[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: IMPORTANCE Few studies have evaluated the association of radiation dose with thyroid nodules among adults exposed to radiation in childhood. OBJECTIVE To evaluate radiation dose responses on the prevalence of thyroid nodules in atomic bomb survivors exposed in childhood. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This survey study investigated 3087 Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors who were younger than 10 years at exposure and participated in the thyroid study of the Adult Health Study at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation. Thyroid examinations including thyroid ultrasonography were conducted between October 2007 and October 2011, and solid nodules underwent fine-needle aspiration biopsy. Data from 2668 participants (86.4% of the total participants; mean age, 68.2 years; 1213 men; and 1455 women) with known atomic bomb thyroid radiation doses (mean dose, 0.182 Gy; median dose, 0.018 Gy; dose range, 0-4.040 Gy) were analyzed. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The prevalence of all thyroid nodules having a diameter of 10 mm or more (consisting of solid nodules [malignant and benign] and cysts), prevalence of small thyroid nodules that were less than 10 mm in diameter detected by ultrasonography, and atomic bomb radiation dose-responses.
JAMA Internal Medicine 12/2014; · 13.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the clinical course of complete right bundle branch block (RBBB) or RBBB with axis deviation (AD) in terms of subsequent pacemaker implantation for high-degree atrioventricular (AV) block or sick sinus syndrome (SSS).
Among the 16,170 atomic-bomb survivors in our biennial health examination between July 1967 and December 2010, we detected 520 newly-acquired RBBB subjects with no organic heart disease, and selected 1038 age- (at RBBB diagnosis) and sex-matched subjects without RBBB to serve as comparison subjects. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was used to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) for the risk of pacemaker implantation due to all causes, AV block or SSS between RBBB and comparison subjects and between RBBB subjects with and without AD. The risk of pacemaker implantation for RBBB was 4.79 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.89-12.58; P=0.001), 3.77 (95% CI, 1.09-13.07; P=0.036), and 6.28 (95% CI, 1.24-31.73, P=0.026) when implantation was for all causes, AV block and SSS, respectively. RBBB subjects with AD had a higher risk for all-cause pacemaker implantation than subjects without AD (HR, 3.03; 95% CI, 1.00-9.13, P=0.049). RBBB subjects with AD were younger than subjects without AD at the time of RBBB diagnosis (59.4±7.6 vs 74.4±3.1years old, P=0.019), and their progression from diagnosis to pacemaker implantation took longer (15.1±6.6 vs 6.4±3.0years, P=0.032).
RBBB, especially with AD, progresses to AV block and SSS that requires pacemaker implantation; the mechanisms by which the conduction defect progresses differ among patients with and without AD.
International journal of cardiology 03/2014; · 6.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:Wider retinal venular caliber is shown to be associated with an increased risk of stroke, while smoking is associated with a wider retinal venular caliber. However, the impact of smoking cessation on the retinal vessels has not been previously reported. We examined this issue in an adult cohort of atomic bomb survivors. Methods:In the Adult Health Study of Japanese atomic bomb survivors, 1,955 subjects had retinal photographs taken in 2006-2008. The central retinal artery and vein equivalents (CRAE and CRVE) were calculated using a semi-automated software program. Multiple surveys have assessed the effects of smoking since 1963. The associations between smoking, the time since cessation and the retinal vessel caliber were determined using linear mixed effects models. Results:The CRVE was associated with an increased number of cigarettes smoked/day among women after adjusting for potential confounding factors (age, sex, blood pressure, hypertensive medications, white blood cell count, diabetes, body mass index, lipids and radiation dose). Females who smoked 10 cigarettes per day had a 6.9-μm wider mean CRVE (p=0.001) than nonsmokers. Females who had stopped smoking for 10 or more years had a mean CRVE similar to those who had never smoked (191.8 μm vs. 194.4 μm; p=0.23). These associations were not observed in males or for