[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Three Pediococcus pentosaceus strains were isolated from jeotgals, salted and fermented Korean sea-foods, and their probiotic potentials were examined. After 2 h exposure to pH 3.0, P. pentosaceus F66 survived with the survival ratio of 32.6% followed by P. pentosaceus D56 (17.2%) and P. pentosaceus A24 (7.5%). P. pentosaceus F66 also survived better (26.6%) than P. pentosaceus A24 (13.7%) and P. pentosaceus D56 (5.8%) after 2 h exposure to 0.3% bile salts. Three strains grew slowly on MRS broth with 15% NaCl (w/v), reaching the OD600 values of 0.4-0.8 in 36 h. They adhered to Caco-2 cells (10.9 - 13.9 CFU/cell) with similar degree of adherence of a positive control, Lb. rhamnosus GG (12.8 ± 0.5 CFU/cell). Three strains possess some desirable enzyme activities such as β-galactosidase, α-glucosidase, β-glucosidase, and N-acetyl-β-glucosidase. From these results, P. pentosaceus F66 seems qualified as a probiotic and can be utilized for fermented foods including jeotgals.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Severe hypernatremia is an important electrolyte disorder that has serious effects. The patient had no medical history. A. 20-year-old ingested bamboo salt for digestion and weight reduction according to the folk remedies posted on an internet website. She presented with vomiting and diarrhea over ten times per day. Her initial serum sodium concentration was 174mEq/L. Her symptoms improved rapidly with hypotonic saline infusion. She recovered completely without any sequelae in three days. Severe hypernatremia in a normal young adult with clear consciousness and normal renal function has not been reported in Korea yet. So we report a case of severe hypernatremia by excessive bamboo salt ingestion in healthy young woman.
Electrolyte & blood pressure: E & BP 12/2013; 11(2):53-5.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) is the most common cause of acute renal injury. I/R-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) are thought to be a major factor in the development of acute renal injury by promoting the initial tubular damage. NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) is a well-known antioxidant protein that regulates ROS generation. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether NQO1 modulates the renal I/R injury (IRI) associated with NADPH oxidase (NOX)-derived ROS production in an animal model. We analyzed renal function, oxidative stress, and tubular apoptosis after IRI. NQO1(-/-) mice showed increased blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels, tubular damage, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. In the kidneys of NQO1(-/-) mice, the cellular NADPH/NADP(+) ratio was significantly higher and NOX activity was markedly higher than in those of NQO1(+/+) mice. The activation of NQO1 by β-lapachone (βL) significantly improved renal dysfunction and reduced tubular cell damage, oxidative stress, and apoptosis by renal I/R. Moreover, the βL treatment significantly lowered the cellular NADPH/NADP(+) ratio and dramatically reduced NOX activity in the kidneys after IRI. From these results, it was concluded that NQO1 has protective role against renal injury induced by I/R, and that this effect appeared to be mediated by decreased NOX activity via cellular NADPH/NADP(+) modulation. These results provide convincing evidence that NQO1 activation might be beneficial for ameliorating renal injury induced by I/R.
Free Radical Biology and Medicine 11/2013; · 5.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics of nondiabetic nephropathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and to find a clinical significance of renal biopsy and immunosuppressive treatment in such a patient.
Renal biopsy results, clinical parameters, and renal outcomes were analyzed in 75 diabetic patients who underwent kidney biopsy at Chungnam National University Hospital from January 1994 to December 2010.
The three most common reasons for renal biopsy were nephrotic range proteinuria (44%), proteinuria without diabetic retinopathy (20%), and unexplained decline in renal function (20.0%). Ten patients (13.3%) had only diabetic nephropathy (Group I); 11 patients (14.7%) had diabetic nephropathy with superimposed nondiabetic nephropathy (Group II); and 54 patients (72%) had only nondiabetic nephropathy (Group III). Membranous nephropathy (23.1%), IgA nephropathy (21.5%), and acute tubulointerstitial nephritis (15.4%) were the three most common nondiabetic nephropathies. Group III had shorter duration of diabetes and lesser diabetic retinopathy than Groups I and II (P=0.008). Group II had the lowest baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (P=0.002), with the greatest proportion of renal deterioration during follow-up (median 38.0 months, P<0.0001). The patients who were treated with intensive method showed better renal outcomes (odds ratio 4.931; P=0.01). Absence of diabetic retinopathy was associated with favorable renal outcome in intensive treatment group (odds ratio 0.114; P=0.032).
Renal biopsy should be recommended for type 2 diabetic patients with atypical nephropathy because a considerable number of these patients may have nondiabetic nephropathies. And intensive treatment including corticosteroid or immunosuppressants could be recommended for type 2 diabetic patients with nondiabetic nephropathy, especially if the patients do not have diabetic retinopathy.
