[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was undertaken in order to investigate the effect of chronic treatment with 5′-chloro-5′-deoxy-(±)-ENBA, a potent and highly selective agonist of human adenosine A(1) receptor, on thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia in a mouse model of neuropathic pain, the Spared Nerve Injury (SNI) of the sciatic nerve. Chronic systemic administration of 5′-chloro-5′-deoxy-(±)-ENBA (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) reduced both mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia 3 and 7 days post-SNI, in a way prevented by DPCPX (3 mg/kg, i.p.), a selective A(1) adenosine receptor antagonist, without exerting any significant change on the motor coordination or arterial blood pressure. In addition, a single intraperitoneal injection of 5′-chloro-5′-deoxy-(±)-ENBA (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) 7 days post-SNI also reduced both symptoms for at least two hours. SNI was associated with spinal changes in microglial activation ipsilaterally to the nerve injury. Activated, hypertrophic microglia were significantly reduced by 5′-chloro-5′-deoxy-(±)-ENBA chronic treatment. Our results demonstrated an involvement of adenosine A(1) receptor in the amplified nociceptive thresholds and in spinal glial and microglial changes occurred in neuropathic pain, without affecting motor coordination or blood pressure. Our data suggest a possible use of adenosine A(1) receptor agonist in neuropathic pain symptoms.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are a new class of epigenetic agents that were reported to enhance the cytotoxic effects of classical anticancer drugs through multiple mechanisms. However, which of the possible drug combinations would be the most effective and clinically useful are to be determined. We treated the HL60 and NB4 promyelocytic leukaemia cells with a combination of the ribonucleotide reductase (RR) inhibitor 3'-C-methyladenosine (3'-Me-Ado) and several hydroxamic acid-derived HDAC inhibitors, including two recently synthesized molecules, MC1864 and MC1879, and the reference compound trichostatin A (TSA). The results showed significant growth inhibitory and apoptotic synergistic effects with the combinations. Hence, we evaluated the effects of the combinations on cell cycle distribution and on the level of several proteins involved in the apoptotic process (p21, caspase-3, Bcl-2, Bax, AIF). Since HDAC inhibitors increased the G1-S transition block induced by 3'-Me-Ado, an effect on RR activity was hypothesized. Indeed, the HPLC evaluation of intracellular deoxyribonucleotide (dNTP) pools showed that both TSA and MC1864 induced a decrease in dNTPs, even if with a somewhat different pattern, suggesting that RR inhibition contributes to the observed synergism. Furthermore, while TSA was shown to activate the intrinsic apoptotic pathway, MC1864 induced a dose-dependent increase in ROS and AIF levels. Moreover, the treatment with the radical scavenger N-acetylcysteine determined a significant inhibition of MC1864- but not TSA-mediated synergistic effects. Hence, our findings are consistent with a possible role of HDAC inhibitor mediated-ROS induction in RR inhibition and in the potentiation of RR inhibitor-mediated apoptosis.
International Journal of Oncology 02/2011; 38(5):1427-36. · 2.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A series of N6-aminopurine-9-β-D-ribonucleosides and ribose-modified 3'-C-methyl analogues substituted at N6-position with a small group like hydroxy, methoxy or amino group or at C2(N6) position have been synthesized and tested against a panel of human leukemia and carcinoma cell lines. N6-Hydrazino-9-β-D-ribofuranosyl-purine (5) displayed the best antiproliferative activity in the low micromolar or submicromolar range against all tested tumor cell lines. The activity of this nucleoside is related in part to ribonucleotide reductase inhibition. C2-modification or 3'-C-methylation in N6-substituted adenosine analogues leads to a decrease or loss in activity.