CRAE. Conclusions:Wider retinal venular caliber is associated with smoking in Japanese females, however, this association becomes non-significant after 10 or more years of smoking cessation suggesting that the impact of smoking on retinal venular dilation is reversible following long-term smoking cessation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two longitudinal cohort studies of Japanese atomic bomb survivors-the life span study (LSS) and the adult health study (AHS)-from the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) indicate that total body irradiation doses less than 1 Gy are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but several questions about this association remain.In particular, the diversity of heart disease subtypes and the high prevalence of other risk factors complicate the estimates of radiation effects. Subtype-specific analyses with more reliable diagnostic criteria and measurement techniques are needed. The radiation effects on CVD risk are probably tissue-reaction (deterministic) effects, so the dose-response relationships for various subtypes of CVD may be nonlinear and therefore should be explored with several types of statistical models.Subpopulations at high risk need to be identified because effects at lower radiation doses may occur primarily in these susceptible subpopulations. Whether other CVD risk factors modify radiation effects also needs to be determined. Finally, background rates for various subtypes of CVD have historically differed substantially between Japanese and Western populations, so the generalisability to other populations needs to be examined.Cardiovascular disease mechanisms and manifestations may differ between high-dose local irradiation and low-dose total body irradiation (TBI)-microvascular damage and altered metabolism from low-dose TBI, but coronary artery atherosclerosis and thrombotic myocardial infarcts at high localised doses. For TBI, doses to organs other than the heart may be important in pathogenesis of CVD, so data on renal and liver disorders, plaque instability, microvascular damage, metabolic disorders, hypertension and various CVD biomarkers and risk factors are needed. Epidemiological, clinical and experimental studies at doses of less than 1 Gy are necessary to clarify the effects of radiation on CVD risk.
Journal of Radiological Protection 11/2013; 33(4):869-880. · 1.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Radiation has been associated with increases in noncancerous diseases. An effect of low-dose radiation on the prevalence of clinically detected glaucoma has not been previously reported. We therefore investigated the prevalence of glaucoma in A-bomb survivors and its possible association with radiation dose. A total of 1,589 people who participated in the clinical examination program for A-bomb survivors at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) between October 2006 and September 2008 and who had reconstructed radiation doses, were recruited into this cross-sectional screening study. The prevalence of glaucoma and its dose-response relationship to A-bomb radiation were measured. Each subject underwent an initial screening consisting of an interview and ophthalmological examination. Questionable cases with any indication of ocular disease, including glaucoma, were referred to local hospitals for more comprehensive evaluation. A diagnosis of glaucoma was made based on specific optic disc appearance, perimetric results and other ocular findings. Of 1,589 eligible people, we detected 284 (17.9%) cases of glaucoma overall, including 36 (2.3%) cases of primary open-angle glaucoma with intraocular pressure levels greater than 21 mmHg, 226 (14.2%) cases of normal-tension glaucoma and 25 (1.6%) cases of primary angle-closure glaucoma. Seven glaucoma risk factors were examined as potential confounders but only two needed to be included in the final model. Binary regression using a generalized estimating equation method, with adjustment for gender, age, city, cataract surgery or diabetes mellitus, revealed an odds ratio at 1 Gy of 1.31 (95% confidence interval 1.11-1.53, P = 0.001) in the case of normal-tension glaucoma, but no association for other types of glaucoma. The prevalence of normal-tension glaucoma may increase with A-bomb radiation dose, but uncertainties associated with nonparticipation (59% participation) suggest caution in the interpretation of these results until they are confirmed by other studies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the