Sabina A Murphy

Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States

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Publications (314)3578.77 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background The potential benefit of dual antiplatelet therapy beyond 1 year after a myocardial infarction has not been established. We investigated the efficacy and safety of ticagrelor, a P2Y12 receptor antagonist with established efficacy after an acute coronary syndrome, in this context. Methods We randomly assigned, in a double-blind 1:1:1 fashion, 21,162 patients who had had a myocardial infarction 1 to 3 years earlier to ticagrelor at a dose of 90 mg twice daily, ticagrelor at a dose of 60 mg twice daily, or placebo. All the patients were to receive low-dose aspirin and were followed for a median of 33 months. The primary efficacy end point was the composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke. The primary safety end point was Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) major bleeding. Results The two ticagrelor doses each reduced, as compared with placebo, the rate of the primary efficacy end point, with Kaplan-Meier rates at 3 years of 7.85% in the group that received 90 mg of ticagrelor twice daily, 7.77% in the group that received 60 mg of ticagrelor twice daily, and 9.04% in the placebo group (hazard ratio for 90 mg of ticagrelor vs. placebo, 0.85; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.75 to 0.96; P=0.008; hazard ratio for 60 mg of ticagrelor vs. placebo, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.74 to 0.95; P=0.004). Rates of TIMI major bleeding were higher with ticagrelor (2.60% with 90 mg and 2.30% with 60 mg) than with placebo (1.06%) (P<0.001 for each dose vs. placebo); the rates of intracranial hemorrhage or fatal bleeding in the three groups were 0.63%, 0.71%, and 0.60%, respectively. Conclusions In patients with a myocardial infarction more than 1 year previously, treatment with ticagrelor significantly reduced the risk of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke and increased the risk of major bleeding. (Funded by AstraZeneca; PEGASUS-TIMI 54 number, NCT01225562 .).
    New England Journal of Medicine 03/2015; DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa1500857 · 54.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: New oral anticoagulants for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation were developed to be given in fixed doses without the need for the routine monitoring that has hindered usage and acceptance of vitamin K antagonists. A concern has emerged, however, that measurement of drug concentration or anticoagulant activity might be needed to prevent excess drug concentrations, which significantly increase bleeding risk. In the ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 trial, higher-dose and lower-dose edoxaban were compared with warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation. Each regimen incorporated a 50% dose reduction in patients with clinical features known to increase edoxaban drug exposure. We aim to assess whether adjustment of edoxaban dose in this trial prevented excess drug concentration and the risk of bleeding events. We analysed data from the randomised, double-blind ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 trial. We correlated edoxaban dose, plasma concentration, and anti-Factor Xa (FXa) activity and compared efficacy and safety outcomes with warfarin stratified by dose reduction status. Patients with atrial fibrillation and at moderate to high risk of stroke were randomly assigned in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive warfarin, dose adjusted to an international normalised ratio of 2·0-3·0, higher-dose edoxaban (60 mg once daily), or lower-dose edoxaban (30 mg once daily). Randomisation was done with use of a central, 24 h, interactive, computerised response system. International normalised ratio was measured using an encrypted point-of-care device. To maintain masking, sham international normalised ratio values were generated for patients assigned to edoxaban. Edoxaban (or placebo-edoxaban in warfarin group) doses were halved at randomisation or during the trial if patients had creatinine clearance 30-50 mL/min, bodyweight 60 kg or less, or concomitant medication with potent P-glycoprotein interaction. Efficacy outcomes included the primary endpoint of all-cause stroke or systemic embolism, ischaemic stroke, and all-cause mortality. Safety outcomes included the primary safety endpoint of major bleeding, fatal bleeding, intracranial haemorrhage, and gastrointestinal bleeding. This trial is registered with, number NCT00781391. Between Nov 19, 2008 and Nov 22, 2010, 21 105 patients