Kidney Research and Clinical Practice. 09/2013; 32(3):115–120.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A gene encoding beta-glucosidase was cloned from Weissella cibaria 37, an isolate from human feces. Sequence analysis showed that the gene could encode a protein of 415 amino acids in length, and the translated amino acid sequence showed homology (34-31%) with glycosyl hydrolase family 1 beta-glucosidases. The gene was overexpressed in E. coli BL21(DE3) using pET26b(+) and a 50 kDa protein was overproduced, which matched well with the calculated size of the enzyme, 49,950.87 Da. Recombinant beta-glucosidase was purified by using a his-tag affinity column. The purified beta-glucosidase had an optimum pH and a temperature of 5.5 and 45oC, respectively. Among the metal ions (5mM concentration), Ca2+ slightly increased the activity (108.2%) whereas Cu2+ (46.1%) and Zn2+ (56.7%) reduced the activity. Among the enzyme inhibitors (1 mM concentration), SDS was the strongest inhibitor (16.9%), followed by pepstatin A (45.2%). The Km and Vmax values of purified enzyme were 4.04 mM and 0.92 micromol/min, respectively, when assayed using pNPG (p-nitrophenyl-beta- D-glucopyranoside) as the substrate. The enzyme liberated reducing sugars from carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC).
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 12/2012; 22(12):1705-1713. · 1.40 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of peritoneal mesothelial cells has been regarded as an early mechanism of peritoneal fibrosis. A substantial and rapidly growing literature indicates that HO-1 provides the provenance for pathways that can interrupt virtually all major mechanisms of tissue injury. The effects of HO-1 expression on EMT, which plays a critical role in the development of peritoneal membrane (PM) fibrosis, are unknown and its roles in peritoneal fibrosis has not been studied, yet. METHODS: A piece of human omentum obtained from consenting patients undergoing elective abdominal surgery was used for study. We treated the human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMCs) with high glucose solution and HO-1 inducer (hemin, 10 μmol/L). To further investigate the pure effect of HO-1 on EMT of mesothelium, gene transfer of recombinant Adenovirus-harboring human HO-1 (Adv-HO-1 gene) to HPMCs was done. RESULTS: Exposure of HPMCs to HG solution resulted in an increase of the expression of mesenchymal markers such as α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and was associated with a decrease in the expression of epithelial markers, E-cadherin. HO-1 protein expression was decreased in the same situation. Treatment of HPMCs with HO-1 inducer, hemin showed a dosage-dependent amelioration of HG induced changes in markers of EMT with increase of expression of HO-1. Human HO-1 gene transfection resulted in a significant increase in HO-1 expression and ameliorated HG-induced changes in expression of E-cadherin and α-SMA. CONCLUSION: Taken together, our results suggest that HO-1 has a critical role in the modulation of peritoneal fibrosis, and, more important, the suppression of EMT. This study is the first to show the beneficial effect of HO-1 on reversing EMT in MC.
Clinical and Experimental Nephrology 11/2012; · 1.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Weissella confusa 31, an isolate from human feces, possesses desirable properties as a probiotic strain, including bile salt resistance. W. confusa 31 is not inhibited by bile salts up to 0.3% concentration. Proteins affected by bile salts (0.05%) were examined by 2-D gel electrophoresis. Our proteomic analyses revealed that the intensities of 29 spots were changed, where 17 increased (including 2 spots observed only under the bile salts stress conditions) and 12 decreased. Proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Proteins increased in the band intensities included adenylate kinase (12.75-fold increase), Clp-like ATP-dependent protease (11.91-fold), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (10.35- fold), and HSP 70 (5.07-fold). Some of the increased or decreased proteins are also known to be involved in other types of stress responses.
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 10/2012; 22(10):1432-40. · 1.40 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although cisplatin is a highly effective antineoplastic agent, nephrotoxicity is its major clinical problem. Recently, it was reported that Spirulina, a blue-green algae, has potent antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to establish the possible protective role of C-phycocyanin (PC), one of the active ingredients of Spirulina, against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. This study was carried out using human kidney-2 (HK-2) cells and male C57BL6 mice. Cells and mice were divided into four groups; untreated control group, PC-treated control group, cisplatin-treated group, and PC plus cisplatin-treated group. The molecular, functional, and structural parameters were measured. PC significantly attenuated blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, renal histological damages, and apoptotic cell death in cisplatin-treated mice. The cisplatin-induced cell death was significantly attenuated in cells pretreated with PC. PC also significantly attenuated the elevation of p-ERK, p-JNK, and p-p38 induced by cisplatin treatment. The expression of Bax, caspase-9, and caspase-3 in cisplatin-treated cells were also decreased by PC treatment. In conclusion, PC ameliorates cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and, at least in part, suppression of p-ERK, p-JNK, p-p38, Bax, caspase-9, and caspase-3 may be involved in this mechanism.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ornithine carbamoyltransferase (OTC) deficiency is a urea cycle disorder that causes the accumulation of ammonia, which can lead to encephalopathy. Adults presenting with hyperammonemia who are subsequently diagnosed with urea cycle disorders are rare. Herein, we report a case of a late-onset OTC deficient patient who was successfully treated with arginine, benzoate and hemodialysis. A 59-yr-old man was admitted to our hospital with progressive lethargy and confusion. Although hyperammonemia was suspected as the cause of the patient's mental changes, there was no evidence of chronic liver disease. A plasma amino acid and urine organic acid analysis revealed OTC deficiency. Despite the administration of a lactulose enema, the patient's serum ammonia level increased and he remained confused, leading us to initiate acute hemodialysis. After treatment with arginine, sodium benzoate and hemodialysis, the patient's serum ammonia level stabilized and his mental status returned to normal.
