F Tsofliou

University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom

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Publications (12)37.9 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Effects of a dietary combination of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3-PUFA) and conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) on fasting and postprandial plasma lipids was investigated in healthy volunteers with different ages and body mass index (BMI). Lean (BMI 20–26 kg/m2) and obese (BMI 29–35 kg/m2), young (20–37 years) and older (50–65 years) men consumed 3 g/day each of CLA and n-3-PUFA or 6 g/day control oil for 12 weeks in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized crossover study. In older lean subjects, CLA/n-3-PUFA supplementation reduced fasting nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) concentrations compared with the control oil (P < 0.05). However, in older obese subjects, CLA/n-3-PUFA increased fasting low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P < 0.05) and postprandial total cholesterol levels (P < 0.05). In young lean subjects, CLA/n-3-PUFA reduced postprandial NEFA levels (P < 0.05) whereas in young obese subjects, postprandial total cholesterol and triacylglycerols were lowered (both P < 0.05). Therefore, a dietary combination of CLA together with n-3-PUFA may have favorable effects on plasma lipids in young and older lean men but detrimental effects in older obese men.PRACTICAL APPLICATIONSThis study suggests that where individuals consume a combination of both omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid supplements in order to obtain potential additive beneficial effects of each lipid on adiposity and health, this particular fatty acid combination may have harmful effects on plasma lipid biomarkers of cardiovascular disease in older obese men.
    Journal of Food Lipids 11/2009; 16(4):499 - 513. DOI:10.1111/j.1745-4522.2009.01162.x · 1.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dietary addition of either conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) or n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFAs) has been shown to alter adiposity and circulating lipids, risk markers of cardiovascular diseases. However, CLA may decrease insulin sensitivity, an effect that may be reversed by n-3 LC-PUFA. Thus, the potential of CLA plus n-3 LC-PUFA to affect insulin secretion and sensitivity in non-diabetic young and old, lean and obese subjects was tested. CLA (3 g daily) plus n-3 LC-PUFA (3 g daily) or control oil (6 g daily) was given to lean (n=12; BMI 20-26 kg/m(2)) or obese (n=10; BMI 29-35 kg/m(2)) young (20-37 years old) or lean (n=16) or obese (n=11) older men (50-65 years) for 12 weeks. The study had a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized crossover design, and primary end points were insulin secretion and sensitivity during a standardized meal test, evaluated by modeling glucose, insulin and C-peptide data. The combination was well tolerated. There was no significant difference in fasting levels of glucose, insulin or C-peptide after CLA/n-3 LC-PUFA treatment compared with control oil. Neither insulin secretion nor estimated sensitivity was affected by CLA/n-3 LC-PUFA in lean or obese young subjects or in older lean subjects. However, in older obese subjects, estimated insulin sensitivity was reduced with CLA/n-3 LC-PUFA compared with control (P=0.024). The results do not support beneficial effects of CLA/n-3 LC-PUFA for beta-cell dysfunction or insulin resistance in humans but suggest that insulin sensitivity in older obese subjects is reduced.
    European journal of clinical nutrition 10/2008; 63(6):778-86. DOI:10.1038/ejcn.2008.45 · 2.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to determine the effect of supplementation with conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) plus n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFAs) on body composition, adiposity, and hormone levels in young and older, lean and obese men. Young (31.4+/-3.9 years) lean (BMI, 23.6+/-1.5 kg/m2; n=13) and obese (BMI, 32.4+/-1.9 kg/m2; n=12) and older (56.5+/-4.6 years) lean (BMI, 23.6+/-1.5 kg/m2; n=20) and obese (BMI, 32.0+/-1.6 kg/m2; n=14) men participated in a double-blind placebo-controlled, randomized crossover study. Subjects received either 6 g/day control fat or 3 g/day CLA (50:50 cis-9, trans-11:trans-10, cis-12) and 3 g/day n-3 LC-PUFA for 12 weeks with a 12-week wash-out period between crossovers. Body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Fasting adiponectin, leptin, glucose, and insulin concentrations were measured and insulin resistance estimated by homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). In the younger obese subjects, CLA plus n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation compared with control fat did not result in increased abdominal fat and raised both fat-free mass (2.4%) and adiponectin levels (12%). CLA plus n-3 LC-PUFA showed no significant effects on HOMA-IR in any group but did increase fasting glucose in older obese subjects. In summary, supplementation with CLA plus n-3 LC-PUFA prevents increased abdominal fat mass and raises fat-free mass and adiponectin levels in younger obese individuals without deleteriously affecting insulin sensitivity, whereas these parameters in young and older lean and older obese individuals were unaffected, apart from increased fasting glucose in older obese men.