cancers that reveal increased risk of mortality and incidence in atomic bomb survivors. The incidence of gastric cancer in the Life Span Study cohort of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) increased with radiation dose (gender-averaged excess relative risk per Gy = 0.28) and remains high more than 65 years after exposure. To assess a possible role of gene-environment interaction, we examined the dose response for gastric cancer incidence based on immunosuppression-related IL-10 genotype, in a cohort study with 200 cancer cases (93 intestinal, 96 diffuse and 11 other types) among 4,690 atomic bomb survivors participating in an immunological substudy. Using a single haplotype block composed of four haplotype-tagging SNPs (comprising the major haplotype allele IL-10-ATTA and the minor haplotype allele IL-10-GGCG, which are categorized by IL-10 polymorphisms at -819A>G and -592T>G, +1177T>C and +1589A>G), multiplicative and additive models for joint effects of radiation and this IL-10 haplotyping were examined. The IL-10 minor haplotype allele(s) was a risk factor for intestinal type gastric cancer but not for diffuse type gastric cancer. Radiation was not associated with intestinal type gastric cancer. In diffuse type gastric cancer, the haplotype-specific excess relative risk (ERR) for radiation was statistically significant only in the major homozygote category of IL-10 (ERR = 0.46/Gy, P = 0.037), whereas estimated ERR for radiation with the minor IL-10 homozygotes was close to 0 and nonsignificant. Thus, the minor IL-10 haplotype might act to reduce the radiation related risk of diffuse-type gastric cancer. The results suggest that this IL-10 haplotyping might be involved in development of radiation-associated gastric cancer of the diffuse type, and that IL-10 haplotypes may explain individual differences in the radiation-related risk of gastric cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is no convincing evidence regarding radiation-induced heritable risks of adult-onset multifactorial diseases in humans, although it is important from the standpoint of protection and management of populations exposed to radiation. The objective of the present study was to examine whether parental exposure to atomic-bomb (A-bomb) radiation led to an increased risk of common polygenic, multifactorial diseases-hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, diabetes mellitus, angina pectoris, myocardial infarction or stroke-in the first-generation (F1) offspring of A-bomb survivors. A total of 11 951 F1 offspring of survivors in Hiroshima or Nagasaki, conceived after the bombing, underwent health examinations to assess disease prevalence. We found no evidence that paternal or maternal A-bomb radiation dose, or the sum of their doses, was associated with an increased risk of any multifactorial diseases in either male or female offspring. None of the 18 radiation dose-response slopes, adjusted for other risk factors for the diseases, was statistically significantly elevated. However, the study population is still in mid-life (mean age 48.6 years), and will express much of its multifactorial disease incidence in the future, so ongoing longitudinal follow-up will provide increasingly informative risk estimates regarding hereditary genetic effects for incidence of adult-onset multifactorial disease.
Journal of Radiological Protection 03/2013; 33(2):281-293. · 1.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Atomic bomb (A-bomb) radiation is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and metabolic CVD risk factors. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is also known to be a risk factor for CVD and little is known whether CKD is associated with A-bomb radiation. To examine whether CKD is associated with CVD risk factors or with A-bomb radiation in A-bomb survivors, we classified renal dysfunction in 1,040 A-bomb survivors who were examined in 2004-2007 as normal [n = 121; estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥90 ml/min/1.73 m(2)]; mild (n = 686; eGFR 60-89 ml/min/1.73 m(2)); moderate (n = 217; eGFR 30-59 ml/min/1.73 m(2)); or severe (n = 16; eGFR <30 ml/min/1.73 m(2)). Also, we diagnosed subjects in the moderate and severe renal dysfunction groups as having CKD (n = 233; eGFR <59 ml/min/1.73 m(2)). After adjusting for age, gender, and smoking and drinking habits, we looked for an association between renal dysfunction and hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM), hyperlipidemia, and metabolic syndrome (MetS), and