Richard J Bloomer

DeSales University, Allentown, Pennsylvania, United States

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Publications (134)191.85 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Aerobic exercise can reduce postprandial lipemia, and possibly oxidative stress, when performed prior to a lipid-rich meal.
    European journal of applied physiology. 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Higenamine, also known as norcoclaurine, is an herbal constituent thought to act as a beta-2 adrenergic receptor agonist---possibly stimulating lipolysis. It was the purpose of this study to determine the impact of a higenamine-based dietary supplement on plasma free fatty acids and energy expenditure following acute oral ingestion. Sixteen healthy subjects (8 men; 26.1 +/- 2.5 yrs; 8 women 22.4 +/- 3.1 yrs) ingested a dietary supplement containing a combination of higenamine, caffeine (270 mg), and yohimbe bark extract or a placebo, on two separate occasions in a double-blind, randomized, cross-over design, separated by 6--8 days. Blood samples were collected immediately before ingestion, and at 30, 60, 120, and 180 minutes post ingestion, and analyzed for plasma free fatty acids (FFA) and glycerol. Breath samples were collected at the same times for a measure of kilocalorie expenditure and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) using indirect calorimetry. Heart rate and blood pressure were recorded at all times. Data collection occurred in the morning following a 10 hour overnight fast. A condition effect was noted for both FFA (p < 0.0001) and kilocalorie expenditure (p = 0.001), with values higher for supplement compared to placebo at 60, 120, and 180 minutes post ingestion. No statistically significant effects were noted for glycerol or RER (p > 0.05). A condition effect was noted for heart rate (p = 0.03) and systolic blood pressure (p < 0.0001), with values higher for supplement compared to placebo. Ingestion of a higenamine-based dietary supplement stimulates lipolysis and energy expenditure, as evidenced by a significant increase in circulating FFA and kilocalorie expenditure. The same supplement results in a moderate increase in heart rate (~3 bpm) and systolic blood pressure (~12 mmHg), which is consistent with previous studies evaluating moderate doses of caffeine and yohimbine, suggesting that higenamine contributes little to the increase in these hemodynamic variables. These findings are in reference to young, healthy and active men and women.
    Lipids in Health and Disease 10/2013; 12(1):148. · 2.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 1,3-dimethylamylamine (DMAA) has been a component of dietary supplements and is also used within "party pills," often in conjunction with alcohol and other drugs. Ingestion of higher than recommended doses results in untoward effects including cerebral hemorrhage. To our knowledge, no studies have been conducted to determine both the pharmacokinetic profile and physiologic responses of DMAA. Eight men reported to the lab in the morning following an overnight fast and received a single 25 mg oral dose of DMAA. Blood samples were collected before and through 24 hours post-DMAA ingestion and analyzed for plasma DMAA concentration using high-performance liquid chromatography--mass spectrometry. Resting heart rate, blood pressure, and body temperature was also measured. One subject was excluded from the data analysis due to abnormal DMAA levels. Analysis of the remaining seven participants showed DMAA had an oral clearance of 20.02 +/- 5 L[bullet operator]hr-1, an oral volume of distribution of 236 +/- 38 L, and terminal half-life of 8.45 +/- 1.9 hr. Lag time, the delay in appearance of DMAA in the circulation following extravascular administration, varied among participants but averaged approximately 8 minutes (0.14 +/- 0.13 hr). The peak DMAA concentration for all subjects was observed within 3--5 hours following ingestion and was very similar across subjects, with a mean of ~70 ng[bullet operator]mL-1. Heart rate, blood pressure, and body temperature were largely unaffected by DMAA treatment. These are the first data to characterize the oral pharmacokinetic profile of DMAA. These findings indicate a consistent pattern of increase across subjects with regards to peak DMAA concentration, with peak values approximately 15--30 times lower than those reported in case studies linking DMAA intake with adverse events. Finally, a single 25 mg dose of DMAA does not meaningfully impact resting heart rate, blood pressure, or body temperature.Trial registration: NCT01765933.
