2012. Spore suspension of the mycoparasite was treated twice onto soil surface around garlic plants in sowing in 2011 and late Feb. in 2012, and disease rating was made June in 2012. Incidence of white rot in the twice-application plot of the mycoparasite ( spores/mL) and in the fluquinconazole (WP)-treated plot was 6.8% and 0.4%, respectively, whereas that of control was 19.5%. As the results, P. minitans S134 could be a prospective biofungicide for biological control of white rot of garlic.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Stem canker and tuber rot symptoms were observed on yam grown in Andong and Jinju, Korea in 2011. A total of 20 isolates of Rhizoctonia and allied fungi were obtained from the symptomatic plants. Among the isolates, 8 isolates were identified as Rhizoctonia solani and 12 isolates as Ceratobasidium sp. based on rDNA-internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence similarity. In the cluster analysis of rDNA-ITS sequences, 7 isolates of R. solani belonged to AG 2-2IIIB and remaining one to AG 1-1A. In addition, among the 12 isolates of Ceratobasidium sp., 7 isolates belonged to AG-Fa, three isolates to AG-A and the other two isolates to AG-Fb and AG-O, respectively. Pathogenicity tests showed that all the R. solani AG 2-2IIIB isolates are pathogenic on stem and tuber of yam but R. solani AG 1-1A and all the Ceratobasidium isolates are non-pathogenic. The results indicate that R. solani AG 2-2IIIB is an important pathogen causing stem canker and tuber rot on yams grown in the study areas. This is the first report of R. solani AG 2-2IIIB causing stem canker and tuber rot of yam in Korea.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Streptomyces spp. were isolated from rhizosphere in fallow lands. The Streptomyces spp. were identified as Streptomyces griseus (MSS181), Streptomyces griseoaurantiacus (MSS269), Streptomyces microflavus (MSS275), Streptomyces herbaricolor (MSS276) based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. Afterwards, cucumber, pepper, tobacco and tomato were drenched with the isolates at early growth stages and plant growth such as height and dry weight of plants was measured. By treatment of Streptomyce spp., plant height of cucumber was increased by 16-29% compared to the control, But there were no statistically significant differences in dry weight. When the same isolates were treated on chili-pepper, plant height and dry weight of chili-pepper were increased respectively by 10-19% and 19-25% compared to the control. The dry weight of tobacco and tomato were increased by 44-73% and 65-165%, respectively compared to the control. When antifungal activities of the isolates were tested against plant pathogenic fungi, Streptomyces microflavus (MSS275) effectively inhibited the mycelial growth of Phytophthora capsici, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science. 12/2012; 16(4).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sleeping blight was observed on soybean plants grown in Yanggu, Suwon and Geumsan from 2005 to 2011. Symptoms developed on stems and pods of affected soybean plants. Five fungal isolates were obtained from the diseased plants and identified as Septogloeum sojae based on their morphological, cultural and molecular characteristics. Pathogenicity of the fungus was confirmed on soybean plants by artificial inoculation. This is the first report of S. sojae causing sleeping blight in soybean plants in Korea.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In June 2012, leaf spot and stem rot were observed on Wilford Swallowwort plants grown in Cheonan, Korea. Three fungal isolates obtained from the diseased leaves and stems were identified as Stemphylium lycopersici, based on morphological, cultural, and molecular characteristics and pathogenicity. This is the first report of leaf spot and stem rot on Wilford Swallowwort caused by S. lycopersici.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To identify the predictors for the development of severe gastroduodenal toxicity (GDT) in patients treated with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) using 3 fractionations for abdominopelvic malignancies.
From 2001 to 2011, 202 patients with abdominopelvic malignancies were treated with curative-intent SBRT. Among these patients, we retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of 40 patients with the eligibility criteria as follows: 3 fractionations, follow-up period ≥1 year, absence of previous radiation therapy (RT) history or combination of external-beam RT and the presence of gastroduodenum (GD) that received a dose higher than 20% of prescribed dose. The median SBRT dose was 45 Gy (range, 33-60 Gy) with 3 fractions. We analyzed the clinical and dosimetric parameters, including multiple dose-volume histogram endpoints: V(20) (volume of GD that received 20 Gy), V(25), V(30), V(35), and D(max) (the maximum point dose). The grade of GDT was defined by the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria version 4.0, and GDT ≥grade 3 was defined as severe GDT.
