Bridget F Grant

National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Maryland, United States

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Publications (326)1383.35 Total impact

  • Comprehensive Psychiatry 11/2014; · 2.26 Impact Factor
  • Thomas C Harford, Chiung M Chen, Bridget F Grant
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    ABSTRACT: The DSM approach to personality disorder (PD) diagnoses has been criticized for using arbitrary thresholds. The present study evaluated one dimensional approach with ordered threshold categories of severity by examining associations with several measures of disability and Axis I disorders for 10 PDs in the general population. Data were obtained from the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions, Waves 1 and 2. Respondents were categorized according to PD criteria as follows: "no symptoms" for having no positive criteria, "sub-threshold" for having at least one positive criterion but below the DSM-IV threshold, "at-threshold" for meeting the DSM-IV threshold and additionally having one or two more positive criteria, and "suprathreshold" for meeting the DSM-IV threshold plus three or more positive criteria. Findings from this national study provide support for dimensional approaches to diagnostic classifications for the majority of PDs and suggest that mild levels of severity indeed have clinical significance.
    Journal of Personality Disorders 09/2014; · 2.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The association between alcoholism in parents and related disorders in their offspring is well established in cultures with intermediate/high alcohol consumption, but not in those with low consumption, such as Israel. This study investigated differences in parental transmission of alcohol problems and related psychopathology between immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU) to Israel and other Israelis-two Israeli subgroups with differing alcohol consumption behaviors and social norms. Method: A total of 1,347 adults from a household sample were interviewed. Regression analyses were used to examine associations between parental alcohol problems and participant disorders: alcohol, nicotine, and cannabis use disorders (AUD, NUD, CUD); antisocial personality disorder (ASPD); major depressive disorder (MDD); and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We also examined the associations of parental alcohol problems with participant disorders characterized with two latent factors: externalizing (EXT: AUD, NUD, CUD, ASPD) and internalizing (INT: MDD, PTSD). Differential parental transmission of alcohol problems in FSU (n = 315) and non-FSU (n = 1,032) Israelis was examined with statistical interaction. Results: Among emigrants from the FSU, parental alcohol problems predicted AUD, NUD, CUD, ASPD, PTSD, EXT, and INT (mean ratios = 1.38-4.83). In non-FSU Israelis, parental alcohol problems predicted only ASPD and PTSD (mean ratios = 1.08-4.09). Significant interactions were observed for AUD, CUD, PTSD, and EXT; each relationship was stronger in FSU Israelis and null (AUD, CUD, EXT) or less robust (PTSD) in other Israelis. Conclusions: Parental alcohol problems were related to substance use and psychiatric disorders differently in FSU and other Israelis, two groups with different alcohol consumption levels and drinking norms. We propose that, in social contexts that vary in the degree to which they constrain alcohol behavior, underlying genetic predispositions may manifest as different disorders. (J. Stud. Alcohol Drugs, 75, 859-869, 2014).
    Journal of studies on alcohol and drugs. 09/2014; 75(5):859-869.
  • Thomas C. Harford, Hsiao-ye Yi, Bridget F. Grant
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to examine associations among childhood physical, emotional, or sexual abuse and violence toward self (suicide attempts [SA]) and others (interpersonal aggression [IA]). Data were obtained from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions Waves 1 and 2 (n = 34,653). Multinomial logistic regression examined associations between type of childhood abuse and violence categories, adjusting for demographic variables, other childhood adversity, and DSM-IV psychiatric disorders. The prevalence of reported childhood abuse was 4.60% for physical abuse, 7.83% for emotional abuse, and 10.20% for sexual abuse. Approximately 18% of adults reported some form of violent behavior, distributed as follows: IA, 13.37%; SA, 2.64%; and SA with IA, 1.85%. After adjusting for demographic variables, other childhood adversity, and psychiatric disorders, each type of childhood abuse was significantly related to increased risk for each violence category as compared with the no violence category. Furthermore, the odds ratio of childhood physical abuse was significantly higher for SA with IA when compared with IA, and the odds ratio of childhood sexual abuse was significantly higher for SA and SA with IA when compared with IA. Childhood physical, emotional, and sexual abuse is directly related to the risk for violent behaviors to self and others. Both internalizing and externalizing psychiatric disorders impact the association between childhood abuse and violence. The inclusion of suicidal behaviors and interpersonal aggression and internalizing/externalizing psychiatric disorders within an integrated conceptual framework will facilitate more effective interventions for long-lasting effects of child abuse.
