Daniel L Kastner

National Human Genome Research Institute, Maryland, United States

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Publications (187)1983.17 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Behçet's disease (BD) is a multi-system inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology. Two recent genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of BD confirmed a strong association with the MHC class I region and identified two non-HLA common genetic variations. In complex diseases, multiple factors may target different sets of genes in the same pathway and thus may cause the same disease phenotype. We therefore hypothesized that identification of disease-associated pathways is critical to elucidate mechanisms underlying BD, and those pathways may be conserved within and across populations. To identify the disease-associated pathways, we developed a novel methodology that combines nominally significant evidence of genetic association with current knowledge of biochemical pathways, protein-protein interaction networks, and functional information of selected SNPs. Using this methodology, we searched for the disease-related pathways in two BD GWASs in Turkish and Japanese case-control groups. We found that 6 of the top 10 identified pathways in both populations were overlapping, even though there were few significantly conserved SNPs/genes within and between populations. The probability of random occurrence of such an event was 2.24E-39. These shared pathways were focal adhesion, MAPK signaling, TGF-β signaling, ECM-receptor interaction, complement and coagulation cascades, and proteasome pathways. Even though each individual has a unique combination of factors involved in their disease development, the targeted pathways are expected to be mostly the same. Hence, the identification of shared pathways between the Turkish and the Japanese patients using GWAS data may help further elucidate the inflammatory mechanisms in BD pathogenesis.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 17 September 2014; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2014.158.
    European journal of human genetics: EJHG 09/2014; · 3.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To describe the pregnancy course and outcome, and use of anakinra, a recombinant selective IL-1 receptor blocker, during pregnancy in patients with cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes (CAPS), including familial cold auto-inflammatory syndrome (FCAS), Muckle-Wells syndrome (MWS) and neonatal onset multi-system inflammatory disease (NOMID).Methods: Women currently enrolled in natural history protocols (NCT00059748, and/or NCT00069329 under IND) who have been pregnant were included. Subjects underwent a structured, standardized interview with regards to maternal health, pregnancy and fetal outcomes. Medical records were reviewed.Results: Nine women (four with FCAS, one with MWS and four with NOMID) reported one to four pregnancies, each resulting in a total of fifteen FCAS, three MWS, and six NOMID pregnancies. Six births from FCAS mothers and three births from NOMID mothers occurred while patients were receiving anakinra. If a woman became pregnant while taking anakinra, the pre-pregnancy anakinra dose was continued. Anakinra dose was increased during one twin pregnancy. No preterm births or serious complications of pregnancy were observed. One fetus of the twin pregnancy had renal agenesis and suffered fetal demise. Genetic testing showed the deceased twin carried the same NLRP3 c.785T>C, p.V262A mutation as the mother. The other twin is healthy and mutation negative.Conclusions: Anakinra was continued during pregnancy in women with CAPS and provided significant, persistent CAPS symptom relief while continuing to prevent the long-term sequelae of CAPS. Anakinra was well tolerated. Although a causal relation between anakinra and renal agenesis seems unlikely, further safety data are needed. © 2014 American College of Rheumatology.
    Arthritis & Rheumatology. 08/2014;
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    Daniel L Kastner, Qing Zhou, Ivona Aksentijevich
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    ABSTRACT: Because ADA2 is primarily expressed in lineages derived from bone marrow, we have proposed that HSCT might be effective in the treatment of ADA2 deficiency. Two groups (van Montfrans et al. and Van Eyck, Liston, and Meyts) have now reported the efficacy of this approach in two unrelated patients homozygous for the p.Arg169Gln mutation inCECR1. The effectiveness of HSCT is consistent with the knowledge that monocytes and macrophages are the main source of serum ADA2 and provides support for the feasibility of ADA2 replacement therapy. On the basis of the findings of Navon Elkan et al., treatment with anti-TNF agents may represent an effective alternative, but broader experience and longer follow-up are required before we can be certain. Fresh-frozen plasma infusions represent another therapeutic possibility, but careful pharmacokinetic analyses will be needed before the practicality of this approach can be assessed. Bras et al. have extended the phenotypic spectrum of ADA2 deficiency to include a familial form of Sneddon's syndrome, in which patients have intermittent fever, livedo racemosa, and ischemic or hemorrhagic strokes, but for these patients the effects of ADA2 deficiency developed later in life than they did for the patients we described. More unexpectedly, Van Eyck, Liston, and Wouters report a Jewish child who is homozygous for the p.Gly47Arg mutation in CECR1, had negative test results for HHV-8, has a phenotype similar to that of Castleman's disease, and has markedly elevated serum interleukin-6 levels. We have not observed significantly increased serum levels of interleukin-6 in the patients with ADA2 deficiency whom we have assessed, and we did not findCECR1 mutations in a single patient with HHV-8-negative Castleman's disease in our clinic.