    Obesity 06/2008; 16(5):1019-24. DOI:10.1038/oby.2008.41 · 4.39 Impact Factor
  • 16th European Congress on Obesity16th European Congress on Obesity; 01/2008
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined the effects of caffeine, co-ingested with a high fat meal, on perceptual and metabolic responses during incremental (Experiment 1) and endurance (Experiment 2) exercise performance. Trained participants performed three constant-load cycling tests at approximately 73% of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) for 30 min at 20 degrees C (Experiment 1, n = 8) and to the limit of tolerance at 10 degrees C (Experiment 2, n = 10). The 30 min constant-load exercise in Experiment 1 was followed by incremental exercise (15 W . min-1) to fatigue. Four hours before the first test, the participants consumed a 90% carbohydrate meal (control trial); in the remaining two tests, the participants consumed a 90% fat meal with (fat + caffeine trial) and without (fat-only trial) caffeine. Caffeine and placebo were randomly assigned and ingested 1 h before exercise. In both experiments, ratings of perceived leg exertion were significantly lower during the fat + caffeine than fat-only trial (Experiment 1: P < 0.001; Experiment 2: P < 0.01). Ratings of perceived breathlessness were significantly lower in Experiment 1 (P < 0.01) and heart rate higher in Experiment 2 (P < 0.001) on the fat + caffeine than fat-only trial. In the two experiments, oxygen uptake, ventilation, blood [glucose], [lactate] and plasma [glycerol] were significantly higher on the fat + caffeine than fat-only trial. In Experiment 2, plasma [free fatty acids], blood [pyruvate] and the [lactate]:[pyruvate] ratio were significantly higher on the fat + caffeine than fat-only trial. Time to exhaustion during incremental exercise (Experiment 1: control: 4.9, s = 1.8 min; fat-only: 5.0, s = 2.2 min; fat + caffeine: 5.0, s = 2.2 min; P > 0.05) and constant-load exercise (Experiment 2: control: 116 (88 - 145) min; fat-only: 122 (96 - 144) min; fat + caffeine: 127 (107 - 176) min; P > 0.05) was not different between the fat-only and fat + caffeine trials. In conclusion, while a number of metabolic responses were increased during exercise after caffeine ingestion, perception of effort was reduced and this may be attributed to the direct stimulatory effect of caffeine on the central nervous system. However, this caffeine-induced reduction in effort perception did not improve exercise performance.
    Journal of Sports Sciences 09/2006; 24(8):875-87. DOI:10.1080/02640410500249399 · 2.10 Impact Factor
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    M Maraki · F Tsofliou · YP Pitsiladis · D Malkova · N Mutrie · S Higgins
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to investigate the acute effects of a single exercise class on appetite sensations, energy intake and mood, and to determine if there was a time of day effect. Twelve healthy, young, normal weight females, who were non-regular exercisers, participated in four trials: morning control, morning exercise, evening control and evening exercise. Exercise trials were a one-hour class of aerobic and muscle conditioning exercise of varying intensities, to music. Control trials were a one-hour rest. Ratings of perceived exertion were significantly greater during the warm-up and muscle conditioning parts of the morning exercise trial compared to those of the evening exercise trial. Although both exercise trials, compared to control trials, produced an increase in appetite sensations, they did not alter energy intake and produced a decrease in 'relative' energy intake. In relation to mood, both exercise trials increased positive affect and decreased negative affect. These results suggest that a single exercise class, representative of that offered by many sports centres, regardless of whether it is performed in the morning or evening produces a short-term negative energy balance and improves mood in normal weight women. However, when this type of exercise was performed in the morning it was perceived to require more effort.
