[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA) is an often severe, potentially life-threatening childhood inflammatory disease, the pathophysiology of which is poorly understood. To determine whether genetic variation within the MHC locus on chromosome 6 influences sJIA susceptibility, we performed an association study of 982 children with sJIA and 8,010 healthy control subjects from nine countries. Using meta-analysis of directly observed and imputed SNP genotypes and imputed classic HLA types, we identified the MHC locus as a bona fide susceptibility locus with effects on sJIA risk that transcended geographically defined strata. The strongest sJIA-associated SNP, rs151043342 [P = 2.8 × 10(-17), odds ratio (OR) 2.6 (2.1, 3.3)], was part of a cluster of 482 sJIA-associated SNPs that spanned a 400-kb region and included the class II HLA region. Conditional analysis controlling for the effect of rs151043342 found that rs12722051 independently influenced sJIA risk [P = 1.0 × 10(-5), OR 0.7 (0.6, 0.8)]. Meta-analysis of imputed classic HLA-type associations in six study populations of Western European ancestry revealed that HLA-DRB1*11 and its defining amino acid residue, glutamate 58, were strongly associated with sJIA [P = 2.7 × 10(-16), OR 2.3 (1.9, 2.8)], as was the HLA-DRB1*11-HLA-DQA1*05-HLA-DQB1*03 haplotype [6.4 × 10(-17), OR 2.3 (1.9, 2.9)]. By examining the MHC locus in the largest collection of sJIA patients assembled to date, this study solidifies the relationship between the class II HLA region and sJIA, implicating adaptive immune molecules in the pathogenesis of sJIA.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 11/2015; DOI:10.1073/pnas.1520779112 · 9.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autosomal recessive mutations in proteasome subunit β 8 (PSMB8), which encodes the inducible proteasome subunit β5i, cause the immune-dysregulatory disease chronic atypical neutrophilic dermatosis with lipodystrophy and elevated temperature (CANDLE), which is classified as a proteasome-associated autoinflammatory syndrome (PRAAS). Here, we identified 8 mutations in 4 proteasome genes, PSMA3 (encodes α7), PSMB4 (encodes β7), PSMB9 (encodes β1i), and proteasome maturation protein (POMP), that have not been previously associated with disease and 1 mutation in PSMB8 that has not been previously reported. One patient was compound heterozygous for PSMB4 mutations, 6 patients from 4 families were heterozygous for a missense mutation in 1 inducible proteasome subunit and a mutation in a constitutive proteasome subunit, and 1 patient was heterozygous for a POMP mutation, thus establishing a digenic and autosomal dominant inheritance pattern of PRAAS. Function evaluation revealed that these mutations variably affect transcription, protein expression, protein folding, proteasome assembly, and, ultimately, proteasome activity. Moreover, defects in proteasome formation and function were recapitulated by siRNA-mediated knockdown of the respective subunits in primary fibroblasts from healthy individuals. Patient-isolated hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells exhibited a strong IFN gene-expression signature, irrespective of genotype. Additionally, chemical proteasome inhibition or progressive depletion of proteasome subunit gene transcription with siRNA induced transcription of type I IFN genes in healthy control cells. Our results provide further insight into CANDLE genetics and link global proteasome dysfunction to increased type I IFN production.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Behçet's disease is a chronic multisystem inflammatory disorder characterized mainly by recurrent oral ulcers, ocular involvement, genital ulcers, and skin lesions, presenting with remissions and exacerbations. It is thought that both environmental and genetic factors contribute to its onset and development. Although the etiology of Behçet's disease remains unclear, recent immunogenetic findings are providing clues to its pathogenesis. In addition to the positive association of HLA-B*51, which was identified more than four decades ago, and which has since been confirmed in multiple populations, recent studies report additional independent associations in the major histocompatibility complex class I region. HLA-B*15, -B*27, -B*57, and -A*26 are independent risk factors for Behçet's disease, while HLA-B*49 and -A*03 are independent class I alleles that are protective for Behçet's disease. Genome-wide association studies have identified associations with genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10(-8)) in the IL23R-IL12RB2, IL10, STAT4, CCR1-CCR3, KLRC4, ERAP1, TNFAIP3, and FUT2 loci. In addition, targeted next-generation sequencing has revealed the involvement of rare nonsynonymous variants of IL23R, TLR4, NOD2, and MEFV in Behçet's disease pathogenesis. Significant differences in gene function or mRNA expression associated with the risk alleles of the disease susceptibility loci suggest which genes in a disease-associated locus influence disease pathogenesis. These genes encompass both innate and adaptive immunity and confirm the importance of the predominant polarization towards helper T cell (Th) 1 versus Th2 cells, and the involvement of Th17 cells. In addition, epistasis observed between HLA-B*51 and the risk coding haplotype of the endoplasmic reticulum-associated protease, ERAP1, provides a clue that an HLA class I-peptide presentation-based mechanism contributes to this complex disease.
Journal of Autoimmunity 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jaut.2015.08.013 · 8.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This article will review the genetic evidence implicating ERAP1, which encodes the endoplasmic reticulum-associated amino-peptidase 1, in susceptibility to rheumatic disease.
Genetic variants and haplotypes of ERAP1 are associated with AS, psoriasis, and Behçet's disease in people of varying ancestries. In each of these diseases, disease-associated variants of ERAP1 have been shown to interact with disease-associated class I human leukocyte antigen alleles to influence disease risk. Functionally, disease-associated missense variants of ERAP1 concertedly alter ERAP1 enzymatic function, both quantitatively and qualitatively, whereas other disease-associated variants influence ERAP1 expression. Therefore, ERAP1 haplotypes (or allotypes) should be examined as functional units. Biologically, this amounts to an examination of the gene regulation and function of the protein encoded by each allotype. Genetically, the relationship between disease risk and ERAP1 allotypes should be examined to determine whether allotypes or individual variants produce the most parsimonious risk models.
Future investigations of ERAP1 should focus on comprehensively characterizing naturally occurring ERAP1 allotypes, examining the enzymatic function and gene expression of each allotype, and identifying specific allotypes that influence disease susceptibility.
Current opinion in rheumatology 05/2015; 27(4). DOI:10.1097/BOR.0000000000000189 · 4.89 Impact Factor