    New England Journal of Medicine 07/2014; 371(5):480-1. · 51.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background The study of autoinflammatory diseases has uncovered mechanisms underlying cytokine dysregulation and inflammation. Methods We analyzed the DNA of an index patient with early-onset systemic inflammation, cutaneous vasculopathy, and pulmonary inflammation. We sequenced a candidate gene, TMEM173, encoding the stimulator of interferon genes (STING), in this patient and in five unrelated children with similar clinical phenotypes. Four children were evaluated clinically and immunologically. With the STING ligand cyclic guanosine monophosphate-adenosine monophosphate (cGAMP), we stimulated peripheral-blood mononuclear cells and fibroblasts from patients and controls, as well as commercially obtained endothelial cells, and then assayed transcription of IFNB1, the gene encoding interferon-β, in the stimulated cells. We analyzed IFNB1 reporter levels in HEK293T cells cotransfected with mutant or nonmutant STING constructs. Mutant STING leads to increased phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1), so we tested the effect of Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors on STAT1 phosphorylation in lymphocytes from the affected children and controls. Results We identified three mutations in exon 5 of TMEM173 in the six patients. Elevated transcription of IFNB1 and other gene targets of STING in peripheral-blood mononuclear cells from the patients indicated constitutive activation of the pathway that cannot be further up-regulated with stimulation. On stimulation with cGAMP, fibroblasts from the patients showed increased transcription of IFNB1 but not of the genes encoding interleukin-1 (IL1), interleukin-6 (IL6), or tumor necrosis factor (TNF). HEK293T cells transfected with mutant constructs show elevated IFNB1 reporter levels. STING is expressed in endothelial cells, and exposure of these cells to cGAMP resulted in endothelial activation and apoptosis. Constitutive up-regulation of phosphorylated STAT1 in patients' lymphocytes was reduced by JAK inhibitors. Conclusions STING-associated vasculopathy with onset in infancy (SAVI) is an autoinflammatory disease caused by gain-of-function mutations in TMEM173. (Funded by the Intramural Research Program of the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00059748 .).
    New England Journal of Medicine 07/2014; · 51.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The HLA protein, HLA-B*51, encoded by HLA-B in MHC, is the strongest known genetic risk factor for Behçet disease (BD). Associations between BD and other factors within the MHC have been reported also, although strong regional linkage disequilibrium complicates their confident disentanglement from HLA-B*51. In the current study, we examined a combination of directly obtained and imputed MHC-region SNPs, directly obtained HLA-B locus types, and imputed classical HLA types with their corresponding polymorphic amino acid residues for association with BD in 1,190 cases and 1,257 controls. SNP mapping with logistic regression of the MHC identified the HLA-B/MICA region and the region between HLA-F and HLA-A as independently associated with BD (P < 1.7 × 10(-8)). HLA-B*51, -A*03, -B*15, -B*27, -B*49, -B*57, and -A*26 each contributed independently to BD risk. We directly examined rs116799036, a noncoding SNP upstream of HLA-B that was recently suggested to underlie the association of HLA-B*51 with BD, but we were unable to replicate that finding in our collection. Instead, we mapped the BD association to seven MHC class I (MHC-I) amino acid residues, including anchor residues that critically define the selection and binding of peptides to MHC-I molecules, residues known to influence MHC-I-killer immunoglobulin-like receptor interactions, and a residue located in the signal peptide of HLA-B. The locations of these variants collectively implicate MHC-I peptide binding in the pathophysiology of BD. Furthermore, several lines of evidence suggest a role for altered regulation of cellular cytotoxicity in BD pathogenesis.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 05/2014; · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background We observed a syndrome of intermittent fevers, early-onset lacunar strokes and other neurovascular manifestations, livedoid rash, hepatosplenomegaly, and systemic vasculopathy in three unrelated patients. We suspected a genetic cause because the disorder presented in early childhood. Methods We performed whole-exome sequencing in the initial three patients and their unaffected parents and candidate-gene sequencing in three patients with a similar phenotype, as well as two young siblings with polyarteritis nodosa and one patient with small-vessel vasculitis. Enzyme assays, immunoblotting, immunohistochemical testing, flow cytometry, and cytokine profiling were performed on samples from the patients. To study protein function, we used morpholino-mediated knockdowns in zebrafish and short hairpin RNA knockdowns in U937 cells cultured with human dermal endothelial cells. Results All nine patients carried recessively inherited mutations in CECR1 (cat eye syndrome chromosome region, candidate 1), encoding adenosine deaminase 2 (ADA2), that were predicted to be deleterious; these mutations were rare or absent in healthy controls. Six patients were compound