    Appetite 01/2006; 45(3):272-8. DOI:10.1016/j.appet.2005.07.005 · 2.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate whether moderate physical activity or snack intake influence appetite sensations and subsequent food intake in obese women. Associations between serum leptin and appetite ratings were also investigated. In all, 10 obese women (mean age+/-s.d.: 50.0+/-8.5 y; mean body mass index (BMI)+/-s.d.: 37.2+/-6.5 kg m(-2)) were submitted in random order to three trials: Moderate physical activity (20 min brisk walking), Snack (58.5 g chocolate-based) and Control (sitting, TV-watching). Appetite and satiety were assessed by visual analogue scales, and serum leptin, blood glucose and plasma free fatty acids were measured at baseline, pre- and postintervention and 1 h postintervention (ie, before dinner). A buffet-style dinner was provided subsequent to the three trials. The moderate physical activity and snack intake both produced lower appetite and higher satiety and fullness perceptions, compared to control, following the intervention. No significant differences were found in subsequent food intake. Serum leptin concentrations did not differ between trials. Serum leptin was not associated with appetite or satiety sensations at any time during the control or the snack trials, but was correlated following moderate physical activity (prospective food consumption r(s)=-0.83, P=0.003; hunger r(s)=-0.79, P=0.007; desire to eat r(s)=-0.69, P=0.02; satiety r(s)=0.71, P=0.02; fullness r(s)=0.66, P=0.04). These associations were not influenced by BMI or fat mass. Moderate physical activity and snack intake suppress the appetite of obese women acutely. The associations between circulating leptin and appetite-satiety ratings suggest leptin involvement in short-term appetite regulation in response to physical activity-induced factors.
    International Journal of Obesity 12/2003; 27(11):1332-9. DOI:10.1038/sj.ijo.0802406 · 5.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Endurance-trained athletes experience a low level of postprandial lipaemia, but this rapidly increases with detraining. We sought to determine whether detraining-induced changes to postprandial metabolism influenced endothelial function and inflammation. Eight endurance-trained men each undertook two oral fat tolerance tests [blood taken fasted and for 6 h following a high-fat test meal (80 g fat, 80 g carbohydrate)]: one during a period of their normal training (trained) and one after 1 wk of no exercise (detrained). Endothelial function in the cutaneous microcirculation was assessed using laser Doppler imaging with iontophoresis in the fasted state and 4 h postprandially during each test. Fasting plasma triglyceride (TG) concentrations increased by 35% with detraining (P = 0.002), as did postprandial plasma (by 53%, P = 0.002), chylomicron (by 68%, P = 0.02) and very low-density lipoprotein (by 51%, P = 0.005) TG concentrations. Endothelial function decreased postprandially in both the trained (by 17%, P = 0.03) and detrained (by 22%, P = 0.03) conditions but did not differ significantly between the trained and detrained conditions in either the fasted or the postprandial states. These results suggest that, although fat ingestion induces endothelial dysfunction, interventions that alter postprandial TG metabolism will not necessarily concomitantly influence endothelial function.
    Journal of Clinical Endocrinology &amp Metabolism 10/2003; 88(9):4328-35. · 6.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Endurance-trained athletes experience a low level of post-prandial lipaemia, but this rapidly increases with detraining. We sought to determine whether detraining-induced changes to postprandial metabolism influenced endothelial function and inflammation. Eight endurance-trained men each undertook two oral fat tolerance tests [blood taken fasted and for 6 h following a high-fat test meal (80 g fat, 80 g carbohydrate)]: one during a period of their normal training (trained) and one after 1 wk of no exercise (detrained). Endothelial function in the cutaneous microcirculation was assessed using laser Doppler imaging with iontophoresis in the fasted state and 4 h postprandially during each test. Fasting plasma triglyceride (TG) concentrations increased by 35% with detraining (P = 0.002), as did postprandial plasma (by 53%, P = 0.002), chylomicron (by 68%, P = 0.02) and very low-density lipoprotein (by 51%, P = 0.005) TG concentrations. Endothelial function decreased postprandially in both the trained (by 17%, P = 0.03) and detrained (by 22%, P = 0.03) conditions but did not differ significantly between the trained and detrained conditions in either the fasted or the postprandial states. These results suggest that, although fat ingestion induces endothelial dysfunction, interventions that alter postprandial TG metabolism will not necessarily concomitantly influence endothelial function.
    Journal of Clinical Endocrinology &amp Metabolism 09/2003; 88(9). DOI:10.1210/jc.2003-030226 · 6.31 Impact Factor
  • F. Tsofliou · J. J. Lara · Michael E. J. Lean
    European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology 01/2003; 105(8):389-390. DOI:10.1002/ejlt.200390094 · 2.03 Impact Factor
  • F Tsofliou · Y P. Pitsiladis · D Malkova · M E. J. Lean
    Medicine &amp Science in Sports &amp Exercise 05/2001; 33(5). DOI:10.1097/00005768-200105001-00788 · 4.46 Impact Factor
  • JJ Lara · M Lean · F Tsofliou