    Child abuse & neglect 08/2014; · 2.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Among individuals with anxiety disorders, comorbid personality disorders (PDs) increase cross-sectional symptom severity and decrease functioning. Little is known, however, about how PDs influence the course of anxiety disorders over time. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of PDs on the persistence of four anxiety disorders in a nationally representative sample in the United States.
    Depression and Anxiety 07/2014; · 4.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Selective nonresponse represents a major source of potential bias in survey-based estimates of alcohol consumption and its association with harm. This study examined whether consumption differs for respondents and nonrespondents after correcting for their sociodemographic differences. Method: This study compared baseline consumption among initial respondents who did (n = 34,653) and did not (n = 5,306) respond to a 3-year follow-up interview in a prospective study of the U.S. general population. Differences in consumption measures were presented before and after adjustment or sociodemographic differences, and interactions of nonresponse with consumption were assessed in models predicting various types of harm. Results: After we adjusted for sociodemographic differences and factored in the overall level of nonresponse (13.3%), the degree to which the prevalence of drinking was underestimated in the total population was only 1.6%, and the extent to which consumption was overestimated among drinkers lay in the range of 1.7% to 2.4%. There was no consistent evidence that nonresponse moderated the association between consumption and alcohol-related harm. Sociodemographic differentials in nonresponse generally matched those reported for cross-sectional studies in the literature. Conclusions: The extent of nonresponse bias in survey estimates of alcohol consumption should not affect drinking guidelines and planning for prevention and treatment programs. The findings of this study are supportive of study designs that have been used to assess nonresponse bias, including the use of registry data on alcohol-related harms and secondary nonresponse data from prospective studies. (J. Stud. Alcohol Drugs, 75, 695-703, 2014).
    Journal of studies on alcohol and drugs. 07/2014; 75(4):695-703.
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    ABSTRACT: Little is known about the relationship between stressful life events and alcohol craving in the general population, and whether a history of childhood maltreatment sensitizes individuals to crave alcohol after adult stressors.
    Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 06/2014; · 3.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Drinking alcohol before sex increases the likelihood of engaging in sexual risk behaviors and risk for HIV infection. Relationship status (single versus partnered) and alcohol use disorders (AUD) are associated with each other and sexual risk behaviors, yet have not been examined as predictors of drinking alcohol before sex, using national data. This study examined whether relationship status and AUD increased the likelihood of regularly drinking alcohol before sex in a nationally representative sample.
    Drug and Alcohol Dependence 06/2014; · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    Drug and Alcohol Dependence 06/2014; · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Parental divorce and psychopathology are well-documented risk factors for alcohol use disorders (AUD) in the United States and other countries where divorce is common and per capita total alcohol consumption is moderate to high. However, little is known about these relationships in countries where divorce and alcohol problems are less common, such as Israel.