heterozygous for eight CECR1 mutations, whereas the three patients with polyarteritis nodosa or small-vessel vasculitis were homozygous for the p.Gly47Arg mutation. Patients had a marked reduction in the levels of ADA2 and ADA2-specific enzyme activity in the blood. Skin, liver, and brain biopsies revealed vasculopathic changes characterized by compromised endothelial integrity, endothelial cellular activation, and inflammation. Knockdown of a zebrafish ADA2 homologue caused intracranial hemorrhages and neutropenia - phenotypes that were prevented by coinjection with nonmutated (but not with mutated) human CECR1. Monocytes from patients induced damage in cocultured endothelial-cell layers. Conclusions Loss-of-function mutations in CECR1 were associated with a spectrum of vascular and inflammatory phenotypes, ranging from early-onset recurrent stroke to systemic vasculopathy or vasculitis. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health Intramural Research Programs and others.).
    New England Journal of Medicine 02/2014; · 51.66 Impact Factor
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    Dataset: GALONIMM
  • Michael J. Ombrello, Keith A. Sikora, Daniel L. Kastner
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    ABSTRACT: Genetic and genomic investigations are a starting point for the study of human disease, seeking to discover causative variants relevant to disease pathophysiology. Over the past 5 years, massively parallel, high-throughput, next-generation sequencing techniques have revolutionized genetics and genomics, identifying the causes of many Mendelian diseases. The application of whole-genome sequencing and whole-exome sequencing to large populations has produced several publicly available sequence datasets that have revealed the scope of human genetic variation and have contributed to important methodological advances in the study of both common and rare genetic variants in genetically complex diseases. The importance of noncoding genetic variation has been highlighted by the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project and National Institutes of Health (NIH) Roadmap Epigenomics Program and integrated analyses of these datasets, together with disease-specific datasets, will provide an important and powerful tool for determining the mechanisms through which disease-associated, noncoding variation influences disease risk.
    Best Practice & Research Clinical Rheumatology. 01/2014; 28(2):175–189.
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    ABSTRACT: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are a powerful means of identifying genes with disease-associated common variants, but they are not well-suited to detecting genes with disease-associated rare and low-frequency variants. In the current study of Behçet disease (BD), nonsynonymous variants (NSVs) identified by deep exonic resequencing of 10 genes found by GWAS (IL10, IL23R, CCR1, STAT4, KLRK1, KLRC1, KLRC2, KLRC3, KLRC4, and ERAP1) and 11 genes selected for their role in innate immunity (IL1B, IL1R1, IL1RN, NLRP3, MEFV, TNFRSF1A, PSTPIP1, CASP1, PYCARD, NOD2, and TLR4) were evaluated for BD association. A differential distribution of the rare and low-frequency NSVs of a gene in 2,461 BD cases compared with 2,458 controls indicated their collective association with disease. By stringent criteria requiring at least a single burden test with study-wide significance and a corroborating test with at least nominal significance, rare and low-frequency NSVs in one GWAS-identified gene, IL23R (P = 6.9 × 10(-5)), and one gene involved in innate immunity, TLR4 (P = 8.0 × 10(-4)), were associated with BD. In addition, damaging or rare damaging NOD2 variants were nominally significant across all three burden tests applied (P = 0.0063-0.045). Furthermore, carriage of the familial Mediterranean fever gene (MEFV) mutation Met694Val, which is known to cause recessively inherited familial Mediterranean fever, conferred BD risk in the Turkish population (OR, 2.65; P = 1.8 × 10(-12)). The disease-associated NSVs in MEFV and TLR4 implicate innate immune and bacterial sensing mechanisms in BD pathogenesis.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 04/2013; · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Individuals with Behçet's disease suffer from episodic inflammation often affecting the orogenital mucosa, skin and eyes. To discover new susceptibility loci for Behçet's disease, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 779,465 SNPs with imputed genotypes in 1,209 Turkish individuals with Behçet's disease and 1,278 controls. We identified new associations at CCR1, STAT4 and KLRC4. Additionally, two SNPs in ERAP1, encoding ERAP1 p.Asp575Asn and p.Arg725Gln alterations, recessively conferred disease risk. These findings were replicated in 1,468 independent Turkish and/or 1,352 Japanese samples (combined meta-analysis P < 2 × 10(-9)). We also found evidence for interaction between HLA-B*51 and ERAP1 (P = 9 × 10(-4)). The CCR1 and STAT4 variants were associated with gene expression differences. Three risk loci shared with ankylosing spondylitis and psoriasis (the MHC class I region, ERAP1 and IL23R and the MHC class I-ERAP1 interaction), as well as two loci shared with inflammatory bowel disease (IL23R and IL10) implicate shared pathogenic pathways in the spondyloarthritides and Behçet's disease.