    BMC pharmacology & toxicology. 10/2013; 14(1):52.
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Strenuous, high-volume exercise is often associated with inflammation and joint pain. Cissus quadrangularis (CQ) has been reported to have anti-inflammatory activity. The purpose of our study was to determine the therapeutic effects of CQ supplementation in healthy, exercise-trained men with joint-specific pain. Methods: Twenty-nine men between the ages of 20 and 46 years, who reportedly experienced chronic joint pain as a result of strenuous exercise, participated in our pilot study. All men received CQ 3200 mg daily for 8 weeks. Before and after the 8-week intervention period, subjects completed a questionnaire to determine their degree of joint pain (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Index of Osteoarthritis [WOMAC]). Clinical measures (eg, heart rate, blood pressure, blood biomarkers) were also collected for each subject pre- (baseline) and post-intervention. Results: Subject ratings for multiple variables within the WOMAC Index improved (decreased) significantly (P < 0.05), with the subject mean total WOMAC score decreasing from 25.4 ± 2.4 to 17.4 ± 2.1 (~31%), pre- to post-intervention. No clinical measure was significantly impacted by use of CQ supplementation. Conclusion: An 8-week course of supplementation with CQ reduced joint pain in a sample of 29 young, otherwise healthy, exercise-trained men. Additional study is needed to extend these findings, including comparison with a placebo-controlled cohort, and possibly, examining effects of CQ use in women and older adult subjects.
    The Physician and sportsmedicine 09/2013; 41(3):29-35. · 1.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Daniel Fast involves dietary modification similar to a purified vegan diet. Although improvements in several health-specific biomarkers have been noted with this plan, the removal of animal products results in a significant reduction in both dietary protein and saturated fatty acid intake, which results in a loss of lean body mass and a reduction in HDL-cholesterol. We assigned 29 men and women to either a traditional or modified Daniel Fast for 21 days and measured anthropometric and biochemical markers of health pre and post intervention. The modified Daniel Fast was otherwise identical to the traditional plan but included one serving per day of lean meat and dairy (skim milk), providing approximately 30 grams per day of additional protein. Compared to baseline, both plans resulted in similar and significant improvements in blood lipids, as well as a reduction in inflammation. Modification of dietary intake in accordance with either a traditional or modified Daniel Fast may improve risk factors for cardiovascular and metabolic disease.
    Lipids in Health and Disease 07/2013; 12(1):114. · 2.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purposes of this study were to establish stability reliability of a measure of lower body anaerobic power, the Kansas Squat Test; (KST), and to compare the KST with the commonly used Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT) for lower body power. Fourteen resistance trained men (mean ± SD; age = 24.2 ± 3.6 yrs.) performed both the KST and the WAnT twice on separate occasions. The KST consisted of using an external dynamometer to measure mean repetition power while performing 15 repetitions of speed squats using 70% of 1 RM system mass (barbell + body mass), initiating each repetition at 6 second intervals. Repetition power, mean power for all 15 repetitions, and % fatigue for the KST were all reliable (intra-class correlation coefficient; ICC = 0.754 to 0.937; p < 0.05). There were no differences between tests for the mean power for all repetitions or relative fatigue (p<0.05), and no significant differences between tests for any individual repetition (test x repetition interaction, p<0.05). Although absolute values were different (p > 0.05), significant correlations were found between the KST and WAnT for mean (r = 0.752) and maximum (r = 0.775) test powers, but not for relative fatigue (r = 0.174). Lactate (HLa) responses were greater for the WAnT compared to the KST. These data indicate that the KST is reliable for resistance-trained men, and that measures of maximum and mean test powers for the KST are highly correlated to those values for the WAnT, but fatigue rates and HLa responses were not correlated. It appears that the KST is a lifting-specific anaerobic power and power endurance test that emphasizes phosphagen metabolism, and may be used to assess training induced changes in lower body power.