Journal of Korean medical science 05/2012; 27(5):556-9. · 0.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: LAB were isolated from makgeolli locally produced around Jinju, Gyeongnam, S. Korea during spring of 2011. Randomly selected 11 isolates from MRS agar plates were identified first by API CHL 50 kits and then 16S rRNA gene sequencing. All 11 isolates were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum. Among them, ST4 grew in MRS broth with ethanol up to 10%, showing the highest alcohol resistance. L. plantarum ST4 was moderately resistant against acid and bile salts. When cellular proteins of L. plantarum ST4 under ethanol stress were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE), the intensities of 6 spots increased, whereas 22 spots decreased at least 2-fold. Those 28 spots were identified by peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF). FusA2 (elongation factor G) increased 18.8-fold (6% ethanol) compared with control. Other proteins were AtpD (ATP synthase subunit beta), DnaK, GroEL, Tuf (elongation factor Tu), and Npr2 (NADH peroxidase), respectively. Among the 22 proteins decreased in intensities, lactate dehydrogenases (LdhD and LdhL1) were included.
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 04/2012; 22(4):516-25. · 1.40 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Immunogenicity of erythropoietin (EPO) is related with pure red cell aplasia (PRCA). We sought to determine the prevalence of antibody (Ab)-mediated PRCA in Korea and threshold diagnostic criteria by dual parameters: Ab titer and neutralizing activity. This study was a multi-center, cross-sectional study for two years. In the first year study (1 YS), 209 samples suspected to be EPO resistance were collected. In the second year study (2 YS), all the patients who consented to participate (N = 946) were enrolled. In 1 YS, we found three and six serum samples that were positive and borderline for anti-EPO Abs, respectively. The first three patients had neutralizing activity (NT) and were diagnosed as PRCA. In 2 YS, seven patients were anti-EPO positives and six had borderline levels. Among them, one patient with NT was diagnosed as PRCA and one with NT as aplastic anemia. The prevalence of PRCA was 0.106%. The correlation analysis of the 22 patients who had anti-EPO Ab showed that dual crossed cut-off lines (anti-EPO Ab titer ≥ 40 ng/ml, % NT ≥ 25%) were able to clearly isolate red cell aplasia. We suggest novel diagnostic criteria for diagnosis and prediction of Ab-mediated PRCA with data from both Ab titer assays and NT bioassays.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Renal actinomycosis is a rare infection caused by fungi of the genus Actinomyces. A 74-year-old male was admitted to our hospital because of gross hematuria with urinary symptoms and intermittent chills. Computed tomography of the abdomen showed thrombosis in the left renal vein and diffuse, heterogeneous enlargement of the left kidney. After nephrectomy, sulfur granules with chronic suppurative inflammation were seen microscopically, and the histopathological diagnosis was renal actinomycosis. Our case is the first report of renal actinomycosis with renal vein thrombosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Three Weissella confusa and five Weissella cibaria strains were previously isolated from human faeces and their potential as probiotics was examined in this work. Resistance to low pHs (pH 2.0 and 3.0) and 0.3% bile salt were examined. Enzyme activities, susceptibilities to heat treatment and various antibiotics, and adhesion capacities to Caco-2 cells were also examined. All Weissella strains were killed when exposed to pH 2.0 for 2 h but survived at pH 3.0 with different survival ratios. W. confusa 31 survived best (20.2%) and W. confusa 31 was also quite resistant against 0.3% bile salt (128.8%). All strains except one grew well at temperature between 15 and 45 °C and all strains grew in the presence of 6.5% NaCl. W. confusa 20 showed the highest β-galactosidase activity (527.3 ± 23.66 unit/mg protein) and W. cibaria 31 had the highest β-glucosidase activity (115.12 ± 5.3 unit/mg protein) in MRS broth. All strains adhered to Caco-2 cells better than Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and W. confusa 20 was the best adhesive strain (85 CFU/cell). These results show that some strains such as W. confusa 31 and W. confusa 20 are fully qualified as probiotics and deserve further application studies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Renal biopsy is a crucial method in the diagnosis and treatment of acute renal failure of unknown origin, nephrotic syndrome, suspicious interstitial nephritis, and glomerulonephritis as a possible cause of hematuria or proteinuria. Complications occur in 2% to 8% of patients after percutaneous renal biopsy. Complications include gross hematuria, perirenal hematoma, arteriovenous fistula, aneurysm, injury of other organs, and urine leakage. Urine leakage as a complication after kidney biopsy is rare. We experienced a case of urine leakage into the intra-abdominal cavity after renal biopsy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Renin-angiotensin system activation is involved in inflammation and fibrosis in the kidney. Aliskiren, a direct renin inhibitor, decreases renin-angiotensin system activation, including plasma renin activity and angiotensin II, but increases the prorenin level, which may promote inflammation and fibrosis in renal tissue. Thus, we evaluated whether inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system by aliskiren would decrease renal inflammation and fibrosis in a mouse model of unilateral ureteral obstruction.