European journal of medicinal chemistry 02/2011; 46(5):1499-504. · 3.27 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diadenosine disulfide (5) was reported to inhibit NAD kinase from Listeria monocytogenes and the crystal structure of the enzyme-inhibitor complex has been solved. We have synthesized tiazofurin adenosine disulfide (4) and the disulfide 5, and found that these compounds were moderate inhibitors of human NAD kinase (IC(50)=110 microM and IC(50)=87 microM, respectively) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis NAD kinase (IC(50)=80 microM and IC(50)=45 microM, respectively). We also found that NAD mimics with a short disulfide (-S-S-) moiety were able to bind in the folded (compact) conformation but not in the common extended conformation, which requires the presence of a longer pyrophosphate (-O-P-O-P-O-) linkage. Since majority of NAD-dependent enzymes bind NAD in the extended conformation, selective inhibition of NAD kinases by disulfide analogues has been observed. Introduction of bromine at the C8 of the adenine ring restricted the adenosine moiety of diadenosine disulfides to the syn conformation making it even more compact. The 8-bromoadenosine adenosine disulfide (14) and its di(8-bromoadenosine) analogue (15) were found to be the most potent inhibitors of human (IC(50)=6 microM) and mycobacterium NAD kinase (IC(50)=14-19 microM reported so far. None of the disulfide analogues showed inhibition of lactate-, and inosine monophosphate-dehydrogenase (IMPDH), enzymes that bind NAD in the extended conformation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To further investigate new potent and selective human A1 adenosine receptor agonists, we have synthesized a series of 5′-chloro-5′-deoxy- and 5′-(2-fluorophenylthio)-5′-deoxy-N6-cycloalkyl(bicycloalkyl)-substituted adenosine and 2′-C-methyladenosine derivatives. These compounds were evaluated for affinity and efficacy at human A1, A2A, A2B, and A3 adenosine receptors. In the series of N6-cyclopentyl- and N6-(endo-norborn-2-yl)adenosine derivatives, 5′-chloro-5′-deoxy-CPA (1) and 5′-chloro-5′-deoxy-(±)-ENBA (3) displayed the highest affinity in the subnanomolar range and relevant selectivity for hA1 vs the other human receptor subtypes. The higher affinity and selectivity of 5′-chloro-5′-deoxyribonucleoside derivatives 1 and 3 for hA1 AR vs hA3 AR compared to that of the parent 5′-hydroxy compounds CPA and (±)-ENBA was rationalized by a molecular modeling analysis. 5′-Chloro-5′-deoxy-(±)-ENBA, evaluated for analgesic activity in the formalin test in mice, was found to inhibit the first or the second phases of the nocifensive response induced by intrapaw injection of formalin at doses ranging between 1 and 2 mg/kg i.p.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A series of cycloalkyl, bicycloalkyl, aryl, and heteroaryl N (6)-substituted derivatives of the antitumor agent 3'- C-methyladenosine (3'-Me-Ado), an inhibitor of the alpha Rnr1 subunit of mammalian ribonucleotide reductase (RR), were synthesized. The cytotoxicity of these compounds was evaluated against a panel of human leukemia and carcinoma cell lines and compared to that of some corresponding N (6)-substituted adenosine analogues. N (6)-cycloalkyl-3'- C-methylribonucleosides 2- 7 and N (6)-phenyl analogue 8 were found to inhibit the proliferation of K562 leukemia cells. N (6)-(+/-)- endo-2-norbornyl-3'- C-methyladenosine ( 7) was found to be the most cytotoxic compound, with GI 50 values slightly higher than that of 3'-Me-Ado against K562 and carcinoma cell lines and 2.7 fold higher cytotoxicity against human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells. The SAR study confirms that an unsubstituted N (6)-amino group is essential for optimal cytotoxicity of 3'-Me-Ado against both K562 and carcinoma cell lines. Computational studies, carried out on the eukaryotic alpha subunit (Rnr1) of RR from Saccharomyces cerevisiae were performed to rationalize the observed structure-activity relationships.
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 08/2008; 51(14):4260-9. · 5.61 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The phosphate, uracil, and ribose moieties of uracil nucleotides were varied structurally for evaluation of agonist activity at the human P2Y(2), P2Y(4), and P2Y(6) receptors. The 2-thio modification, found previously to enhance P2Y(2) receptor potency, could be combined with other favorable modifications to produce novel molecules that exhibit high potencies and receptor selectivities. Phosphonomethylene bridges introduced for stability in analogues of UDP, UTP, and uracil dinucleotides markedly reduced potency. Truncation of dinucleotide agonists of the P2Y(2) receptor, in the form of Up(4)-sugars, indicated that a terminal uracil ring is not essential for moderate potency at this receptor and that specific SAR patterns are observed at this distal end of the molecule. Key compounds reported in this study include 9, alpha,beta-methylene-UDP, a P2Y(6) receptor agonist; 30, Up(4)-phenyl ester and 34, Up(4)-glucose, selective P2Y(2) receptor agonists; dihalomethylene phosphonate analogues 16 and 41, selective P2Y(2) receptor agonists; 43, the 2-thio analogue of INS37217 (P(1)-(uridine-5')-P(4)-(2'-deoxycytidine-5')tetraphosphate), a potent and selective P2Y(2) receptor agonist.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A heterodinucleotide comprising BVDU and Gemcitabine bound together by a 5',5'-pyrophospate bridge (BVDUp(2)dFdC) has been synthesized and evaluated as antitumor agent against AH13 rat sarcoma cells. BVDUp(2)dFdC showed a cytotoxicity similar to that of Gemcitabine.