between renal dysfunction and A-bomb radiation. Hypertension [odds ratio (OR), 1.57; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.12-2.20, P = 0.009]; DM (OR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.23-2.61, P = 0.002); hyperlipidemia (OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.12-2.14, P = 0.008); and MetS (OR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.32-2.63, P < 0.001) were associated with CKD (moderate/severe renal dysfunction), and hyperlipidemia and MetS were also associated with mild renal dysfunction. CKD (OR/Gy, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.01-1.63, P = 0.038) and severe renal dysfunction (OR/Gy, 3.19; 95% CI, 1.63-6.25, P < 0.001) were significantly associated with radiation dose. CKD associated with radiation may have played a role in the development of CVD among A-bomb survivors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: We examined colon cancer risk in atomic bomb survivors to investigate whether excess body weight after the bombings alters sensitivity to radiation effects. METHODS: Of the 56,064 Japanese atomic bomb survivors with follow-up through 2002 with self-reported anthropometric data obtained from periodic mail surveys, 1,142 were diagnosed with colon cancer. We evaluated the influence of body mass index (BMI) and height on radiation-associated colon cancer risk using Poisson regression. RESULTS: We observed a similar linear dose-response relationship for the 56,064 subjects included in our analysis and the entire cohort of Japanese atomic bomb survivors [excess relative risk (ERR) per Gray (Gy) = 0.53, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.25-0.86]. Elevation in earliest reported BMI, BMI reported closest to colon cancer diagnosis, and time-varying BMI were associated with an elevated risk of colon cancer [relative risk (RR) per 5 kg/m(2) increase in BMI = 1.14, 95 % CI 1.03-1.26; RR = 1.16, 95 % CI 1.05-1.27; and RR = 1.15, 95 % CI 1.04-1.27, respectively]. Height was not significantly related to colon cancer risk. Inclusion of anthropometric variables in models had little impact on radiation risk estimates, and there was no evidence that sensitivity to the effect of radiation on colon cancer risk depended on BMI. CONCLUSIONS: Radiation exposure and BMI are both risk factors for colon cancer. BMI at various times after exposure to the atomic bombings does not significantly influence the relationship between radiation dose and colon cancer risk, suggesting that BMI and radiation impact colon cancer risk independently of each other.
Cancer Causes and Control 10/2012; · 3.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Use of medical radiotherapy has increased markedly in recent decades. Whether the consequence includes an increased risk of cardiovascular disease remains to be determined. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between radiation exposure and the incidence of stroke among Japanese atomic bomb survivors.
A prospective follow-up study.
Radiation exposure from the atomic bombing was assessed in 9515 subjects (34.8% men) with 24-year follow-up from 1980. Subjects were free of prevalent stroke when follow-up began.
Stroke events and the underlying cause of death were reviewed to confirm the first-ever stroke. Subtypes (ischaemic and haemorrhagic events) were categorised based on established criteria according to the definitions of typical/atypical stroke symptoms.
Overall mean radiation dose (±SD) in units of gray (Gy) was 0.38±0.58 (range: 0-3.5). During the study period, 235 haemorrhagic and 607 ischaemic events were identified. For men, after adjusting for age and concomitant risk factors, the risk of haemorrhagic stroke rose consistently from 11.6 to 29.1 per 10 000 person-years as doses increased from <0.05 to ≥2 Gy (p=0.009). Incidence also rose within the dose range <1 Gy (p=0.004) with no dose threshold. In women, the risk of haemorrhagic stroke rose with increasing radiation exposure but not until doses reached a threshold of 1.3 Gy (95% CI 0.5 to 2.3). Among women, for doses <1.3 Gy, differences in stroke risk were modest (13.5 per 10 000 person-years), while it increased to 20.3 per 10 000 person-years for doses that ranged from 1.3 to <2.2 Gy and to 48.6 per 10 000 person-years for doses that were higher (p=0.002). In both sexes, dose was unrelated to ischaemic stroke.
While the risk of haemorrhagic stroke increases with rising radiation exposure for both sexes, effects in women are less apparent until doses exceed a threshold at 1.3 Gy.