    The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 07/2013; · 1.80 Impact Factor
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    Richard J Bloomer, T M Farney, I C Harvey, R J Alleman
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    ABSTRACT: Caffeine and 1,3-dimethylamylamine (DMAA) are widely used alone and in combination with dietary supplements. No investigation has determined the safety profile of chronic intake of caffeine or DMAA, alone or in combination, within the same study design. A total of 50 young and healthy men completed 12 weeks of daily supplementation with either a placebo (n = 11), caffeine at 250 mg day(-1) (n = 14), DMAA at 50 mg day(-1) (n = 13), or caffeine at 250 mg day(-1) + DMAA at 50 mg day(-1) (n = 12). Before and after 6 and 12 weeks of supplementation, the following variables were measured: body mass/composition, resting respiratory rate, blood pressure, 12-lead electrocardiogram, urinalysis, complete blood count, metabolic panel, lipid panel, and oxidative stress, inflammatory, and cardiac biomarkers. No interaction effects were noted for any variable (p > 0.05), with little change occurring across time for subjects in any of the four conditions. With the exception of urinary pH (p = 0.05; Pre (6.5 ± 0.1) higher than week 6 (6.1 ± 0.1)) and blood CO(2) (p = 0.02; week 12 (25.9 ± 0.3 mmol L(-1)) higher than week 6 (24.8 ± 0.3 mmol L(-1))), no time effect was noted for any other variable (p > 0.05). These data indicate that 12 weeks of daily supplementation with caffeine and DMAA, alone or in combination, does not result in a statistically significant change in any of the measured outcome variables.
    Human & Experimental Toxicology 02/2013; · 1.31 Impact Factor
  • Richard J Bloomer, Tyler M Farney
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    ABSTRACT: When exercise is of long duration or of moderate to high intensity, a decrease in plasma volume can be observed. This has been noted for both aerobic and resistance exercise but few data are available with regards to high intensity sprint exercise. We measured plasma volume before and following three different bouts of acute exercise, of varying intensity and/or duration. On different days, men (n=12; 21-35 years) performed aerobic cycle exercise (60 min at 70% heart rate reserve) and two different bouts of cycle sprints (five, 60 sec sprints at 100% max wattage obtained during graded exercise testing (GXT); and ten, 15 sec sprints at 200% max wattage obtained during GXT). Blood was collected before and 0, 30, and 60-minutes post-exercise and analyzed for hematocrit and hemoglobin; plasma volume was calculated. Plasma volume decreased significantly for all exercise bouts (p<0.05), with the greatest decrease noted 0 minutes post-exercise for both sprint bouts (∼19%) compared to aerobic exercise bouts (∼11%). By 30 minutes post-exercise, plasma volume approached pre-exercise values. We conclude that acute bouts of exercise, in particular high intensity sprint exercise, significantly decrease plasma volume during the immediate post-exercise period. It is unknown what, if any negative implications these transient changes may have on exercise performance. Strength and conditioning professionals may aim to rehydrate athletes appropriately following high intensity exercise bouts.
    The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 01/2013; · 1.80 Impact Factor
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    Richard J Bloomer, John F Trepanowski, Tyler M Farney
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    ABSTRACT: Coffee has been reported to be rich in antioxidants, with both acute and chronic consumption leading to enhanced blood antioxidant capacity. High-fat feeding is known to result in excess production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, promoting a condition of postprandial oxidative stress. We tested the hypothesis that coffee intake following a high-fat meal would attenuate the typical increase in blood oxidative stress during the acute postprandial period. On 3 different occasions, 16 men and women consumed a high-fat milk shake followed by either 16 ounces of caffeinated or decaffeinated coffee or bottled water. Blood samples were collected before and at 2 and 4 hours following intake of the milk shake and analyzed for triglycerides (TAG), malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC). Values for TAG and MDA (P < 0.001), as well as for H2O2 (P < 0.001), increased significantly following milk shake consumption, with values higher at 4 hours compared with 2 hours post consumption for TAG and H2O2 (P < 0.05). TEAC was unaffected by the milk shake consumption. Coffee had no impact on TAG, MDA, H2O2, or TEAC, with no condition or interaction effects noted for any variable (P > 0.05). Acute coffee consumption following a high-fat milk shake has no impact on postprandial oxidative stress.