were recruited. Patients who met clinical criteria for dose reduction at randomisation (n=5356) had higher rates of stroke, bleeding, and death compared with those who did not have a dose reduction (n=15 749). Edoxaban dose ranged from 15 mg to 60 mg, resulting in a two-fold to three fold gradient of mean trough drug exposure (16·0-48·5 ng/mL in 6780 patients with data available) and mean trough anti-FXa activity (0·35-0·85 IU/mL in 2865 patients). Dose reduction decreased mean exposure by 29% (from 48·5 ng/mL [SD 45·8] to 34·6 ng/mL [30·9]) and 35% (from 24·5 ng/mL [22·7] to 16·0 ng/mL [14·5]) and mean anti-FXa activity by 25% (from 0·85 IU/mL [0·76] to 0·64 IU/mL [0·54]) and 20% (from 0·44 IU/mL [0·37] to 0·35 IU/mL [0·28]) in the higher-dose and lower-dose regimens, respectively. Despite the lower anti-FXa activity, dose reduction preserved the efficacy of edoxaban compared with warfarin (stroke or systemic embolic event: higher dose pinteraction=0·85, lower dose pinteraction=0·99) and provided even greater safety (major bleeding: higher dose pinteraction 0·02, lower dose pinteraction=0·002). These findings validate the strategy that tailoring of the dose of edoxaban on the basis of clinical factors alone achieves the dual goal of preventing excess drug concentrations and helps to optimise an individual patient's risk of ischaemic and bleeding events and show that the therapeutic window for edoxaban is narrower for major bleeding than thromboembolism. Daiichi-Sankyo Pharma Development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    The Lancet 03/2015; DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61943-7 · 39.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Warfarin is the most widely used oral anticoagulant worldwide, but serious bleeding complications are common. We tested whether genetic variants can identify patients who are at increased risk of bleeding with warfarin and, consequently, those who would derive a greater safety benefit with a direct oral anticoagulant rather than warfarin. ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 was a randomised, double-blind trial in which patients with atrial fibrillation were assigned to warfarin to achieve a target international normalised ratio of 2·0-3·0, or to higher-dose (60 mg) or lower-dose (30 mg) edoxaban once daily. A subgroup of patients was included in a prespecified genetic analysis and genotyped for variants in CYP2C9 and VKORC1. The results were used to create three genotype functional bins (normal, sensitive, and highly sensitive responders to warfarin). This trial is registered with, number NCT00781391. 14 348 patients were included in the genetic analysis. Of 4833 taking warfarin, 2982 (61·7%) were classified as normal responders, 1711 (35·4%) as sensitive responders, and 140 (2·9%) as highly sensitive responders. Compared with normal responders, sensitive and highly sensitive responders spent greater proportions of time over-anticoagulated in the first 90 days of treatment (median 2·2%, IQR 0-20·2; 8·4%, 0-25·8; and 18·3%, 0-32·6; ptrend<0·0001) and had increased risks of bleeding with warfarin (sensitive responders hazard ratio 1·31, 95% CI 1·05-1·64, p=0·0179; highly sensitive responders 2·66, 1·69-4·19, p<0·0001). Genotype added independent information beyond clinical risk scoring. During the first 90 days, when compared with warfarin, treatment with edoxaban reduced bleeding more so in sensitive and highly sensitive responders than in normal responders (higher-dose edoxaban pinteraction=0·0066; lower-dose edoxaban pinteraction=0·0036). After 90 days, the reduction in bleeding risk with edoxaban versus warfarin was similarly beneficial across genotypes. CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotypes identify patients who are more likely to experience early bleeding with warfarin and who derive a greater early safety benefit from edoxaban compared with warfarin. Daiichi Sankyo. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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    ABSTRACT: Edoxaban is an oral, once-daily factor Xa inhibitor that is non-inferior to well-managed warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) for the prevention of stroke and systemic embolic events (SEEs). We examined the efficacy and safety of edoxaban vs. warfarin in patients who were vitamin K antagonist (VKA) naive or experienced. ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 randomized 21 105 patients with AF at moderate-to-high risk of stroke to once-daily edoxaban vs. warfarin. Subjects were followed for a median of 2.8 years. The primary efficacy endpoint was stroke or SEE. As a pre-specified subgroup, we analysed outcomes for those with or without prior VKA experience (>60 consecutive days). Higher-dose edoxaban significantly reduced the risk of stroke or SEE in patients who were VKA naive [hazard ratio (HR) 0.71, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.56-0.90] and was similar to warfarin in the VKA experienced (HR 1.01, 95% CI 0.82-1.24; P interaction = 0.028). Lower-dose edoxaban was similar to warfarin for stroke or SEE prevention in patients who were VKA naive (HR 0.92, 95% CI 0.73-1.15), but was inferior to warfarin in those who were VKA experienced (HR 1.31, 95% 1.08-1.60; P interaction = 0.019). Both higher-dose and lower-dose edoxaban regimens significantly reduced the risk of major bleeding regardless of prior VKA experience (P interaction = 0.90 and 0.71, respectively). In patients with AF, edoxaban appeared to demonstrate greater efficacy compared with warfarin in patients who were VKA naive than VKA experienced. Edoxaban significantly reduced major bleeding compared with warfarin regardless of prior VKA exposure. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email:
    European Heart Journal 02/2015; DOI:10.1093/eurheartj/ehv014 · 14.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: -Vorapaxar reduces cardiovascular death (CVD), myocardial infarction (MI), or stroke in patients with prior MI while increasing bleeding. Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) are at high risk of recurrent thrombotic events despite standard therapy and may derive particular benefit from antithrombotic therapies. TRA 2°P-TIMI 50 was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of vorapaxar in patients with stable atherosclerosis. -We examined the efficacy of vorapaxar in patients with and without DM who qualified for the trial with a prior MI. Because vorapaxar is contraindicated in patients with a history of stroke or transient ischemic attack, the analysis (n=16,896) excluded such patients. The primary endpoint of CVD, MI, or stroke occurred more frequently in patients with DM than in patients without DM (Rates in placebo-group: 14.3% vs. 7.6%, adjusted-HR 1.47, p<0.001). In patients with DM (n=3,623), vorapaxar significantly reduced the primary endpoint (11.4% vs. 14.3%, HR 0.73, 95% CI 0.60-0.89; p=0.002) with a number needed to treat to avoid 1 major CV event of 29. The incidence of GUSTO moderate/severe bleeding was increased with vorapaxar in patients with DM (4.4% vs. 2.6%, HR 1.60, 95% CI 1.07-2.40). However, net clinical outcome integrating these 2 endpoints (efficacy and safety) was improved with vorapaxar (HR 0.79; 95% CI 0.67-0.93). -In patients with prior MI and DM, the addition of vorapaxar to standard therapy significantly reduced the risk of major vascular events with greater potential for absolute benefit in this group at high risk of recurrent ischemic events. Clinical Trial Registration Identifier: NCT00526474.
    Circulation 02/2015; DOI:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.114.013774 · 14.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vorapaxar is a protease-activated receptor-1 antagonist approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the reduction of thrombotic cardiovascular (CV) events in patients with a history of myocardial infarction (MI) and peripheral artery disease (PAD), without a previous stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). We examined the efficacy and safety of vorapaxar in the intended use population, considering 20 170 patients randomized in the multinational, double-blinded, placebo-controlled TRA 2°P-TIMI 50 trial. Of these, 16 897 qualified with a history of MI in the prior 2 weeks to 1 year and 3273 with PAD. At baseline 97% of the patients were treated with aspirin, 71% with a thienopyridine, and 93% a statin. At 3 years, the endpoint of CV death, MI, or stroke was significantly reduced with vorapaxar compared with placebo (7.9% versus 9.5%, HR, 0.80; 95% CI 0.73 to 0.89; P<0.001). Vorapaxar also significantly reduced the composite of CV death, MI, stroke, and urgent coronary revascularization (10.1% versus 11.8%, HR, 0.83; 95% CI 0.76 to 0.90; P<0.001), as well as the rate of CV death or MI (P<0.001). The safety endpoint of GUSTO moderate or severe bleeding, was increased in the vorapaxar group (3.7 versus 2.4, HR, 1.55; 95% CI 1.30 to 1.86, P<0.001). Intracranial bleeding (ICH) was 0.6% versus 0.4%, P=0.10 with vorapaxar versus placebo, with fatal bleeding 0.2% versus 0.2%; P=0.70. In patients with prior MI or PAD who have not had a previous stroke or TIA, vorapaxar added to standard therapy is effective for long-term secondary prevention of thrombotic CV events, while increasing moderate or severe bleeding. URL: Unique Identifier: NCT00526474. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.