    Nature Genetics 01/2013; · 35.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To analyse gene expression patterns and to define a specific gene expression signature in patients with the severe end of the spectrum of cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes (CAPS). The molecular consequences of interleukin 1 inhibition were examined by comparing gene expression patterns in 16 CAPS patients before and after treatment with anakinra. METHODS: We collected peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 22 CAPS patients with active disease and from 14 healthy children. Transcripts that passed stringent filtering criteria (p values ≤ false discovery rate 1%) were considered as differentially expressed genes (DEG). A set of DEG was validated by quantitative reverse transcription PCR and functional studies with primary cells from CAPS patients and healthy controls. We used 17 CAPS and 66 non-CAPS patient samples to create a set of gene expression models that differentiates CAPS patients from controls and from patients with other autoinflammatory conditions. RESULTS: Many DEG include transcripts related to the regulation of innate and adaptive immune responses, oxidative stress, cell death, cell adhesion and motility. A set of gene expression-based models comprising the CAPS-specific gene expression signature correctly classified all 17 samples from an independent dataset. This classifier also correctly identified 15 of 16 post-anakinra CAPS samples despite the fact that these CAPS patients were in clinical remission. CONCLUSIONS: We identified a gene expression signature that clearly distinguished CAPS patients from controls. A number of DEG were in common with other systemic inflammatory diseases such as systemic onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis. The CAPS-specific gene expression classifiers also suggest incomplete suppression of inflammation at low doses of anakinra.
    Annals of the rheumatic diseases 12/2012; · 8.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cytopenias are key prognostic indicators of life-threatening infection, contributing to immunosuppression and mortality. Here we define a role for Caspase-1-dependent death, known as pyroptosis, in infection-induced cytopenias by studying inflammasome activation in hematopoietic progenitor cells. The NLRP1a inflammasome is expressed in hematopoietic progenitor cells and its activation triggers their pyroptotic death. Active NLRP1a induced a lethal systemic inflammatory disease that was driven by Caspase-1 and IL-1β but was independent of apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC) and ameliorated by IL-18. Surprisingly, in the absence of IL-1β-driven inflammation, active NLRP1a triggered pyroptosis of hematopoietic progenitor cells resulting in leukopenia at steady state. During periods of hematopoietic stress induced by chemotherapy or lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection, active NLRP1a caused prolonged cytopenia, bone marrow hypoplasia, and immunosuppression. Conversely, NLRP1-deficient mice showed enhanced recovery from chemotherapy and LCMV infection, demonstrating that NLRP1 acts as a cellular sentinel to alert Caspase-1 to hematopoietic and infectious stress.