BMJ Open 01/2012; 2(1):e000654. · 2.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Because red blood cell distribution width (RDW) predicted cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality, we evaluated the association between RDW and CVD risk factors in hypertensive subjects. Subjects and methods: From 2004 through 2007, 1,040 atomic bomb survivors (405 male) underwent health examination in Nagasaki, Japan. We classified subjects as having hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM), hyperlipidemia (HLP), metabolic syndrome (MetS), or chronic kidney disease (CKD). We evaluated the association of RDW with CVD risk factors (relating to anthropometric indexes, and lipid and glucose metabolism), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), pulse wave velocity (PWV) and hematological measurements and compared RDW between controls and hypertensive, DM, HLP, Mets and CKD subjects, respectively. We also compared CVD risk factors, eGFR, PWV, and hematological measurements between hypertensive subjects and controls. Results: RDW were associated positively (P < 0.05) with age, HDL-cholesterol and adiponectin, but negatively (P < 0.05) with waist circumference, BMI, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, HOMA-IR, hemoglobin and hematocrit. Hypertensive subjects had deteriorated values of anthropometric indexes, and lipid and glucose metabolism compared to controls. In addition, hypertensive subjects had lower eGFR and higher PWV than controls (P < 0.05). RDW were wider (P < 0.05) in male hypertensives (13.5 +/- 1.1%) than male controls (13.3 +/- 1.3%) but were not different between hypertensive subjects and controls in female. While, RDW were identical between controls and DM, HLP, MetS, and CKD subjects, respectively, in both sexes. Conclusion: RDW was associated with CVD risk factors and hematological measurements and may have impact on CVD in male hypertensive subjects.
Journal of Hypertension 01/2012; 30:e262. · 4.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Whole-body and thoracic ionizing radiation exposure are associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. In atomic bomb survivors, radiation dose is also associated with increased hypertension incidence, suggesting that radiation dose may be associated with chronic renal failure (CRF), thus explaining part of the mechanism for increased CVD. Multivariate Poisson regression was used to evaluate the association of radiation dose with various definitions of chronic kidney disease (CKD) mortality in the Life Span Study (LSS) of atomic bomb survivors. A secondary analysis was performed using a subsample for whom self-reported information on hypertension and diabetes, the two biggest risk factors for CRF, had been collected. We found a significant association between radiation dose and only our broadest definition of CRF among the full cohort. A quadratic dose excess relative risk model [ERR/Gy(2) = 0.091 (95% CI: 0.05, 0.198)] fit minimally better than a linear model. Within the subsample, association was also observed only with the broadest CRF definition [ERR/Gy(2) = 0.15 (95% CI: 0.02, 0.32)]. Adjustment for hypertension and diabetes improved model fit but did not substantially change the ERR/Gy(2) estimate, which was 0.17 (95% CI: 0.04, 0.35). We found a significant quadratic dose relationship between radiation dose and possible chronic renal disease mortality that is similar in shape to that observed between radiation and incidence of hypertension in this population. Our results suggest that renal dysfunction could be part of the mechanism causing increased CVD risk after whole-body irradiation, a hypothesis that deserves further study.
Radiation Research 12/2011; 177(2):220-8. · 2.70 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The clinical features of lipid infiltration in the parotid glands (LIPG) have not been studied. Monitoring of atomic-bomb survivors for late effects of radiation exposure has provided the opportunity to review the clinical findings of LIPG.
A total of 992 atomic-bomb survivors in Nagasaki, Japan underwent lachrymal and salivary secretion tests and anthropometric, biochemical, and abdominal ultrasonographic examinations between 2002 and 2004. Among 465 subjects who had reduced tear and/or salivary excretion, 176 subjects took a salivary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination.
LIPG was detected in 53 of the 176 subjects who had salivary MRI. LIPG cases showed a preponderance of females and fatty liver compared with the subjects without LIPG. Age-and-sex-adjusted regression analysis revealed that body mass index (BMI), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, hemoglobin A1c, and C-reactive protein were higher, whereas high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and adiponectin were lower, in the subjects with LIPG. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that BMI and fatty liver were mutually associated with LIPG independently from radiation dose.