    Nutrition and Metabolic Insights 01/2013; 6:35-42.
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    ABSTRACT: Two prevalent origins of oxidative stress in Western society are the ingestion of high-fat meals and the performance of strenuous exercise. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the magnitude of increase in blood oxidative stress following acute feeding and acute exercise. Twelve exercise-trained men consumed a high-fat meal or performed 1 of 3 exercise bouts (steady-state aerobic; high-intensity, moderate-duration interval sprints; maximal intensity, short-duration interval sprints) in a random order, crossover design. Blood was collected before and at times following feeding and exercise. Samples were analyzed for trigylcerides, malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), nitrate/nitrite (NOx), trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). A significant condition effect was noted for MDA (p = 0.01), H(2)O(2) (p < 0.0001), and AOPP (p = 0.0006), with values highest for the meal condition. An increase of 88%, 247%, and 96% was noted from pre- to post-feeding for MDA, H(2)O(2), and AOPP, respectively. A condition effect was also noted for TEAC (p = 0.04) and CAT (p = 0.05), with values lowest for the meal condition (TEAC) and the meal and aerobic exercise condition (CAT). NOx, SOD, and GPx were relatively unaffected by feeding and exercise, while MDA, H(2)O(2), and AOPP experienced little change from pre- to postexercise (p > 0.05). These results illustrate that the magnitude of blood oxidative stress following a high-fat meal is significantly greater than that elicited by either aerobic or anaerobic exercise in a sample of exercise-trained men.
    Applied Physiology Nutrition and Metabolism 01/2013; 38(1):33-41. · 2.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The inflammatory response to vigorous exercise ranges from the mild symptoms of delayed-onset muscle soreness to debilitating injuries affecting soft tissue, joint, and bone. Although there is a great deal of information available on the inflammatory response to exercise in human athletes, less information is available regarding the inflammatory response to exercise in young horses undergoing training for racing careers. Here, we assessed the cytokine response to exercise in a group of young Thoroughbred racehorses during their initial training. Because there is interest in nonpharmacologic approaches to control or ameliorate exercise-induced inflammation, we also examined the anti-inflammatory effect of a nutritional supplement fed to half of the horses undergoing training. Twenty-five Thoroughbred horses aged 2 years were followed through their initial race training. Peripheral blood samples were collected at various times during the exercise for the quantitation of lactic acid, oxidative stress, and inflammatory cytokine gene expression. There was an intensity-dependent effect of exercise on lactate, malondialdehyde, and proinflammatory cytokine gene expression. Although training itself was associated with an overall reduction in inflammatory markers, horses receiving the supplement exhibited further reductions in their indicators of inflammation. As such, this study provides novel evidence of nutritional supplementation reducing postexercise inflammation.
    Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 12/2012; 32(12):805–815. · 0.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) has been reported to provide anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects in both animal and man. Strenuous resistance exercise has the potential to induce both inflammation and oxidative stress. Using a pilot (proof of concept) study design, we determined the influence of MSM on markers of exercise recovery and performance in healthy men. METHODS: Eight, healthy men (27.1 +/- 6.9 yrs old) who were considered to be moderately exercise-trained (exercising <150 minutes per week) were randomly assigned to ingest MSM at either 1.5 grams per day or 3.0 grams per day for 30 days (28 days before and 2 days following exercise). Before and after the 28 day intervention period, subjects performed 18 sets of knee extension exercise in an attempt to induce muscle damage (and to be used partly as a measure of exercise performance). Sets 1--15 were performed at a predetermined weight for 10 repetitions each, while sets 16--18 were performed to muscular failure. Muscle soreness (using a 5-point Likert scale), fatigue (using the fatigue-inertia subset of the Profile of Mood States), blood antioxidant status (glutathione and Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity [TEAC]), and blood homocysteine were measured before and after exercise, pre and post intervention. Exercise performance (total work performed during sets 16--18 of knee extension testing) was also measured pre and post intervention. RESULTS: Muscle soreness increased following exercise and a trend was noted for a reduction in muscle soreness with 3.0 grams versus 1.5 grams of MSM (p = 0.080), with a 1.0 point difference between dosages. Fatigue was slightly reduced with MSM (p = 0.073 with 3.0 grams; p = 0.087 for both dosages combined). TEAC increased significantly following exercise with 3.0 grams of MSM (p = 0.035), while homocysteine decreased following exercise for both dosages combined (p = 0.007). No significant effects were noted for glutathione or total work performed during knee extension testing (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: MSM, especially when provided at 3.0 grams per day, may favorably influence selected markers of exercise recovery. More work is needed to extend these findings, in particular using a larger sample of subjects and the inclusion of additional markers of exercise recovery and performance.
    Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 09/2012; 9(1):46. · 1.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The Daniel Fast is a vegan diet that prohibits the consumption of animal products, refined foods, white flour, preservatives, additives, sweeteners, flavorings, caffeine, and alcohol. Following this dietary plan for 21 days has been demonstrated to improve blood pressure, LDL-C, and certain markers of oxidative stress, but it has also been shown to lower HDL-C. Krill oil supplementation has been shown to increase HDL-C. METHODS: We investigated the effects of following a Daniel Fast dietary plan with either krill oil supplementation (2 g/day) or placebo supplementation (coconut oil; 2 g/day) for 21 days. The subjects in this study (12 men and 27 women) were heterogeneous with respect to body mass index (BMI) (normal weight, overweight, and obese), blood lipids (normolipidemic and hyperlipidemic), blood glucose (normal fasting glucose, impaired fasting glucose, and type 2 diabetic), and blood pressure (normotensive and hypertensive). RESULTS: Krill oil supplementation had no effect on any outcome measure (all p > 0.05), and so the data from the krill oil group and the placebo group were collapsed and analyzed to examine the effects of following a 21-day Daniel Fast. Significant reductions were observed in LDL-C (100.6 +/- 4.3 mg/dL vs. 80.0 +/- 3.7 mg/dL), the LDL:HDL ratio (2.0 +/- 0.1 vs. 1.7 +/- 0.1), fasting blood glucose (101.4 +/- 7.5 mg/dL vs. 91.7 +/- 3.4 mg/dL), fasting blood insulin (7.92 +/- 0.80 muU/mL vs. 5.76 +/- 0.59 muU/mL), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (2.06 +/- 0.30 vs. 1.40 +/- 0.21), systolic BP (110.7 +/- 2.2 mm Hg vs. 105.5 +/- 1.7 mm Hg), and body weight (74.1 +/- 2.4 kg vs. 71.5 +/- 2.3 kg) (all p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Following a Daniel Fast dietary plan improves a variety of cardiometabolic parameters in a wide range of individuals in as little as 21 days, and these improvements are unaffected by krill oil supplementation.Trial registrationClinicaltrial.govNCT01378767.
    Nutrition & Metabolism 09/2012; 9(1):82. · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Exercise has been noted in some, but not all, studies to elicit an oxidative stress. The discrepancy in findings may be related to differences in exercise intensity across protocols, as well as to differences in training status of participants. We compared blood oxidative stress biomarkers in exercise-trained men after three different bouts of exercise of varying intensity and duration, as well as a nonexercise condition. On different days, men (n = 12, 21-35 yr) performed aerobic cycle exercise (60 min at 70% HR reserve) and cycle sprints (five 60-s sprints at 100% maximum wattage obtained during graded exercise testing and ten 15-s sprints at 200% maximum wattage obtained during graded exercise testing). Blood was collected before and 0, 30, and 60 min after exercise and analyzed for malondialdehyde, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), advanced oxidation protein products, and nitrate/nitrite (NOx). As indicators of antioxidant status, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase were measured. No differences were noted in malondialdehyde, H2O2, advanced oxidation protein product, or NOx between conditions or across time (P > 0.05). Antioxidant capacity was generally highest at 30 and 60 min after exercise and lowest at 0 min after exercise. In trained men, and considering the limitations of the current design (e.g., inclusion of selected oxidative stress and antioxidant biomarkers measured in blood only), strenuous bouts of exercise do not result in a significant increase in blood oxidative stress during the 1-h postexercise period. These findings may be related to attenuation in reactive oxygen species production as an adaptation to chronic exercise training and/or a protective effect of the antioxidant system in response to acute strenuous exercise.