    Immunity 12/2012; · 19.80 Impact Factor
  • Michael J Ombrello, Daniel L Kastner, Joshua D Milner
    Nature Immunology 12/2012; 13(12):1133-5. · 26.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mutations in the gene encoding NLRP3 cause a spectrum of autoinflammatory diseases known as cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes (CAPS). NLRP3 is a key component of one of several distinct cytoplasmic multiprotein complexes (inflammasomes) that mediate the maturation of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) by activating caspase-1. Although several models for inflammasome activation, such as K(+) efflux, generation of reactive oxygen species and lysosomal destabilization, have been proposed, the precise molecular mechanism of NLRP3 inflammasome activation, as well as the mechanism by which CAPS-associated mutations activate NLRP3, remain to be elucidated. Here we show that the murine calcium-sensing receptor (CASR) activates the NLRP3 inflammasome, mediated by increased intracellular Ca(2+) and decreased cellular cyclic AMP (cAMP). Ca(2+) or other CASR agonists activate the NLRP3 inflammasome in the absence of exogenous ATP, whereas knockdown of CASR reduces inflammasome activation in response to known NLRP3 activators. CASR activates the NLRP3 inflammasome through phospholipase C, which catalyses inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate production and thereby induces release of Ca(2+) from endoplasmic reticulum stores. The increased cytoplasmic Ca(2+) promotes the assembly of inflammasome components, and intracellular Ca(2+) is required for spontaneous inflammasome activity in cells from patients with CAPS. CASR stimulation also results in reduced intracellular cAMP, which independently activates the NLRP3 inflammasome. cAMP binds to NLRP3 directly to inhibit inflammasome assembly, and downregulation of cAMP relieves this inhibition. The binding affinity of cAMP for CAPS-associated mutant NLRP3 is substantially lower than for wild-type NLRP3, and the uncontrolled mature IL-1β production from CAPS patients' peripheral blood mononuclear cells is attenuated by increasing cAMP. Taken together, these findings indicate that Ca(2+) and cAMP are two key molecular regulators of the NLRP3 inflammasome that have critical roles in the molecular pathogenesis of CAPS.
    Nature 11/2012; · 38.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chinese translation Currently, there is no proven alternative therapy for patients with familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) that is resistant to or intolerant of colchicine. Interleukin-1 is a key proinflammatory cytokine in FMF. To assess the efficacy and safety of rilonacept, an interleukin-1 decoy receptor, in treating patients with colchicine-resistant or -intolerant FMF. Randomized, double-blind, single-participant alternating treatment study. (ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT00582907). 6 U.S. sites. Patients with FMF aged 4 years or older with 1 or more attacks per month. One of 4 treatment sequences that each included two 3-month courses of rilonacept, 2.2 mg/kg (maximum, 160 mg) by weekly subcutaneous injection, and two 3-month courses of placebo. Differences in the frequency of FMF attacks and adverse events between rilonacept and placebo. 8 males and 6 females with a mean age of 24.4 years (SD, 11.8) were randomly assigned. Among 12 participants who completed 2 or more treatment courses, the rilonacept-placebo attack risk ratio was 0.59 (SD, 0.12) (equal-tail 95% credible interval, 0.39 to 0.85). The median number of attacks per month was 0.77 (0.18 and 1.20 attacks in the first and third quartiles, respectively) with rilonacept versus 2.00 (0.90 and 2.40, respectively) with placebo (median difference, -1.74 [95% CI, -3.4 to -0.1]; P = 0.027). There were more treatment courses of rilonacept without attacks (29% vs. 0%; P = 0.004) and with a decrease in attacks of greater than 50% compared with the baseline rate during screening (75% vs. 35%; P = 0.006) than with placebo. However, the duration of attacks did not differ between placebo and rilonacept (median difference, 1.2 days [-0.5 and 2.4 days in the first and third quartiles, respectively]; P = 0.32). Injection site reactions were more frequent with rilonacept (median difference, 0 events per patient treatment month [medians of -4 and 0 in the first and third quartiles, respectively]; P = 0.047), but no differences were seen in other adverse events. Small sample size, heterogeneity of FMF mutations, age, and participant indication (colchicine resistance or intolerance) were study limitations. Rilonacept reduces the frequency of FMF attacks and seems to be a treatment option for patients with colchicine-resistant or -intolerant FMF. U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Office of Orphan Products Development.
