Kang Wook Lee

Chungnam National University Hospital, Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea

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Publications (57)72.42 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Idiopathic membranous glomerulonephritis (IMGN) is commonly diagnosed in adults with proteinuria. Rapid deterioration of renal function is a rare complication of IMGN, except when accompanied by renal vein thrombosis, malignant hypertension, or other underlying disease, including lupus nephritis. Here, we present a case of rapid deterioration of renal function in a patient with MGN superimposed with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated rapidly progressive crescentic glomerulonephritis (RPGN). Overall, about 20 cases of MGN with ANCA-associated RPGN have been reported. This case of biopsy-proven MGN with ANCA-associated RPGN is the first to be reported in Korea.
    08/2015; 51(2):102-105. DOI:10.4068/cmj.2015.51.2.102
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    ABSTRACT: Fibrinolytic enzyme genes (aprE2, aprE176, and aprE179) were introduced into the Bacillus subtilis 168 chromosome without any antibiotic resistance gene. An integration vector, pDG1662, was used to deliver the genes into the amyE site of B. subtilis 168. Integrants, SJ3-5nc, SJ176nc, and SJ179nc, were obtained after two successive homologous recombinations. The integration of each fibrinolytic gene into the middle of amyE site was confirmed by phenotypes (Amy(-), Spec(S)) and colony PCR results for these strains. The fibrinolytic activities of integrants were higher than that of B. subtilis 168 by at least 3.2 fold when grown in LB broth. Cheonggukjang was prepared by inoculating each strain of B. subtilis 168, SJ3-5nc, SJ176nc, and SJ179nc, and the fibrinolytic activity of Cheonggukjang was 4.6±0.7, 10.8±0.9, 7.0±0.6, and 8.0±0.2 (U/g of Cheonggukjang), respectively at 72 h. These results showed that construction of B. subtilis strains with enhanced fibrinolytic activities is possible by integration of a strong fibrinolytic gene via marker-free manner.
    Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 07/2015; DOI:10.4014/jmb.1505.05062 · 1.53 Impact Factor
  • Sarah Chung · Dae Eun Choi · Ki Ryang Na · Kang Wook Lee
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    ABSTRACT: In hemodialysis patients, vascular access infection remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. It has various complications, including bacterial endocarditis, spinal epidural abscess, osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, and septic pulmonary emboli. However, aortitis with infected pseudoaneurysm formation is very rare. Here, we report a case of necrotizing aortitis in a hemodialysis patient with an arteriovenous graft infection.
    Clinical nephrology 06/2015; 84(1). DOI:10.5414/CN108279 · 1.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A cryptic plasmid, pJY33, from Weissella cibaria 33 was characterized. pJY33 was 2,365 bp in size with a GC content of 41.27% and contained two putative open reading frames (ORFs). orf1 encoded a putative hypothetical protein of 134 amino acids. orf2 was 849 bp in size, and its putative translation product exhibited 87% identity with a replication initiation factor from a plasmid from W. cibaria KLC140. A Weissella-Escherichia coli shuttle vector, pJY33E (6.5 kb, Em(r)), was constructed by ligation of pJY33 with pBluescript II SK(-) and an erythromycin resistance gene (Em(r)). pJY33E replicated in Lactococcus lactis, Leuconostoc citreum, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Weissella confusa. A single-stranded DNA intermediate was detected from Lb. brevis 2.14 harbouring pJY33E, providing evidence for rolling-circle replication of pJY33. Most Lb. brevis 2.14 cells (85.9%) retained pJY33E after one week of daily culturing in MRS broth without Em. An aga gene encoding α-galactosidase (α-Gal) from Leuconostoc mesenteroides was successfully expressed in Lb. brevis 2.14 using pJY33E, and the highest level of α-Gal activity (36.13 U/mg protein) was observed when cells were grown on melibiose. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Plasmid 04/2015; 79. DOI:10.1016/j.plasmid.2015.03.008 · 1.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) producing microorganism was isolated from jeot-gal (anchovy), a Korean fermented seafood. The isolate, A156, produced GABA profusely when incubated in MRS broth with monosodium glutamate (MSG, 3%, w/v) at 37degrees C for 48 h. A156 was identified as Lactobacillus sakei by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. GABA conversion yield was 86% as determined by GABase enzyme assay. gadB gene encoding glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) was cloned by PCR. gadC encoding a glutamate/GABA antiporter is present in the 5' of gadB, forming an operon structure of gadCB. gadB was overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) and GAD was purified. Purified GAD was 54.4 kDa in size by SDS-PAGE. Maximum GAD activity was observed at pH 5.0 and 55°C and the activity was dependent on pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP). Km and Vmax of GAD were 0.045 mM and 0.011 mM/min, respectively, when glutamate was used as the substrate.
    Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 03/2015; 25(5). DOI:10.4014/jmb.1412.12075 · 1.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bacillus subtilis HK176 with high fibrinolytic activity was isolated from cheonggukjang, a Korean fermented soyfood. A gene, aprE176, encoding the major fibrinolytic enzyme was cloned from B. subtilis HK176 and overexpressed in E. coli BL21(DE3) using plasmid pET26b(+). The specific activity of purified AprE176 was 216.8 +/- 5.4 plasmin unit/mg protein and the optimum pH and temperature were pH 8.0 and 40 degrees C, respectively. Error-prone PCR was performed for aprE176, and the PCR products were introduced into E. coli BL21(DE3) after ligation with pET26b(+). Mutants showing enhanced fibrinolytic activities were screened first using skim-milk plates and then fibrin plates. Among the mutants, M179 showed the highest activity on a fibrin plate and it had one amino acid substitution (A176T). The specific activity of M179 was 2.2-fold higher than that of the wild-type enzyme, but the catalytic efficiency (k(cat)/K-m) of M179 was not different from the wild-type enzyme owing to reduced substrate affinity. Interestingly, M179 showed increased thermostability. M179 retained 36% of activity after 5 h at 45 degrees C, whereas AprE176 retained only 11%. Molecular modeling analysis suggested that the 176th residue of M179, threonine, was located near the cation-binding site compared with the wild type. This probably caused tight binding of M179 with Ca2+, which increased the thermostability of M179.
    Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 01/2015; 25(1):89-97. DOI:10.4014/jmb.1409.09087 · 1.53 Impact Factor
  • 12/2014; 48(6):291-300. DOI:10.14397/jals.2014.48.6.291
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    ABSTRACT: Three Pediococcus pentosaceus strains were isolated from jeotgals, salted and fermented Korean sea-foods, and their probiotic potentials were examined. After 2 h exposure to pH 3.0, P. pentosaceus F66 survived with the survival ratio of 32.6% followed by P. pentosaceus D56 (17.2%) and P. pentosaceus A24 (7.5%). P. pentosaceus F66 also survived better (26.6%) than P. pentosaceus A24 (13.7%) and P. pentosaceus D56 (5.8%) after 2 h exposure to 0.3% bile salts. Three strains grew slowly on MRS broth with 15% NaCl (w/v), reaching the OD600 values of 0.4-0.8 in 36 h. They adhered to Caco-2 cells (10.9 - 13.9 CFU/cell) with similar degree of adherence of a positive control, Lb. rhamnosus GG (12.8 ± 0.5 CFU/cell). Three strains possess some desirable enzyme activities such as β-galactosidase, α-glucosidase, β-glucosidase, and N-acetyl-β-glucosidase. From these results, P. pentosaceus F66 seems qualified as a probiotic and can be utilized for fermented foods including jeotgals.
    Anaerobe 06/2014; 28. DOI:10.1016/j.anaerobe.2014.06.013 · 2.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction and Aims: Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) is a common cause of acute kidney injury (AKI). In severe cases, AIN may progress to chronic kidney disease or end-stage renal disease. We previously reported that WNT10A is a novel angio/stromagenic factor in wound healing and organ fibrosis. In this study, we investigated the role of WNT10A in fibrotic progression of AIN. Methods: Kidney biopsy specimens from 25 AKI patients (all men, ≥60 years) treated in our hospital between 2007 and 2013 were examined for WNT proteins, α-SMA, and fibronectin expression by immunohistochemistry. The relationship between each WNT proteins expression level and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was evaluated by the Mann-Whitney U test. COS1 cells (kidney fibroblasts from African green monkey) were transfected with a WNT10A expression plasmid or a siRNA targeting peroxiredoxin 5 (PRDX5). The effects of WNT10A overexpression and PRDX5 knockdown on proliferation and hydrogen peroxide induced cytotoxicity were measured by WST-8 assay. Results: The 10 patients exhibiting WNT10A expression in biopsy tissue had significantly lower eGFR values (median, 11.12 mL/min per 1.73 m2; range, 7.16−28.15 mL/min per 1.73 m2) than the 15 patients exhibiting no detectable WNT10A expression (34.70, 8.37−134.58; p = 0.0033). There was no significant relationship between eGFR and the expression level of any other WNT protein examined (WNT-1, -3, and -4). Overexpression of WNT10A in COS1 cells enhanced proliferation, fibronectin expression, PRDX5 expression, and resistance to hydrogen peroxide, while PRDX5 downregulation sensitized COS1 cells to hydrogen peroxide. Conclusions: WNT10A expression may promote fibrotic progression and kidney dysfunction in AIN. Blockade of WNT10A expression may be a feasible therapeutic strategy against kidney fibrosis.
    Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 05/2014; 29 Suppl 3(suppl 3):iii90-iii101. DOI:10.1093/ndt/gfu143 · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Severe hypernatremia is an important electrolyte disorder that has serious effects. The patient had no medical history. A. 20-year-old ingested bamboo salt for digestion and weight reduction according to the folk remedies posted on an internet website. She presented with vomiting and diarrhea over ten times per day. Her initial serum sodium concentration was 174mEq/L. Her symptoms improved rapidly with hypotonic saline infusion. She recovered completely without any sequelae in three days. Severe hypernatremia in a normal young adult with clear consciousness and normal renal function has not been reported in Korea yet. So we report a case of severe hypernatremia by excessive bamboo salt ingestion in healthy young woman.
    Electrolyte & blood pressure: E & BP 12/2013; 11(2):53-5. DOI:10.5049/EBP.2013.11.2.53
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    ABSTRACT: Unlabelled: Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) is the most common cause of acute renal injury. I/R-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) are thought to be a major factor in the development of acute renal injury by promoting the initial tubular damage. Nad(p)h: quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) is a well-known antioxidant protein that regulates ROS generation. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether NQO1 modulates the renal I/R injury (IRI) associated with NADPH oxidase (NOX)-derived ROS production in an animal model. We analyzed renal function, oxidative stress, and tubular apoptosis after IRI. NQO1(-/-) mice showed increased blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels, tubular damage, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. In the kidneys of NQO1(-/-) mice, the cellular NADPH/NADP(+) ratio was significantly higher and NOX activity was markedly higher than in those of NQO1(+/+) mice. The activation of NQO1 by β-lapachone (βL) significantly improved renal dysfunction and reduced tubular cell damage, oxidative stress, and apoptosis by renal I/R. Moreover, the βL treatment significantly lowered the cellular NADPH/NADP(+) ratio and dramatically reduced NOX activity in the kidneys after IRI. From these results, it was concluded that NQO1 has a protective role against renal injury induced by I/R and that this effect appears to be mediated by decreased NOX activity via cellular NADPH/NADP(+) modulation. These results provide convincing evidence that NQO1 activation might be beneficial for ameliorating renal injury induced by I/R.
    Free Radical Biology and Medicine 11/2013; 67. DOI:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2013.10.817 · 5.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics of nondiabetic nephropathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and to find a clinical significance of renal biopsy and immunosuppressive treatment in such a patient. Methods Renal biopsy results, clinical parameters, and renal outcomes were analyzed in 75 diabetic patients who underwent kidney biopsy at Chungnam National University Hospital from January 1994 to December 2010. Results The three most common reasons for renal biopsy were nephrotic range proteinuria (44%), proteinuria without diabetic retinopathy (20%), and unexplained decline in renal function (20.0%). Ten patients (13.3%) had only diabetic nephropathy (Group I); 11 patients (14.7%) had diabetic nephropathy with superimposed nondiabetic nephropathy (Group II); and 54 patients (72%) had only nondiabetic nephropathy (Group III). Membranous nephropathy (23.1%), IgA nephropathy (21.5%), and acute tubulointerstitial nephritis (15.4%) were the three most common nondiabetic nephropathies. Group III had shorter duration of diabetes and lesser diabetic retinopathy than Groups I and II (P=0.008). Group II had the lowest baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (P=0.002), with the greatest proportion of renal deterioration during follow-up (median 38.0 months, P<0.0001). The patients who were treated with intensive method showed better renal outcomes (odds ratio 4.931; P=0.01). Absence of diabetic retinopathy was associated with favorable renal outcome in intensive treatment group (odds ratio 0.114; P=0.032). Conclusion Renal biopsy should be recommended for type 2 diabetic patients with atypical nephropathy because a considerable number of these patients may have nondiabetic nephropathies. And intensive treatment including corticosteroid or immunosuppressants could be recommended for type 2 diabetic patients with nondiabetic nephropathy, especially if the patients do not have diabetic retinopathy.