    Medicine and science in sports and exercise 04/2012; 44(10):1855-63. · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have recently reported that short-term (21-day) dietary modification in accordance with a stringent vegan diet (i.e., a Daniel Fast) lowers blood lipids as well as biomarkers of oxidative stress. However, this work only involved measurements obtained in a fasted state. In the present study, we determined the postprandial response to a high-fat milkshake with regards to blood triglycerides (TAG), biomarkers of oxidative stress, and hemodynamic variables before and following a 21-day Daniel Fast. Twenty-two subjects (10 men and 12 women; aged 35 ± 3 years) completed a 21-day Daniel Fast. To induce oxidative stress, a milkshake (fat = 0.8 g·kg-1; carbohydrate = 1.0 g·kg-1; protein = 0.25 g·kg-1) was consumed by subjects on day one and day 22 in a rested and 12-hour fasted state. Before and at 2 and 4 h after consumption of the milkshake, heart rate (HR) and blood pressure were measured. Blood samples were also collected at these times and analyzed for TAG, malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), nitrate/nitrite (NOx), and Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC). A time effect was noted for HR (p = 0.006), with values higher at 2 hr post intake of the milkshake as compared to pre intake (p < 0.05). Diastolic blood pressure was lower post fast as compared to pre fast (p = 0.02), and a trend for lower systolic blood pressure was noted (p = 0.07). Time effects were noted for TAG (p = 0.001), MDA (p < 0.0001), H2O2 (p < 0.0001), AOPP (p < 0.0001), and TEAC (p < 0.0001); all concentrations were higher at 2 h and 4 h post intake compared to pre intake, except for TEAC, which was lower at these times (p < 0.05). A condition effect was noted for NOx (p = 0.02), which was higher post fast as compared to pre fast. No pre/post fast × time interactions were noted (p > 0.05), with the area under the curve from pre to post fast reduced only slightly for TAG (11%), MDA (11%), H2O2 (8%), and AOPP (12%), with a 37% increase noted for NOx. Partaking in a 21-day Daniel Fast does not result in a statistically significant reduction in postprandial oxidative stress. It is possible that a longer time course of adherence to the Daniel Fast eating plan may be needed to observe significant findings.
    Nutrition Journal 03/2012; 11:16. · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Impaired sleep quality is commonplace within industrialized societies, as evidenced by the increasing number of prescription sleep aids available. Certain herbal preparations have been suggested to provide a natural benefit to sleep; however, limited controlled data are available documenting this benefit. In the present study we tested the effect of an experimental dietary supplement, containing the active ingredients Chlorophytum borivilianum and Velvet bean, on sleep quality using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Eighteen healthy and active men and women, with evidence of impaired sleep quality, consumed the supplement daily for 28 days. The PSQI was administered before and after the intervention period. As indicators of safety, resting heart rate and blood pressure were measured, and a complete blood count, comprehensive metabolic panel, and lipid panel were determined. Sleep quality was influenced by the supplement, as evidenced by an improvement in every category of the PSQI questionnaire (P < 0.05), with most category scores improving approximately 50% from pre to post intervention. No adverse outcomes were noted with use of the supplement, as indicated by no change in resting heart rate, blood pressure, or any bloodborne parameter. An investigational dietary supplement containing the active ingredients Chlorophytum borivilianum and Velvet bean improves sleep quality in men and women. Additional placebo controlled trials are needed to corroborate these findings in individuals with self-reported sleeping difficulty.