    Annals of internal medicine 10/2012; 157(8):533-41. · 13.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Whole-exome sequencing was performed in a family affected by dominantly inherited inflammatory disease characterized by recurrent blistering skin lesions, bronchiolitis, arthralgia, ocular inflammation, enterocolitis, absence of autoantibodies, and mild immunodefi-ciency. Exome data from three samples, including the affected father and daughter and unaffected mother, were filtered for the exclusion of reported variants, along with benign variants, as determined by PolyPhen-2. A total of eight transcripts were identified as possible candidate genes. We confirmed a variant, c.2120C>A (p.Ser707Tyr), within PLCG2 as the only de novo variant that was present in two affected family members and not present in four unaffected members. PLCG2 encodes phospholipase Cg2 (PLCg2), an enzyme with a critical regulatory role in various immune and inflammatory pathways. The p.Ser707Tyr substitution is located in an autoinhi-bitory SH2 domain that is crucial for PLCg2 activation. Overexpression of the altered p.Ser707Tyr protein and ex vivo experiments using affected individuals' leukocytes showed clearly enhanced PLCg2 activity, suggesting increased intracellular signaling in the PLCg2-medi-ated pathway. Recently, our laboratory identified in individuals with cold-induced urticaria and immune dysregulation PLCG2 exon-skipping mutations resulting in protein products with constitutive phospholipase activity but with reduced intracellular signaling at physiological temperatures. In contrast, the p.Ser707Tyr substitution in PLCg2 causes a distinct inflammatory phenotype that is not provoked by cold temperatures and that has different end-organ involvement and increased intracellular signaling at physiological temperatures. Our results highlight the utility of exome-sequencing technology in finding causal mutations in nuclear families with dominantly inherited traits otherwise intractable by linkage analysis. Autoinflammatory diseases are inherited immunologic disorders caused by aberrant activation of innate immune cells, primarily neutrophils and macrophages. In a broad sense, autoinflammatory diseases could be defined as pri-mary immunodeficiencies because they result from defects in components of the innate immune response. The term autoinflammation was coined with the intent of
    The American Journal of Human Genetics 10/2012; · 11.20 Impact Factor
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    Pediatric Rheumatology 07/2012; 10(1). · 1.47 Impact Factor
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    Pediatric Rheumatology 07/2012; 10(1). · 1.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the efficacy of etanercept in improving the symptoms and underlying inflammation in patients with tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS). Fifteen patients with TRAPS were enrolled in a prospective, open-label, dose-escalation study. Patients recorded attacks, symptom severity, and use of ancillary medications in a daily diary. Blood samples were collected during each period and measured for levels of acute-phase reactants. Between 7 years and 9 years after the conclusion of the initial study, patients completed a followup survey and were evaluated to determine the long-term outcome of etanercept treatment. Etanercept treatment significantly attenuated the total symptom score and reduced the frequency of symptoms. Etanercept also reduced levels of acute-phase reactants, particularly during asymptomatic periods. During a 10-year followup period, patients continued to receive etanercept for a median of 3.3 years, with a number of patients switching to anti-interleukin-1β receptor therapy or not receiving biologic agents, most frequently citing injection site reactions and lack of efficacy as reasons for discontinuation. However, patients continuing to receive etanercept had reduced symptoms at followup. Etanercept reduces symptoms and serum levels of inflammatory markers of TRAPS in a dose-dependent manner, but does not completely normalize symptoms or acute-phase reactant levels. Although long-term adherence to etanercept is poor, continuing to receive etanercept may provide continued symptomatic benefit.
    Arthritis & Rheumatology 03/2012; 64(3):908-13. · 7.48 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

11k Citations
1,983.17 Total Impact Points


  • 2011–2014
    • National Human Genome Research Institute
      Maryland, United States
  • 1991–2012
    • National Institutes of Health
      • • Laboratory of Immunoregulation
      • • National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS)
      • • Laboratory of Clinical Investigation (LCI)
      • • Branch of Genetics
      • • Section on Cellular Neurobiology
      Bethesda, MD, United States
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Department of Medicine
      Baltimore, MD, United States
  • 1989–2011
    • National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases
      Maryland, United States
  • 2009–2010
    • Brigham and Women's Hospital
      • Division of Rheumatology, Immunology, and Allergy
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 2008–2010
    • National Eye Institute
      Maryland, United States
    • The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research
      • Robert S. Boas Center for Genomics and Human Genetics comprises
      New York City, New York, United States
    • Celera
      Alameda, California, United States
  • 2007–2009
    • University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center
      • Department of Epidemiology
      Houston, TX, United States
  • 2007–2008
    • Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard
      • Program in Medical and Population Genetics
      Cambridge, MA, United States
  • 2006
    • North Shore-Long Island Jewish Health System
      New York City, New York, United States
    • Hacettepe University
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Ankara, Ankara, Turkey
  • 2002
    • Oklahoma City University
      Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States
  • 1992–2001
    • Sheba Medical Center
      • Department of Pathology
      Gan, Tel Aviv, Israel
  • 1999
    • Tel Aviv University
      Tell Afif, Tel Aviv, Israel