The median time to the development of severe GDT was 6 months (range, 3-12 months). Severe GDT was found in 6 patients (15%). D(max) was the best dosimetric predictor for severe GDT. D(max) of 35 Gy and 38 Gy were respectively associated with a 5% and 10% probability of the development of severe GDT. A history of ulcer before SBRT was the best clinical predictor on univariate analysis (P=.0001).
We suggest that D(max) is a valuable predictor of severe GDT after SBRT using 3 fractionations for abdominopelvic malignancies. A history of ulcer before SBRT should be carefully considered as a clinical predictor, especially in patients who receive a high dose to GD.
International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics 11/2012; 84(4):e469-74. · 4.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies have reported that a Gamitrinib variant containing triphenylphosphonium (G-TPP) binds to mitochondrial Hsp90 and rapidly inhibits its activity, thus inducing the apoptotic pathway in the cells. Accordingly, G-TPP shows a potential as a promising drug for the treatment of cancer. A cell can die from different types of cell death such as apoptosis, necrosis, necroptosis, and autophagic cell death. In this study, we further investigated the mechanisms and modes of cell death in the G-TPP-treated Hep3B and U937 cell lines. We discovered that G-TPP kills the U937 cells through the apoptotic pathway and the overexpression of Bcl-2 significantly inhibits U937 cell death to G-TPP. We further discovered that G-TPP kills the Hep3B cells by activating necroptosis in combination with the partial activation of caspase-dependent apoptosis. Importantly, G-TPP overcomes the apoptosis resistance conferred by Bcl-2 in Hep3B cells via necroptosis. We also observed that G-TPP induces compensatory autophagy in the Hep3B cell line. We further found that whereas there is a Bcl-2-Beclin 1 interaction in response to G-TPP, silencing the beclin 1 gene failed to block LC3-II accumulation in the Hep3B cells, indicating that G-TPP triggers Beclin 1-independant protective autophagy in Hep3B cells. Taken together, these data reveal that G-TPP induces cell death through a combination of death pathways, including necroptosis and apoptosis, and overcomes the apoptosis resistance conferred by Bcl-2 in Hep3B cells via necroptosis. These findings are important for the therapeutic exploitation of necroptosis as an alternative cell death program to bypass the resistance to apoptosis.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 11/2012; · 3.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although crystallins are major structural proteins in the lens, α-crystallins perform non-lens functions, and αB-crystallin has been shown to act as an anti-apoptotic mediator in various cells. The present study was undertaken to examine whether αB-crystallin expressed in human malignant glioma cells exerts anti-apoptotic acitivity. In addition, we sought to elucidate the mechanism underlying any observed anti-apoptotic function of αB-crystallin in these cells. Three glioma cell lines, U373MG, U118MG, and T98G, were used. We observed that only the U373MG cell line expresses αB-crystallin, whereas the other 2 glioma cell lines, U118MG and T98G, demonstrated no endogenous expression of αB-crystallin. We next observed that the silencing of αB-crystallin sensitized U373MG cells to suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA)-induced apoptosis and that αB-crystallin associates with caspase-3 and XIAP. Because XIAP is the most potent suppressor of mammalian apoptosis through the direct binding with caspases, we assessed whether XIAP also plays an anti-apoptotic role in SAHA-induced apoptosis in αB-crystallin-expressing U373MG cells. Of note, the silencing of XIAP did not alter the amount of cell death induced by SAHA, indicating that XIAP does not exert an anti-apoptotic activity in U373MG cells. We then determined whether the ectopic expression of αB-crystallin in glioma cells caused a loss of the anti-apoptotic activity of XIAP. Accordingly, we established 2 αB-crystallin over-expressing glioma cell lines, U118MG and T98G, and found that the silencing of XIAP did not sensitize these cells to SAHA-induced apoptosis. These findings suggest that αB-crystallin expressed in glioma cells overrides the anti-apoptotic activity exerted by XIAP.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 57-year-old man with rheumatoid arthritis presented severe abdominal pain symptomatic of panperitonitis. Computer tomography findings were consistent with vasculitis on the jejunum. Confirmatory angiography was conducted. Since abdominal vasculitis in rheumatoid arthritis is very rare, early diagnosis and treatment should be done according to clinical manifestation. In this case, high-dose steroid treatment was applied based on clinical manifestation, laboratory findings, and radiologic finding. After therapy, clinical manifestation and flare-up arthritis diminished.