    Integrative Medicine Insights 01/2012; 7:7-14.
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    ABSTRACT: We have recently noted an acute increase in circulating free fatty acids and glycerol, as well as resting metabolic rate, when men and women ingested the dietary supplement OxyELITE Pro™ in a single dose. We have also noted a reduction in appetite when subjects were treated with this supplement for 14 consecutive days. It is possible that such findings may favor body weight and fat loss over time. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of this dietary supplement on weight loss and associated markers using an eight week intervention. Exercise-trained subjects were randomly assigned in double blind manner to ingest either the dietary supplement (n = 16; aged 22.8 ± 0.7) or a placebo (n = 16; 22.5 ± 0.5) every day for eight weeks. Body weight, body composition, skinfold thickness, serum lipids, and appetite were measured as the primary outcome variables. As measures of supplement safety, a complete blood count and comprehensive metabolic panel were performed, and resting heart rate and blood pressure were measured (pre and post intervention). No interactions or main effects were noted for our primary outcome measures (P > 0.05). However, when comparing pre and post intervention values for the supplement, significant decreases were noted in appetite, body weight, body fat percentage, and skinfold thickness (P < 0.05), while increases were noted for total and HDL-C, as well as for resting heart rate (P < 0.05). No changes were noted for placebo from pre to post intervention (P > 0.05), with the exception of an increase in HDL-C (P < 0.05). Blood pressure and bloodborne safety variables were not differently impacted by supplement or placebo (P > 0.05), with the exception of monocytes, for which an interaction effect was noted (P = 0.04). These data indicate that the dietary supplement OxyELITE Pro™ may assist in weight and body fat loss in a sample of exercise-trained men and women. The supplement does not result in any adverse effects pertaining to resting blood pressure or bloodborne markers of safety; however a small increase in resting heart rate is observed.
    Nutrition and Metabolic Insights 01/2012; 5:13-22.
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    ABSTRACT: Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) plays an important role in bioenergetic processes and has antioxidant activity. Fifteen exercise-trained individuals (10 men and 5 women; 30-65 years) received reduced CoQ10 (Kaneka QH ubiquinol; 300 mg per day) or a placebo for four weeks in a random order, double blind, cross-over design (3 week washout). After each four-week period, a graded exercise treadmill test and a repeated cycle sprint test were performed (separated by 48 hours). Blood samples were collected before and immediately following both exercise tests and analyzed for lactate, malondialdehyde, and hydrogen peroxide. Resting blood samples were analyzed for CoQ10 (ubiquinone and ubiquinol) profile before and after each treatment period. Treatment with CoQ10 resulted in a significant increase in total blood CoQ10 (138%; P = 0.02) and reduced blood CoQ10 (168%; P = 0.02), but did not improve exercise performance (with the exception of selected individuals) or impact oxidative stress. The relationship between the percentage change in total blood CoQ10 and the cycle sprint total work (R(2) = 0.6009) was noted to be moderate to strong. We conclude that treatment with CoQ10 in healthy, exercise-trained subjects increases total and reduced blood CoQ10, but this increase does not translate into improved exercise performance or decreased oxidative stress.
    Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity 01/2012; 2012:465020.