Ten-week-old male C57BL/6 mice (Samtako, Kyoung Gi-Do, Korea) weighing 30 to 33 gm were divided into 4 groups, including vehicle or aliskiren treated sham operated and vehicle or aliskiren treated unilateral ureteral obstruction groups. We evaluated plasma renin activity, and plasma renin and renal mRNA expression levels of renin and (pro)renin receptor. To evaluate inflammation and fibrosis renal mRNA expression of monocyte chemotactic protein-1, osteopontin and transforming growth factor-β was measured. Hematoxylin and eosin, Masson's trichrome staining, and immunohistochemical staining for CD68, transforming growth factor-β and α-smooth muscle actin were performed.
Plasma renin activity was significantly lower in the aliskiren treated obstruction group than in the vehicle treated obstruction group. Aliskiren treatment increased renal mRNA expression of renin. The number of CD68 positive cells, and renal monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and osteopontin mRNA levels were significantly higher in mice with unilateral ureteral obstruction than in sham operated mice. Aliskiren decreased the increased levels of these inflammation markers. Aliskiren also decreased renal transforming growth factor-β mRNA expression, transforming growth factor-β and α-smooth muscle actin immunostaining, and Masson's trichrome stained areas of unilateral ureteral obstruction kidneys.
Aliskiren has anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effects in an experimental unilateral ureteral obstruction mouse model.
The Journal of urology 06/2011; 186(2):694-701. · 3.75 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although erythropoietin (EPO)-related pure red-cell aplasia (PRCA) is a rare disorder, attention still needs to be paid because underline mechanism of EPO immunogenicity is various and controversial. Among several assay systems for screening of anti-EPO binding antibodies (Abs), we adopted and setup the bridging ELISA using streptavidin-coated plate. To test their neutralizing activities, cell-based neutralizing (NT) bioassay was setup. When we analyzed serum samples by using these two assays, we found two positive results in the two samples. In the sample 1, 411.9 ng/ml of anti-EPO Abs were found and neutralizing activity of 36.2% at 1:5 serum dilution was detected. In the sample 2, 40.5 ng/ml of anti-EPO Abs were found and neutralizing activity of 96.7% was detected. Our results indicate that the higher anti-EPO antibody (Ab) level in a serum does not always lead to the stronger neutralizing activity. This report gives crucial consideration to the needs of establishing clear criteria to link various assay parameters with the onset of PRCA and its progression.
Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis 06/2010; 52(2):289-93. · 2.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A gene, encoding the major secreted fibrinolytic protein of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CH86-1, was cloned from the genomic DNA. DNA sequencing showed that the gene, aprE86-1, could direct the synthesis of a mature protein of 275 amino acids long after processing. When aprE86-1 was introduced into B. subtilis, 27 kDa mature protein was produced as expected. The fibrinolytic activity of B. subtilis transformant (TF) was higher than that of B. amyloliquefaciens CH86-1, showing the possibility of increasing fibrinolytic activities of Bacillus strains through genetic engineering.
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 02/2010; 20(2):370-4. · 1.40 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CH86-1 isolated from cheonggukjang was found to have strong fibrinolytic activity when grown on Luria-Bertani medium, and this activity increased sharply when the cells entered the stationary phase. The major fibrinolytic enzyme, AprE86-1, was purified from culture supernatant and identified by tandem mass spectrometry. The molecular weight of the mature enzyme was determined to be 27 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfatepolyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The optimum pH of partially purified AprE86-1 was 6.0-7.0 and it was stable at up to 45°C.
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 10/2009; 19(10):1280. · 1.40 Impact Factor