    Journal of the American Heart Association 01/2015; 4(3). DOI:10.1161/JAHA.114.001505 · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Newer troponin assays offer the ability to quantify circulating troponin levels at an order of magnitude lower than contemporary assays, fueling continued debate over the prognostic implications of very low-level increases in concentration. We evaluated the prognostic implications of low-level increases in cardiac troponin I (cTnI) using an investigational single-molecule high-sensitivity assay in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We measured cTnI using both a high-sensitivity troponin I (hsTnI) assay (Erenna, Singulex, 99(th) percentile 9 pg/ml) and a current generation sensitive assay (TnI-Ultra, Siemens, 99(th) percentile 40 pg/ml) at baseline in 1807 patients with non-ST elevation ACS and compared their prognostic ability for adverse cardiovascular events at 30 days and one year. Among patients with TnI-Ultra<99(th) percentile, patients with elevated hsTnI (≥9 pg/ml) had a significantly higher risk than patients with hsTnI<9 pg/ml: cardiovascular death (CVD) or myocardial infarction (MI) at one year (7.0% vs 3.8%; p<0.001, hazard ratio (HR) 2.05, confidence interval (CI) 1.23-3.41); including a higher risk of CVD (3.5% vs 1.5%, p<0.001) and MI (5.0% vs 2.8%, p<0.001) individually. This higher risk of CVD/MI was independent of clinical risk stratification using the TIMI Risk Score (adj. HR 1.76, CI 1.05-2.90). Moreover, hsTnI showed a trend toward a gradient of risk even below the cTnI 99 percentile. Low-level cardiac troponin detected using a single-molecule technique, below the cutpoint of a contemporary sensitive assay, identified a significant gradient of risk. These findings support the prognostic relevance of low-level cardiac troponin elevation with increasingly sensitive assays in patients with ACS. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.
    12/2014; DOI:10.1177/2048872614564081
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    ABSTRACT: Vorapaxar, a novel thrombin receptor antagonist, reduces cardiovascular death and recurrent thrombotic events when added to standard antiplatelet therapy in patients with stable atherosclerotic vascular disease. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that treatment with vorapaxar reduces the rate of coronary stent thrombosis (ST) in stable patients with a history of coronary stenting. TRA 2°P-TIMI 50 (Trial to Assess the Effects of Vorapaxar in Preventing Heart Attack and Stroke in Patients With Atherosclerosis-Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction 50) was a multinational, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of vorapaxar in stable patients with prior myocardial infarction, peripheral arterial disease, or stroke. We evaluated the rates of definite ST as adjudicated by a central events committee using Academic Research Consortium (ARC) criteria. A total of 26,449 patients were randomized, with 14,042 (53%) having a history of a coronary stent implantation before randomization, and an additional 449 patients receiving a coronary stent during the trial (total 14,491). During follow-up (median 2.5 years), there were 152 definite ST events, with the majority (92%) occurring late or very late. Vorapaxar reduced ARC definite ST (1.1% vs. 1.4%, hazard ratio [HR]: 0.71, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.51 to 0.98; p = 0.037). The reduction was consistent, regardless of time from percutaneous coronary intervention, history of diabetes, use of drug-eluting stents, and use of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) at randomization. Vorapaxar increased GUSTO moderate/severe bleeding (HR: 1.57, 95% CI: 1.26 to 1.94; p < 0.001). The rate of ARC definite ST in stable patients, the majority of whom were receiving DAPT, was approximately 1.4% at 3 years. In stable patients with coronary stenting receiving standard antiplatelet therapy, vorapaxar administered for long-term secondary prevention significantly reduced ARC definite ST, including very late ST. (Trial to Assess the Effects of Vorapaxar [SCH 530348; MK-5348] in Preventing Heart Attack and Stroke in Patients With Atherosclerosis [TRA 2°P-TIMI 50] [P04737]; NCT00526474). Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 12/2014; 64(22):2309-17. DOI:10.1016/j.jacc.2014.09.037 · 15.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vorapaxar, a novel antiplatelet therapy, reduces thrombotic events in patients with a history of myocardial infarction (MI) or peripheral artery disease (PAD); however, because of an increased risk of intracranial hemorrhage, it is contraindicated in patients with a history of stroke. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of new ischemic stroke and subsequent death or intracerebral hemorrhage in patients with MI or PAD and no cerebrovascular disease (CVD) treated with vorapaxar. The TRA 2°P-TIMI 50 (Trial to Assess the Effects of Vorapaxar in Preventing Heart Attack and Stroke in Patients With Atherosclerosis-Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction 50) was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of vorapaxar 2.5 mg daily in 26,449 patients with atherosclerosis, stratified by qualifying disease (MI, PAD, or CVD). A total of 20,170 patients with MI/PAD, but no CVD, were enrolled. In patients with MI/PAD and no prior stroke or transient ischemic attack, vorapaxar reduced first ischemic stroke (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.57, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.43 to 0.75; p < 0.001). The risk of hemorrhagic conversion after stroke (HR: 1.19, 95% CI: 0.49 to 2.91; p = 0.70) or death (HR: 1.09, 95% CI: 0.57 to 2.07; p = 0.79) during follow-up was not significantly increased with vorapaxar in patients who had a new ischemic stroke (n = 204). Although hemorrhagic stroke was increased (HR: 2.79, 95% CI: 1.00 to 7.73; p = 0.049), overall stroke was significantly reduced (HR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.52 to 0.87; p = 0.002). Vorapaxar reduces ischemic stroke in patients with MI or PAD and no known CVD. There does not appear to be a significant increase in the risk of hemorrhagic conversion or death in patients who experienced a first ischemic stroke on vorapaxar. Although primary hemorrhagic stroke is increased, vorapaxar reduces the total incidence of stroke. (Trial to Assess the Effects of Vorapaxar (SCH 530348; MK-5348) in Preventing Heart Attack and Stroke in Patients With Atherosclerosis [TRA 2°P-TIMI 50]; NCT00526474). Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 12/2014; 64(22):2318-26. DOI:10.1016/j.jacc.2014.07.997 · 15.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rivaroxaban reduces cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction (MI), or stroke in patients following acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We aimed to characterize the specific effects of rivaroxaban on the size and type of MI.
    10/2014; DOI:10.1177/2048872614554109
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the effect of ranolazine, an anti-ischaemic agent with anti-arrhythmic properties, on the overall burden of atrial fibrillation (AF) in acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and determine whether ranolazine reduces the long-term incidence of clinical AF after ACS.
    Europace 09/2014; DOI:10.1093/europace/euu217 · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) has been hypothesized to be involved in atherogenesis through pathways related to inflammation. Darapladib is an oral, selective inhibitor of the Lp-PLA2 enzyme.
    JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 08/2014; 312(10). DOI:10.1001/jama.2014.11061 · 30.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background At the end of 2 previous trials, an excess of stroke and bleeding was observed in patients with AF randomized to a new oral anticoagulant (NOAC) who transitioned to a vitamin K antagonist (VKA). Objectives The ENGAGE AF–TIMI 48 (Effective Anticoagulation with Factor Xa Next Generation in Atrial Fibrillation—Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 48) trial compared once-daily edoxaban to warfarin for stroke prevention in patients with AF. An end-of-trial transition plan was developed to minimize the risks of stroke due to inadequate anticoagulation and bleeding from excessive anticoagulation during this critical period. Methods All patients on the blinded study drug at the trial’s conclusion were included in this analysis. In pre-specified analyses, stroke, bleeding, and death that occurred through 30 days after the end-of-trial visit were stratified by randomized treatment allocation and open-label anticoagulant selected post-trial. Results Of the 13,642 patients taking the blinded study drug at the end of the trial, 9,304 (68.2%) were transitioned to open-label VKA and 4,258 patients (31.2%) to an NOAC. There were 21 strokes evenly distributed across the 3 randomized treatment arms: warfarin 7 (1.90%/year), edoxaban high dose 7 (1.89%/year), edoxaban low dose 7 (1.85%/year). Major bleeding was also similar across the 3 treatment arms: warfarin 11 (2.98%/year), edoxaban high dose 10 (2.69%/year), edoxaban low dose 18 (4.76%/year). In patients transitioned to VKA, 85% of patients had at least 1 INR ≥2 by day 14 after the transition and 99% by day 30. Conclusions The ENGAGE AF–TIMI 48 transition plan protected patients from an excess of thrombotic and bleeding events and should be helpful in clinical practice when patients are transitioned between oral anticoagulants. (Global Study to Assess the Safety and Effectiveness of Edoxaban [DU-176b] vs Standard Practice of Dosing With Warfarin in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation [EngageAFTIMI48]; NCT00781391)
    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 08/2014; 64(6):576–584. DOI:10.1016/j.jacc.2014.05.028 · 15.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The once-daily oral factor Xa inhibitor, edoxaban, is as effective as warfarin in preventing stroke and systemic embolism while decreasing bleeding in a phase III trial of patients with atrial fibrillation at moderate-high stroke risk. Limited data regarding cerebrovascular events with edoxaban were reported previously.
    Stroke 06/2014; 45(8). DOI:10.1161/STROKEAHA.114.006025 · 6.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study sought to evaluate the efficacy of prasugrel versus clopidogrel in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) by the timing of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).
    JACC Cardiovascular Interventions 06/2014; 7(6):604-12. DOI:10.1016/j.jcin.2014.01.160 · 7.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events following acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The underlying pathobiology and optimal treatments for this population continue to be evaluated. Patients with CKD will receive fewer evidence-based therapies and experience high rates of adverse cardiovascular events in both the short- and long term. The MERLIN-TIMI 36 (Metabolic Efficiency With Ranolazine for Less Ischemia in Non-ST-Elevation Acute Coronary Syndromes-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 36) trial randomized non-ST-elevation ACS patients to ranolazine or placebo, with no exclusion for renal dysfunction (except dialysis). We conducted a prespecified analysis among 6543 patients based on the degree of CKD. Patients with worse renal function were older with more comorbidities (P < 0.0001 for each). They were less likely to receive evidence-based cardiovascular medicines (P < 0.04 for each). Rates of an early invasive management strategy varied based on renal function; however, among patients with the highest TIMI risk scores, the rates of an early invasive management strategy were similar regardless of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (Pinteraction = 0.005). Lower GFR was associated with increased rates of cardiovascular disease or myocardial infarction in the short and long term, even after adjustment (GFR <30 vs ≥90 mL/min/1.73 m(2) ; hazard ratio [HR]: 3.24 [95% confidence interval {CI}: 1.26-8.38] through 7 days and HR: 2.12 [95% CI: 1.33-3.39] through 1 year). The effect of ranolazine vs placebo on clinical outcomes was similar among those with and without CKD (Pinteraction = not significant). Following ACS, patients with renal dysfunction had more cardiovascular risk factors but were less likely to receive evidence-based medical therapies. A strong graded, independent relationship between the degree of CKD and poor clinical outcomes was observed over time. Continued efforts to optimize ACS treatment strategies in patients with CKD are warranted.