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    ABSTRACT: 1,3-dimethylamylamine is a commonly used ingredient within dietary supplements. Our prior work with this agent indicates a transient increase in blood pressure (systolic in particular) following oral ingestion of a single dosage, but no significant increase in resting blood pressure following chronic ingestion. Moreover, intervention studies involving both two and eight weeks of treatment with finished products containing 1,3-dimethylamylamine indicate minimal or no change in bloodborne markers of health. The present study sought to extend these findings by using a 10-week intervention trial to determine the change in selected markers of health in a sample of men. 25 healthy men were randomly assigned to either a placebo (n = 13) or to a supplement containing 1,3-dimethylamylamine (n = 12) for a period of 10 weeks. Before and after the intervention, resting blood pressure and heart rate were measured, and blood samples were collected for determination of complete blood count, metabolic panel, and lipid panel. No significant differences were noted between conditions for blood pressure (P > 0.05), although systolic blood pressure increased approximately 6 mmHg with the supplement (diastolic blood pressure decreased approximately 4 mmHg). A main effect for time was noted for heart rate (P = 0.016), with values decreasing from pre to post intervention. There were significant main effects for time for creatinine (increased from pre to post intervention; P = 0.043) and alkaline phosphatase (decreased from pre to post intervention; P = 0.009), with no condition differences noted (P > 0.05). There was a significant interaction noted for low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (P = 0.043), with values decreasing in the supplement group from pre to post intervention approximately 7 mg · dL(-1) (P = 0.034). No other effects of significance were noted for bloodborne variables. These data indicate that a dietary supplement containing 1,3-dimethylamylamine does not result in a statistically significant increase in resting heart rate or blood pressure (although systolic blood pressure is increased ∼6 mmHg with supplement use). The supplement does not negatively impact bloodborne markers of health. Further study is needed involving a longer intervention period, a larger sample size, and additional measures of health and safety.
    Nutrition and Metabolic Insights 01/2012; 5:33-9.
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    ABSTRACT: Dietary supplements are often marketed to increase lipolysis and thermogenesis, with the proposed end result being weight loss and body fat reduction. It was the purpose of the present investigation to study the acute effects of a weight/fat loss supplement within a sample of healthy human subjects. Twelve subjects (men 24.8 ± 4.3 yrs; women 22.8 ± 0.4 yrs) ingested a dietary supplement (OxyELITE Pro™) or a placebo, on two separate days in a double-blind, cross-over design. Blood samples were collected immediately before ingestion, and at 60 and 120 minutes post ingestion, and analyzed for plasma glycerol and free fatty acids (FFA). Breath samples were collected immediately before ingestion and at 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes post ingestion, for a measure of kilocalorie expenditure using indirect calorimetry. Area under the curve (AUC) was calculated. Heart rate and blood pressure were recorded at all times and rate pressure product (RPP) was calculated. AUC was greater for supplement compared to placebo for glycerol (22.74 ± 1.98 μg · mL(-1) · 2 hr(-1) vs. 15.76 ± 1.36 μg · mL(-1) · 2 hr(-1); P = 0.001), FFA (1.62 ± 0.07 mmol · L(-1) · 2 hr(-1) vs. 0.78 ± 0.12 mmol · L(-1) · 2 hr(-1); P < 0.0001), and kilocalorie expenditure (149 ± 7 kcal · 2 hr(-1) vs. 122 ± 8 kcal · 2 hr(-1); P = 0.005). Heart rate (P = 0.02), systolic blood pressure (P < 0.0001), and RPP (P = 0.002) were higher for supplement compared to placebo. Ingestion of OxyELITE Pro™ resulted in an increase in blood markers of lipolysis, as well as metabolic rate, during a two-hour post ingestion time period. An increase in hemodynamic variables was also observed. These findings are in reference to a sample of healthy men and women who were naïve to treatment with the dietary supplement. Additional work is needed to determine if the acute changes observed here would persist with chronic use of the supplement and possibly lead to weight/body fat loss over time.
    Nutrition and Metabolic Insights 01/2012; 5:23-31.

Publication Stats

1k Citations
191.85 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013
    • DeSales University
      Allentown, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2004–2013
    • The University of Memphis
      • Department of Health and Sport Sciences
      Memphis, TN, United States
  • 2010–2011
    • Chiang Mai University
      • Department of Physical Therapy
      Chiang Mai, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand
  • 2009
    • Washington University in St. Louis
      San Luis, Missouri, United States
  • 2004–2008
    • University of North Carolina at Greensboro
      • Department of Exercise and Sport Science
      Greensboro, North Carolina, United States
  • 2005
    • Wake Forest School of Medicine
      • Section on Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine
      Winston-Salem, NC, United States