[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Approximately one-third of the human population is asymptomatically colonized by Staphylococcus aureus. However, much of the global diversity within the carriage populations remains uncharacterized, and it is unclear to what degree the variation is geographically partitioned. We isolated 300 carriage isolates from 1,531 adults contemporaneously in four countries: France, Algeria, Moldova, and Cambodia. All strains were characterized by multilocus sequence typing. Six clonal complexes (CCs) were present in all four samples (CC30, -45, -121, -15, -5, and -8). Analyses based on the genotype frequencies revealed the French and Algerian samples to be most similar and the Cambodian sample to be most distinct. While this pattern is consistent with likely rates of human migration and geographic distance, stochastic clonal expansion also contributes to regional differences. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a highly divergent and uncharacterized genotype (ST1223) within Cambodia. This lineage is related to CC75, which has previously been observed only in remote aboriginal populations in northern Australia.
Journal of bacteriology 08/2009; 191(18):5577-83. DOI:10.1128/JB.00493-09 · 2.69 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In staphylococci, methicillin (meticillin) resistance (MR) is mediated by the acquisition of the mecA gene, which is carried on the size and composition variable staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec). MR has been extensively studied in Staphylococcus aureus, but little is known about MR coagulase-negative staphylococci (MR-CoNS). Here, we describe the diversity of SCCmec structures in MR-CoNS from outpatients living in countries with contrasting environments: Algeria, Mali, Moldova, and Cambodia. Their MR-CoNS nasal carriage rates were 29, 17, 11, and 31%, respectively. Ninety-six MR-CoNS strains, comprising 75 (78%) Staphylococcus epidermidis strains, 19 (20%) Staphylococcus haemolyticus strains, 1 (1%) Staphylococcus hominis strain, and 1 (1%) Staphylococcus cohnii strain, were analyzed. Eighteen different SCCmec types were observed, with 28 identified as type IV (29%), 25 as type V (26%), and 1 as type III (1%). Fifteen strains (44%) were untypeable for their SCCmec. Thirty-four percent of MR-CoNS strains contained multiple ccr copies. Type IV and V SCCmec were preferentially associated with S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus, respectively. MR-CoNS constitute a widespread and highly diversified MR reservoir in the community.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The number of human deaths due to rabies is currently underestimated to be 55,000 deaths per year. Biological diagnostic methods for confirmation of rabies remain limited, because testing on postmortem cerebral samples is the reference method, and in many countries, sampling brain tissue is rarely practiced. There is a need for a reliable method based on a simple collection of nonneural specimens.
A new reverse-transcription, heminested polymerase chain reaction (RT-hnPCR) protocol was standardized at 3 participating centers in Cambodia, Madagascar, and France. Fifty-one patients from Cambodia, Madagascar, Senegal, and France were prospectively enrolled in the study; 43 (84%) were ultimately confirmed as having rabies. A total of 425 samples were collected from these patients during hospitalization. We studied the accuracy of the diagnosis by comparing the results obtained with use of biological fluid specimens (saliva and urine) and skin biopsy specimens with the results obtained with use of the standard rabies diagnostic procedure performed with a postmortem brain biopsy specimen.
The data obtained indicate a high specificity (100%) of RT-hnPCR and a higher sensitivity (>/=98%) when the RT-hnPCR was performed with skin biopsy specimens than when the test was performed with fluid specimens, irrespective of the time of collection (i.e., 1 day after the onset of symptoms or just after death). Also, a sensitivity of 100% was obtained with the saliva sample when we analyzed at least 3 successive samples per patient.
Skin biopsy specimens should be systematically collected in cases of encephalitis of unknown origin. These samples should be tested by RT-hnPCR immediately to confirm rabies; if the technique is not readily available locally, the samples should be tested retrospectively for epidemiological purposes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Between January 2005 and April 2006, six patients of influenza A/H5N1 virus infection were reported in Cambodia, all with fatal outcome.
We describe the virological findings of these six H5N1 patients in association with clinical and epidemiologic findings.
Broncho-alveolar lavage, nasopharyngeal, throat and rectal swabs and sera were cultured for virus isolation and viral load quantified in clinical specimens by real-time RT-PCR. We compared sequences obtained from different body sites within the same patient to detect viral quasi-species.
H5N1 virus strains isolated in Cambodia belong to genotype Z, clade 1 viruses. H5N1 viruses were isolated from serum and rectal swab specimens in two patients. The haemagglutinin gene sequences of the virus in different body sites did not differ. Amino acid substitutions known to be associated with a change in virus binding were not observed.
The high frequency of virus isolation from serum and faecal swabs highlights that H5N1 is likely to be a disseminated infection in humans and this has implications for antiviral treatment, biosafety in clinical laboratories and on risks for nosocomial and human-to-human transmission. There were no tissue-specific adaptive mutations in the HA gene from viruses isolated from different organs.