    Drug and alcohol dependence. 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistic Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-5) eliminates the committing illegal acts criterion and reduces the threshold for a diagnosis of gambling disorder to 4 of 9 criteria. This study compared the DSM-5 "4 of 9" classification system to the "5 of 10" DSM-IV system, as well as other permutations (i.e., just lowing the threshold to 4 criteria or just eliminating the illegal acts criterion) in 43,093 respondents to the National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions. Subgroups were analyzed to ascertain whether changes will impact differentially diagnoses based on gender, age, or race/ethnicity. In the full sample and each subpopulation, prevalence rates were higher when the DSM-5 classification system was employed relative to the DSM-IV system, but the hit rate between the two systems ranged from 99.80% to 99.96%. Across all gender, age, and racial/ethnic subgroups, specificity was greater than 99% when the DSM-5 system was employed relative to the DSM-IV system, and sensitivity was 100%. Results from this study suggest that eliminating the illegal acts criterion has little impact on diagnosis of gambling disorder, but lowering the threshold for diagnosis does increase the base rate in the general population and each subgroup, even though overall rates remain low and sensitivity and specificity are high. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
    Psychology of Addictive Behaviors 03/2014; · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Childhood maltreatment increases the risk for adult personality disorders (PDs), but several PDs or maltreatment types co-occur. Specificity of maltreatment-personality associations is poorly understood. Using a representative US population sample, we identified specific associations between maltreatment types (sexual, physical and emotional abuse and physical and emotional neglect) and PDs after controlling for basic demographics, parental psychopathology, co-occurring maltreatment types and comorbid PD. We then examined interactions of gender and maltreatment in predicting PDs. Each maltreatment type significantly predicted three-four PDs. Borderline and schizotypal PDs were most strongly predicted by sexual abuse, antisocial by physical abuse and avoidant and schizoid by emotional neglect. Specific vulnerabilities differ by gender; maltreated boys may respond with attention seeking and girls with social withdrawal. Findings highlight the importance of evaluating all forms of maltreatment even when they co-occur and can inform development of interventions to prevent personality pathology in at-risk children. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Personality and Mental Health 02/2014; 8(1):30-41. · 1.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Alcohol use disorders (AUD) have long been considered to be some of the most disabling mental disorders; however, empirical data on the burden of disease associated with AUD have been sparse. The objective of this article is to quantify the burden of disease (in disability-adjusted life years [DALYs] lost), deaths, years of life lost due to premature mortality (YLL), and years of life lost due to disability (YLD) associated with AUD for the United States in 2005. Statistical modeling was based on epidemiological indicators derived from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Formal consistency analyses were applied. Risk relations were taken from recent meta-analyses and the disability weights from the burden of disease study of the National Institutes of Health. Monte Carlo simulations were used to derive confidence intervals. All analyses were performed by sex and age. Sensitivity analyses were undertaken on key indicators. In the United States in 2005, 65,000 deaths, 1,152,000 YLL, 2,443,000 YLD, and 3,595,000 DALYs were associated with AUD. For individuals 18 years of age and older, AUD were associated with 3% of all deaths (5% for men and 1% for women), and 5% of all YLL (7% for men and 2% for women). The majority of the burden of disease associated with AUD stemmed from YLD, which accounted for 68% of DALYs associated with AUD (66% for men and 74% for women). The youngest age group had the largest proportion of DALYs associated with AUD stemming from YLD. Using data from a large representative survey (checked for consistency) and by combining these data with the best available evidence, we found that AUD were associated with a larger burden of disease than previously estimated. To reduce this disease burden, implementation of prevention interventions and expansion of treatment are necessary.
    Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 01/2014; · 3.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Alcohol and nicotine dependence are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality, especially when cases are persistent. The risk for alcohol and nicotine dependence is increased by childhood maltreatment. However, the influence of childhood maltreatment on dependence course is unknown, and is evaluated in the current study. Physical, sexual, and emotional abuse, and physical and emotional neglect, were evaluated as predictors of persistent alcohol and nicotine dependence over three years of follow-up, with and without control for other childhood adversities. National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). NESARC participants completing baseline and follow-up who met criteria at baseline for past-year alcohol dependence (n=1,172) and nicotine dependence (n=4,017). Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule (AUDADIS) measures of alcohol/nicotine dependence, childhood maltreatment, and other adverse childhood experiences (e.g., parental divorce). Controlling for demographics only, physical, sexual, and emotional abuse, and physical neglect, predicted three-year persistence of alcohol dependence (adjusted odds ratios [AORs]: 1.50-2.99, 95% CIs 1.04-4.68) and nicotine dependence (AORs: 1.37-1.74, 95% CIs 1.13-2.11). With other childhood adversities also controlled, maltreatment types remained predictive for alcohol persistence (AORs: 1.53-3.02, 95% CIs 1.07-4.71) and nicotine persistence (AORs: 1.35-1.72, 95% CIs 1.11-2.09). Further, a greater number of maltreatment types incrementally influenced persistence risk (AORs: 1.19-1.36, 95% CIs 1.11-1.56). A history of childhood maltreatment predicts persistent adult alcohol and nicotine dependence. This association, robust to control for other childhood adversities, suggests that maltreatment (rather than a generally difficult childhood) affects the course of dependence.