LIPG associated with BMI, fatty liver, and coronary risk factors was a clinical manifestation of metabolic syndrome.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Few population-based studies report the changes with time in thyroid function tests in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. We compared the risk for developing overt hypothyroidism in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism and euthyroid controls from the same population of elderly Japanese. We also sought associations of selected parameters with the development of overt hypothyroidism in the subclinical hypothyroid and euthyroid groups.
We measured thyrotropin (TSH) and free thyroxine (T4) levels at baseline examinations performed from 2000 to 2003 in the cohort of Japanese atomic-bomb survivors and identified 71 patients with spontaneous subclinical hypothyroidism (normal free T4 and TSH >4.5 mIU/L without a history of thyroid treatment, mean age 70 year) and 562 euthyroid controls. We re-examined TSH and free T4 levels an average of 4.2 years later (range, 1.9-6.9).
The risk for progression to overt hypothyroidism was significantly increased in subclinical hypothyroid patients (7.0%) compared with control subjects (1.6%) after adjusting for age and sex (odds ratio, 4.56; p=0.009). Higher baseline TSH levels were associated with progression from subclinical to overt hypothyroidism (p=0.02) in the multivariate analysis, including age, sex, antithyroid peroxidase antibody, and ultrasonography (US) findings. The analysis using binary TSH data suggested that a TSH level >8 mIU/L was a predictive value for development of overt hypothyroidism (p=0.005). On the other hand, serum TSH levels spontaneously normalized in 38 (53.5%) of the patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. In the multivariate analysis, normalization of TSH levels was associated with lower baseline TSH levels (p=0.004) and normal and homogenous thyroid US findings (p=0.04). Atomic-bomb radiation dose was not associated with subclinical hypothyroidism or its course.
Subclinical hypothyroidism was four times more likely to be associated with development of overt hypothyroidism than euthyroid controls in the sample population of Japanese elderly. TSH levels in half of the patients normalized spontaneously when assessed after an average follow-up period of 4.2 years. Baseline TSH level and thyroid US findings are potential predictors of future thyroid function in subclinical hypothyroidism.
Thyroid: official journal of the American Thyroid Association 08/2011; 21(11):1177-82. · 2.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Early repolarization pattern is a common ECG finding characterized by J-point elevation and QRS notching or slurring in the inferior and/or lateral leads, yet little is known about its incidence and long-term prognosis in Asian populations.
We reviewed all the ECG records of the 5976 atomic-bomb survivors who were examined at least once during our biennial health examination in Nagasaki, Japan, between July 1958 and December 2004. We defined early repolarization pattern as ≥0.1-mV elevation of the J point or ST segment, with notching or slurring in at least 2 inferior and/or lateral leads. We assessed unexpected, cardiac, and all-cause death risk by Cox analysis. We identified 1429 early repolarization pattern cases (779 incident cases) during follow-up, yielding a positive rate of 23.9% and an incidence rate of 715 per 100 000 person-years. Early repolarization pattern had an elevated risk of unexpected death (hazard ratio, 1.83; 95% confidence interval, 1.12 to 2.97; P=0.02) and a decreased risk of cardiac (hazard ratio, 0.75; 95% confidence interval, 0.60 to 0.93; P<0.01) and all-cause (hazard ratio, 0.85; 95% confidence interval, 0.78 to 0.93; P<0.01) death. In addition, both slurring and notching were related to higher risk of unexpected death (hazard ratio, 2.09; 95% confidence interval, 1.06 to 4.12; P=0.03), as was early repolarization pattern manifestation in both inferior and lateral leads (hazard ratio, 2.50; 95% confidence interval, 1.29 to 4.83; P<0.01).
