[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The acute phase response (APR) produces marked alterations in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism including decreasing plasma ketone levels. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a recently discovered hormone that regulates lipid and glucose metabolism and stimulates ketogenesis. Here we demonstrate that lipopolysaccharide (LPS), zymosan, and turpentine, which induce the APR, increase serum FGF21 levels 2-fold. Although LPS, zymosan, and turpentine decrease the hepatic expression of FGF21, they increase FGF21 expression in adipose tissue and muscle, suggesting that extrahepatic tissues account for the increase in serum FGF21. After LPS administration, the characteristic decrease in plasma ketone levels is accentuated in FGF21-/- mice, but this is not due to differences in expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1α or hydroxymethyglutaryl-CoA synthase 2 in liver, because LPS induces similar decreases in the expression of these genes in FGF21-/- and control mice. However, in FGF21-/- mice, the ability of LPS to increase plasma free fatty acid levels is blunted. This failure to increase plasma free fatty acid could contribute to the accentuated decrease in plasma ketone levels because the transport of fatty acids from adipose tissue to liver provides the substrate for ketogenesis. Treatment with exogenous FGF21 reduced the number of animals that die and the rapidity of death after LPS administration in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice and to a lesser extent in control mice. FGF21 also protected from the toxic effects of cecal ligation and puncture-induced sepsis. Thus, FGF21 is a positive APR protein that protects animals from the toxic effects of LPS and sepsis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic kidney disease pathogenesis involves both tubular and vascular injuries. Despite abundant investigations to identify the risk factors, the involvement of chronic endothelial dysfunction in developing nephropathies is insufficiently explored. Previously, soluble thrombomodulin (sTM), a cofactor in the activation of protein C, has been shown to protect endothelial function in models of acute kidney injury. In this study, the role for sTM in treating chronic kidney disease was explored by employing a mouse model of chronic vascular activation using endothelial-specific TNF-α-expressing (tie2-TNF) mice. Analysis of kidneys from these mice after 3 mo showed no apparent phenotype, whereas 6-mo-old mice demonstrated infiltration of CD45-positive leukocytes accompanied by upregulated gene expression of inflammatory chemokines, markers of kidney injury, and albuminuria. Intervention with murine sTM with biweekly subcutaneous injections during this window of disease development between months 3 and 6 prevented the development of kidney pathology. To better understand the mechanisms of these findings, we determined whether sTM could also prevent chronic endothelial cell activation in vitro. Indeed, treatment with sTM normalized increased chemokines, adhesion molecule expression, and reduced transmigration of monocytes in continuously activated TNF-expressing endothelial cells. Our results suggest that vascular inflammation associated with vulnerable endothelium can contribute to loss in renal function as suggested by the tie2-TNF mice, a unique model for studying the role of vascular activation and inflammation in chronic kidney disease. Furthermore, the ability to restore the endothelial balance by exogenous administration of sTM via downregulation of specific adhesion molecules and chemokines suggests a potential for therapeutic intervention in kidney disease associated with chronic inflammation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The protein C (PC) pathway plays an important role in vascular and immune function, and acquired deficiency during sepsis is associated with increased mortality in both animal models and in clinical studies. However, the association of acquired PC deficiency with the pathophysiology of lung injury is unclear. We hypothesized that low PC induced by sepsis would associate with increased pulmonary injury and that replacement with activated protein C (APC) would reverse the activation of pathways associated with injury. Using a cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model of polymicrobial sepsis, we examined the role of acquired PC deficiency on acute lung injury assessed by analyzing changes in pulmonary pathology, chemokine response, inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS), and the angiotensin pathway. Acquired PC deficiency was strongly associated with an increase in lung inflammation and drivers of pulmonary injury, including angiotensin (Ang) II, thymus and activation-regulated chemokine, plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1, and iNOS. In contrast, the protective factor angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-2 was significantly suppressed in animals with acquired PC deficiency. The endothelial protein C receptor, required for the cytoprotective signaling of APC, was significantly increased post-CLP, suggesting a compensatory up-regulation of the signaling receptor. Treatment of septic animals with APC reduced pulmonary pathology, suppressed the macrophage inflammatory protein family chemokine response, iNOS expression, and PAI-1 activity and up-regulated ACE-2 expression with concomitant reduction in AngII peptide. These data demonstrate a clear link between acquired PC deficiency and pulmonary inflammatory response in the rat sepsis model and provide support for the concept of APC as a replacement therapy in acute lung injury associated with acquired PC deficiency.
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 05/2008; 325(1):17-26. · 3.89 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The protein C (PC) pathway plays an important role in vascular function, and acquired deficiency during sepsis is associated with increased mortality. We have explored the role of PC suppression in modulating early inflammatory events in a model of polymicrobial sepsis. We show that increased levels of organ damage and dysfunction are associated with decreased levels of endogenous PC. Notably, animals with low PC had correspondingly high levels of pulmonary iNOS expression, which correlated with chemokines KC/Gro and MIP2, previously shown to predict outcome in this model. Treatment with activated protein C (aPC) not only reduced the pathology score, leukocyte infiltration and markers of organ dysfunction, but also suppressed the induction of iNOS, and the chemokine response (including KC/Gro, MIP2, IP-10, RANTES, GCP-2 and lymphotactin), and increased apoA1. aPC treatment also suppressed the induction of VEGF, a marker recently suggested to play a pathophysiological role in sepsis. These data demonstrate a clear link between low protein C and degree of organ damage and dysfunction in sepsis, as well as the early reversal with aPC treatment. Moreover, our data show a direct role of aPC in broadly modulating monocyte and T-cell chemokines following systemic inflammatory response.
Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 02/2008; 614:83-91. · 2.01 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Low levels of protein C (PC) predict outcome as early as 10 h after insult in a rat polymicrobial sepsis model and were associated with suppression of PC mRNA, upstream transcription factor FoxA2, and cofactor hepatocyte nuclear factor 6 (HNF6). Small interfering RNA suppression of FoxA2 in isolated hepatocytes demonstrated regulation of both its cofactor HNF6 and PC. Our data suggest that reduced FoxA2 may be important in the suppression of PC and resulting poor outcome in sepsis.
Clinical and Vaccine Immunology 04/2006; 13(3):426-32. · 2.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Regulatory CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells (Tregs) suppress autoimmune and inflammatory diseases through mechanisms that are only partly understood. Previous studies suggest that Tregs can suppress bacterially triggered intestinal inflammation and respond to LPS through TLRs with enhanced suppressive activity. In this study, we have used murine cecal ligation and puncture as a model of polymicrobial sepsis to explore the effects of adoptive transfer of Tregs on septic outcome. Adoptive transfer of in vitro-stimulated Tregs in both prevention and therapeutic modes significantly improved survival of cecal ligation and puncture mice. Furthermore, the effect was dependent on both the number of Tregs adoptively transferred and the presence of host T cells. Animals that received stimulated Tregs had significantly increased peritoneal mast cells and peritoneal TNF-alpha production. More importantly, adoptive transfer of in vitro-stimulated Tregs significantly improved bacterial clearance, which resulted in improved survival. Our results suggest a novel role for Tregs in sepsis.
The Journal of Immunology 07/2005; 174(11):7141-6. · 5.36 Impact Factor