    Addiction 01/2014; · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Substance dependence is more common among trauma-exposed individuals; however, most studies suggest that Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) accounts for the link between trauma exposure (TE) and substance dependence. This study examined associations between TE and substance dependence (alcohol, nicotine, and marijuana), and whether PTSD accounted for this association. 1317 Jewish Israeli household residents completed in-person structured interviews assessing TE, PTSD, and substance (alcohol, nicotine, marijuana) dependence between 2007 and 2009. Regression analyses examined associations among TE, PTSD, and substance dependence. In the full sample, mean number of traumatic events was 2.7 (sd=2.2), with 83.7% experiencing at least one event. In the full sample, mean number of PTSD symptoms was 2.5 (sd=3.4), with 13.5% meeting PTSD diagnostic criteria. Prevalence of alcohol dependence was 13.4%; nicotine dependence 52.8%; and marijuana dependence 12.1%. Number of traumatic events was associated with increased odds of alcohol (OR=1.3; 95% CI=1.2-1.4) and nicotine (OR=1.2; 95% CI=1.1-1.3) dependence. Similarly, any traumatic event exposure was associated with increased odds of alcohol (OR=3.1; 95% CI=1.6-6.0) and nicotine (OR=1.9; 95% CI=1.2-2.9) dependence. PTSD symptoms were associated with increased odds of alcohol (OR=1.2; 95% CI=1.1-1.3), nicotine (OR=1.1; 95% CI=1.1-1.2), and marijuana (OR=1.1; 95% CI=1.04-1.2) dependence; similarly, a PTSD diagnosis was associated with increased odds of alcohol (OR=3.4; 95% CI=2.1-5.5), nicotine (OR=2.2; 95% CI=1.4-3.4), and marijuana (OR=2.6; 95% CI=1.2-5.9) dependence. PTSD symptoms accounted for a sizeable proportion of the TE effect on alcohol (46%) and nicotine dependence (31%). Individuals with more traumatic events had heightened risk for alcohol and nicotine dependence, and PTSD symptoms partially accounted for this risk. However, marijuana dependence was only significantly related to PTSD symptoms. Clinicians and researchers should separately assess different types of dependence among trauma-exposed individuals both with and without PTSD symptoms.
    Comprehensive psychiatry 11/2013; · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Civilian populations now comprise the majority of casualties in modern warfare, but effects of war exposure on alcohol disorders in the general population are largely unexplored. Accumulating literature indicates that adverse experiences early in life sensitize individuals to increased alcohol problems after adult stressful experiences. However, child and adult stressful experiences can be correlated, limiting interpretation. We examine risk for alcohol disorders among Israelis after the 2006 Lebanon War, a fateful event outside the control of civilian individuals and uncorrelated with childhood experiences. Further, we test whether those with a history of maltreatment are at greater risk for an alcohol use disorder after war exposure compared to those without such a history. Adult household residents selected from the Israeli population register were assessed with a psychiatric structured interview; the analyzed sample included 1306 respondents. War measures included self-reported days in an exposed region. Among those with a history of maltreatment, those in a war-exposed region for 30+ days had 5.3 times the odds of subsequent alcohol disorders compared to those exposed 0 days (95%C.I. 1.01-27.76), controlled for relevant confounders; the odds ratio for those without this history was 0.5 (95%C.I. 0.25-1.01); test for interaction: X(2)=5.28, df=1, P=0.02. Experiencing a fateful stressor outside the control of study participants, civilian exposure to the 2006 Lebanon War, is associated with a heightened the risk of alcohol disorders among those with early adverse childhood experiences. Results suggest that early life experiences may sensitize individuals to adverse health responses later in life.