Early repolarization pattern is associated with an elevated risk of unexpected death and a decreased risk of cardiac and all-cause death. Specific early repolarization pattern morphologies and location are associated with an adverse prognosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aims to deepen the understanding of lymphocyte phenotypes related to the course of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and progression of liver fibrosis in a cohort of atomic bomb survivors. The study subjects comprise 3 groups: 162 HCV persistently infected, 145 spontaneously cleared, and 3,511 uninfected individuals. We observed increased percentages of peripheral blood T(H)1 and total CD8 T cells and decreased percentages of natural killer (NK) cells in the HCV persistence group compared with the other 2 groups after adjustment for age, gender, and radiation exposure dose. Subsequently, we determined that increased T(H)1 cell percentages in the HCV persistence group were significantly associated with an accelerated time-course reduction in platelet counts-accelerated progression of liver fibrosis-whereas T(C)1 and NK cell percentages were inversely associated with progression. This study suggests that T(H)1 immunity is enhanced by persistent HCV infection and that percentages of peripheral T(H)1, T(C)1, and NK cells may help predict progression of liver fibrosis.
Human immunology 06/2011; 72(10):821-6. · 2.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In cohort studies of atomic bomb survivors and Mayak nuclear facility workers, radiation-associated increases in liver cancer risk were observed, but hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections were not taken strictly into account. We identified 359 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cases between 1970 and 2002 in the cohort of atomic bomb survivors and estimated cumulative incidence of HCC by radiation dose. To investigate contributions of radiation exposure and hepatitis virus infection to HCC risk, we conducted a nested case-control study using sera stored before HCC diagnosis in the longitudinal cohort of atomic bomb survivors. The study included 224 HCC cases and 644 controls that were matched to the cases on gender, age, city, and time and method of serum storage, and countermatched on radiation dose. The cumulative incidence of HCC by follow-up time and age increased significantly with radiation dose. The relative risk (RR) of HCC for radiation at 1 Gy was 1.67 (95% confidence interval: 1.22-2.35) with adjustment for alcohol consumption, body mass index (BMI), and smoking habit, whereas the RRs for HBV or HCV infection alone were 63 (20-241) and 83 (36-231) with such adjustment, respectively. Those estimates changed little when radiation and hepatitis virus infection were fit simultaneously. The RR of non-B, non-C HCC at 1 Gy was 1.90 (1.02-3.92) without adjustment for alcohol consumption, BMI, or smoking habit and 2.74 (1.26-7.04) with such adjustment. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that radiation exposure and HBV and HCV infection are associated independently with increased HCC risk. In particular, radiation exposure was a significant risk factor for non-B, non-C HCC with no apparent confounding by alcohol consumption, BMI, or smoking habit.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Very few reports have been published on lifetime risk (LTR) of stroke by blood pressure (BP) group. This study included participants in the Radiation Effects Research Foundation Adult Health Study who have been followed up by biennial health examinations since 1958. We calculated the LTR of stroke for various BP-based groups among 7847 subjects who had not been diagnosed with stroke before the index age of 55 years using cumulative incidence analysis adjusting for competing risks. By 2003, 868 subjects had suffered stroke (512 (58.9%) were women and 542 (62.4%) experienced ischemic stroke). BP was a significant factor in determining risk of stroke for men and women, with distributions of cumulative risk for stroke significantly different across BP groups. The LTR of all-stroke for normotension (systolic BP/diastolic BP < 120/80 mm Hg), prehypertension (120-139/80-89 mm Hg), stage 1 hypertension (140-159/90-99 mm Hg) and stage 2 hypertension (> 160/100 mm Hg) were 13.8-16.9-25.8-25.8% in men and 16.0-19.9-24.0-30.5% in women, respectively (P < 0.001 among BP groups in both sexes). The estimates did not differ significantly (P = 0.16) between normotensive and prehypertensive subjects. One in five Japanese atomic bomb survivor subjects experienced stroke over their lifetime from the age of 55 years. Long-term stroke risks were elevated in those with hypertension (> 140/90 mm Hg) at any of the index ages of 45, 55, 65 and 75 years.
Hypertension Research 02/2011; 34(5):649-54. · 2.94 Impact Factor