    09/2013; 32(3):115–120. DOI:10.1016/j.krcp.2013.07.002
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The purpose of this study is to identify whether hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations can be maintained, and to investigate changes in biomarkers, when switching from erythropoietin stimulating agents (ESA) with shorter half-life to once-monthly subcutaneous methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin β (CERA) in pre-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Methods: Pre-dialysis CKD patients (n=191) aged ≥18 years who maintained their Hb level 10-12 g/dL through use of epoetin-α, epoetin-β, or darbepoetin-α were enrolled. Hb levels and CERA dose was assessed prospectively for 24 weeks. Serum biomarkers related to coagulation, endothelial function, and iron metabolism were measured at weeks 0 and 24. Results: Baseline Hb concentration was 10.8±0.6 g/dL Twelve and 24 weeks after conversion, mean Hb levels were 11.9±0.9 and 11.2±0.9 g/dL, respectively. The mean monthly CERA dose required to maintain Hb levels was gradually reduced. Of total 387 dose adjustments, dose increases and decreases occurred in 35 (9.0%) and 352 (91.0%) episodes, respectively. Hb overshoot occurred in 14 (9.7%) patients. P-selectin was significantly decreased, whereas VCAM was significantly increased 24 weeks after conversion (P < 0.05). Serum soluble transferrin receptor E-selectin and prohepcidin levels were similar before and after switching to CERA (P=N-S). Conclusion: Conversion from ESA with shorter half-life to subcutaneous once-monthly CERA in pre-dialysis CKD patients can efficaciously maintain Hb. The CERA dose requirement decreased significantly. The conversion ratio may need to be reduced when switching from ESA with shorter half-life to CERA. CERA may change biomarkers associated with platelet reactivity and endothelial microenvironment.
    Kidney and Blood Pressure Research 07/2013; 37(4-5):259-268. DOI:10.1159/000350151 · 2.12 Impact Factor
  • 223th ECS Meeting; 05/2013
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    ABSTRACT: A three-dimensional LSI (3D-LSI) that vertically stacks Si chips with a number of through-silicon vias (TSVs) and metal microbumps has attracted much attention recently. However, there are some issues to be resolved in the fabrication of 3D-LSI. In this study, we investigated impacts of local bending stress on the performance of a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) circuit fabricated in a thinned Si chip. First, we proposed a novel method and a test structure to easily induce the local bending stress in the thinned Si chip. Then, we evaluated the distribution of the local bending stress and its effects on the electrical characteristics of metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFETs). As a result, we observed the degradations of the MOSFET currents and CMOS inverter switching behaviors in accordance with the chip local bending. Our experimental results obviously indicate that the local bending stress caused large fluctuations in the performance of the circuit fabricated in the thinned Si chip. (C) 2013 The Japan Society of Applied Physics
    Japanese Journal of Applied Physics 04/2013; 52(4S):04CB11. DOI:10.7567/JJAP.52.04CB11 · 1.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the clinical characteristics of patients who underwent kidney biopsies, and the relative changes in pathological diagnosis, according to time periods over the last 30 years (1981-2010).
    01/2013; 84(3):379. DOI:10.3904/kjm.2013.84.3.379
  • Kang Wook Lee · Nam Soo Han · Jeong Hwan Kim
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    ABSTRACT: A gene encoding beta-glucosidase was cloned from Weissella cibaria 37, an isolate from human feces. Sequence analysis showed that the gene could encode a protein of 415 amino acids in length, and the translated amino acid sequence showed homology (34-31%) with glycosyl hydrolase family 1 beta-glucosidases. The gene was overexpressed in E. coli BL21(DE3) using pET26b(+) and a 50 kDa protein was overproduced, which matched well with the calculated size of the enzyme, 49,950.87 Da. Recombinant beta-glucosidase was purified by using a his-tag affinity column. The purified beta-glucosidase had an optimum pH and a temperature of 5.5 and 45oC, respectively. Among the metal ions (5mM concentration), Ca2+ slightly increased the activity (108.2%) whereas Cu2+ (46.1%) and Zn2+ (56.7%) reduced the activity. Among the enzyme inhibitors (1 mM concentration), SDS was the strongest inhibitor (16.9%), followed by pepstatin A (45.2%). The Km and Vmax values of purified enzyme were 4.04 mM and 0.92 micromol/min, respectively, when assayed using pNPG (p-nitrophenyl-beta- D-glucopyranoside) as the substrate. The enzyme liberated reducing sugars from carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC).
    Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 12/2012; 22(12):1705-1713. DOI:10.4014/jmb.1206.06007 · 1.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of peritoneal mesothelial cells has been regarded as an early mechanism of peritoneal fibrosis. A substantial and rapidly growing literature indicates that HO-1 provides the provenance for pathways that can interrupt virtually all major mechanisms of tissue injury. The effects of HO-1 expression on EMT, which plays a critical role in the development of peritoneal membrane (PM) fibrosis, are unknown and its roles in peritoneal fibrosis has not been studied, yet. Methods: A piece of human omentum obtained from consenting patients undergoing elective abdominal surgery was used for study. We treated the human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMCs) with high glucose solution and HO-1 inducer (hemin, 10 μmol/L). To further investigate the pure effect of HO-1 on EMT of mesothelium, gene transfer of recombinant Adenovirus-harboring human HO-1 (Adv-HO-1 gene) to HPMCs was done. Results: Exposure of HPMCs to HG solution resulted in an increase of the expression of mesenchymal markers such as α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and was associated with a decrease in the expression of epithelial markers, E-cadherin. HO-1 protein expression was decreased in the same situation. Treatment of HPMCs with HO-1 inducer, hemin showed a dosage-dependent amelioration of HG induced changes in markers of EMT with increase of expression of HO-1. Human HO-1 gene transfection resulted in a significant increase in HO-1 expression and ameliorated HG-induced changes in expression of E-cadherin and α-SMA. Conclusion: Taken together, our results suggest that HO-1 has a critical role in the modulation of peritoneal fibrosis, and, more important, the suppression of EMT. This study is the first to show the beneficial effect of HO-1 on reversing EMT in MC.
    Clinical and Experimental Nephrology 11/2012; 17(2). DOI:10.1007/s10157-012-0699-y · 2.02 Impact Factor
  • Kang Wook Lee · Seung-Gyu Lee · Nam Soo Han · Jeong-Hwan Kim
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    ABSTRACT: Weissella confusa 31, an isolate from human feces, possesses desirable properties as a probiotic strain, including bile salt resistance. W. confusa 31 is not inhibited by bile salts up to 0.3% concentration. Proteins affected by bile salts (0.05%) were examined by 2-D gel electrophoresis. Our proteomic analyses revealed that the intensities of 29 spots were changed, where 17 increased (including 2 spots observed only under the bile salts stress conditions) and 12 decreased. Proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Proteins increased in the band intensities included adenylate kinase (12.75-fold increase), Clp-like ATP-dependent protease (11.91-fold), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (10.35- fold), and HSP 70 (5.07-fold). Some of the increased or decreased proteins are also known to be involved in other types of stress responses.
    Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 10/2012; 22(10):1432-40. DOI:10.4014/jmb.1203.03066 · 1.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although cisplatin is a highly effective antineoplastic agent, nephrotoxicity is its major clinical problem. Recently, it was reported that Spirulina, a blue-green algae, has potent antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to establish the possible protective role of C-phycocyanin (PC), one of the active ingredients of Spirulina, against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. This study was carried out using human kidney-2 (HK-2) cells and male C57BL6 mice. Cells and mice were divided into four groups; untreated control group, PC-treated control group, cisplatin-treated group, and PC plus cisplatin-treated group. The molecular, functional, and structural parameters were measured. PC significantly attenuated blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, renal histological damages, and apoptotic cell death in cisplatin-treated mice. The cisplatin-induced cell death was significantly attenuated in cells pretreated with PC. PC also significantly attenuated the elevation of p-ERK, p-JNK, and p-p38 induced by cisplatin treatment. The expression of Bax, caspase-9, and caspase-3 in cisplatin-treated cells were also decreased by PC treatment. In conclusion, PC ameliorates cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and, at least in part, suppression of p-ERK, p-JNK, p-p38, Bax, caspase-9, and caspase-3 may be involved in this mechanism.
    Renal Failure 06/2012; 34(7):892-900. DOI:10.3109/0886022X.2012.690925 · 0.94 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

546 Citations
72.42 Total Impact Points


  • 2008–2015
    • Chungnam National University Hospital
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2007–2015
    • Gyeongsang National University
      • • Institute of Agriculture and Life Science
      • • Graduate School
      • • Division of Applied Life Science
      Shinshū, Gyeongsangnam-do, South Korea
  • 2009–2013
    • Chungnam National University
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Daiden, Daejeon, South Korea
  • 1999–2013
    • Tohoku University
      • • Department of Bioengineering and Robotics
      • • New Industry Creation Hatchery Center
      Miyagi, Japan
  • 2012
    • Renesas Electronics Corporation
      Düsseldorf, North Rhine-Westphalia, Japan