    Drug and alcohol dependence 10/2013; · 3.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Childhood adversity and genetic variant ADH1B-rs1229984 have each been shown to influence heavy alcohol consumption and disorders. However, little is known about how these factors jointly influence these outcomes. We assessed the main and additive interactive effects of childhood adversity (abuse, neglect and parental divorce) and the ADH1B-rs1229984 on the quantitative phenotypes 'maximum drinks in a day' (Maxdrinks) and DSM-Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) severity, adjusting for demographic variables, in an Israeli sample of adult household residents (n = 1143) evaluated between 2007 and 2009. Childhood adversity and absence of the protective ADH1B-rs1229984 A allele were associated with greater mean Maxdrinks (mean differences: 1.50; 1.13, respectively) and AUD severity (mean ratios: 0.71; 0.27, respectively). In addition, childhood adversity moderated the ADH1B-rs1229984 effect on Maxdrinks (P < 0.01) and AUD severity (P < 0.05), in that there was a stronger effect of ADH1B-rs1229984 genotype on Maxdrinks and AUD severity among those who had experienced childhood adversity compared with those who had not. ADH1B-rs1229984 impacts alcohol metabolism. Therefore, among those at risk for greater consumption, e.g. those who experienced childhood adversity, ADH1B-rs1229984 appears to have a stronger effect on alcohol consumption and consequently on risk for AUD symptom severity. Evidence for the interaction of genetic vulnerability and early life adversity on alcohol-related phenotypes provides further insight into the complex relationships between genetic and environmental risk factors.
    Addiction Biology 10/2013; · 5.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives. We examined whether substance-use disorders and poverty predicted first-time homelessness over 3 years. Methods. We analyzed longitudinal data from waves 1 (2001-2002) and 2 (2004-2005) of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions to determine the main and interactive effects of wave 1 substance use disorders and poverty on first-time homelessness by wave 2, among those who were never homeless at wave 1 (n = 30 558). First-time homelessness was defined as having no regular place to live or having to live with others for 1 month or more as a result of having no place of one's own since wave 1. Results. Alcohol-use disorders (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.34), drug-use disorders (AOR = 2.51), and poverty (AOR = 1.34) independently increased prospective risk for first-time homelessness, after adjustment for ecological variables. Substance-use disorders and poverty interacted to differentially influence risk for first-time homelessness (P < .05), before, but not after, adjustment for controls. Conclusions. This study reinforces the importance of both substance-use disorders and poverty in the risk for first-time homelessness, and can serve as a benchmark for future studies. Substance abuse treatment should address financial status and risk of future homelessness. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print October 22, 2013: e1-e7. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2013.301302).
    American Journal of Public Health 10/2013; · 3.93 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

21k Citations
1,383.35 Total Impact Points


  • 1987–2014
    • National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism
      Maryland, United States
  • 2010–2013
    • CSR, Incorporated
      Arlington, Virginia, United States
  • 2004–2013
    • National Institute on Drug Abuse
      • Division of Epidemiology, Services and Prevention Research (DESPR)
      Maryland, United States
  • 1994–2013
    • National Institutes of Health
      • Laboratory of Epidemiology and Biometry
      Bethesda, MD, United States
  • 1987–2013
    • Columbia University
      • • Department of Epidemiology
      • • Department of Psychiatry
      • • College of Physicians and Surgeons
      New York City, New York, United States
    • New York State Psychiatric Institute
      • Anxiety Disorders Clinic
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2012
    • Stony Brook University
      • Department of Psychology
      Stony Brook, NY, United States
    • Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 2008–2012
    • Yale University
      • Department of Psychology
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
  • 2011
    • University of Minnesota Duluth
      • Department of Psychology
      Duluth, MN, United States
    • University of Minnesota Twin Cities
      • Department of Psychology
      Minneapolis, MN, United States
  • 1990–2011
    • CUNY Graduate Center
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2008–2009
    • University of Manitoba
      • • Department of Psychology
      • • Department of Psychiatry
      Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
  • 2006
    • Cambridge Health Alliance
      • Center for Multicultural Mental Health Research
      Cambridge, MA, United States
  • 1997–2006
    • Washington University in St. Louis
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Saint Louis, MO, United States
    • Dharwad Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences
      Hubli, Karnātaka, India
  • 1999
    • Harvard Medical School
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1993
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      Los Angeles, California, United States