    Clinical Cardiology 06/2014; 37(6). DOI:10.1002/clc.22253 · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The optimal duration of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) after acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is not known. Factors influencing DAPT duration are not well described. We hypothesized that continued DAPT 12 months beyond ACS would be associated with patient factors such as stent type and that it may be associated with lower rates of ischemic events. The TIMI 38 Coronary Stent Registry (CSR) followed patients who completed the TRITON-TIMI 38 trial, received a stent, and were alive and event free. Continuation of DAPT was determined by the treating physician. The CSR enrolled 2110 patients (1679>12 months from index ACS) and followed for a median of 2.1 additional years. DAPT was continued in 554 (26%) and was more likely to be continued in patients with drug-eluting stents (DES; 54%) and in North America. The rate of cardiovascular death, MI, or stroke was 2.35% per year, and 13 patients (0.6%) experienced Academic Research Consortium definite or probable ST. Recurrent ischemic events were similar between patients who continued thienopyridine therapy and those who stopped at registry entry (P = 0.74 for cardiovascular death/MI/stroke; P = 0.72 for definite or probable ST). After propensity score adjustment, there was no significant difference in cardiovascular death/MI/stroke (P = 0.55) or bleeding (P = 0.51) with prolonged DAPT. Patients stabilized for a year after ACS and stenting have low rates of ST relative to overall cardiovascular events. The decision to continue DAPT maybe associated with stent type (DES vs bare-metal stent) and region.
    Clinical Cardiology 05/2014; 37(5). DOI:10.1002/clc.22247 · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To assess the prognostic performance of C-terminal provasopressin (copeptin), midregional-pro-adrenomedullin (MR-proADM), and midregional-pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP) in a large prospective cohort of patients with NSTE-ACS. Background Copeptin, MR-proADM, and MR-proANP are emerging biomarkers of hemodynamic stress that have been associated with adverse cardiovascular (CV) outcomes in heart failure (HF) and stable ischemic disease. Methods We measured copeptin, MR-proADM, and MR-proANP in 4,432 patients with non-ST-elevation ACS (NSTE-ACS) randomized to ranolazine or placebo in the MERLIN-TIMI 36 trial and followed for 1 year. Results High concentration (Q4 v. Q1-3) of each biomarker identified an increased risk of CV death or HF (copeptin 13.2% v. 5.0%, p>0.001; MR-proADM 15.8% v. 4.1%, p>0.001; MR-proANP 17.7% v. 3.5%, p>0.001), as well as CV death, HF, and MI individually (all p≤0.001). After adjustment for important covariates, each biomarker remained associated with CV death or HF at 1 year (adjusted hazard ratios: copeptin 1.71, MR-proADM 1.96, MR-proANP 2.20; all p≤0.001). These biomarkers improved prognostic discrimination and patient re-classification for CV death or HF at 1 year (all categorical NRI <10%, p>0.001), and maintained independent association with composite CV death or HF when concurrently assessed in a model with clinical indicators plus BNP, cTnI, ST2, PAPP-A, and MPO (each p≤0.01). Conclusions Copeptin, MR-proADM, and MR-proANP are complementary prognostic markers for CV death and HF in patients with NSTE-ACS, that perform as well as or better than established and other emerging biomarkers, and warrant further investigation of applications for therapeutic decision-making. Clinical trial info NCT00099788
    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 04/2014; 63(16). DOI:10.1016/j.jacc.2013.12.034 · 15.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Arginine-vasopressin (AVP) is an acute marker of physiologic stress. Copeptin is the C-terminal fragment of vasopressin precursor hormone that is more easily measured than AVP. Studies assessing the utility of copeptin in the diagnosis of myocardial infarction (MI) have demonstrated mixed results. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that copeptin improves diagnostic performance when added to troponin for detecting MI in patients presenting to the emergency department with nontraumatic chest pain. We measured copeptin, local cardiac troponin I (local cTnI), and a contemporary sensitive cardiac troponin I (sensitive cTnI) at presentation and serially in patients who presented with acute chest pain. A copeptin cutoff of 14 pmol/L was utilized. MI was diagnosed in 25.7% of patients. Noncoronary acute cardiopulmonary causes of chest pain occurred in 12.8%. Patients with MI had significantly higher copeptin levels than patients with noncardiac chest pain (P < 0.001). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for copeptin was 0.60 (95% confidence interval: 0.54-0.66), significantly less than the AUC for local cTnI (0.92) or sensitive cTnI (0.96). The combination of copeptin with either the local or sensitive troponin assay (c-statistics 0.92 and 0.95, respectively) did not significantly improve the AUC as compared to either troponin assay alone. This finding persisted in the subgroup of early presenters (≤6 hours from symptom onset). Copeptin did not improve the diagnostic performance for detecting MI when used alone or in combination with a contemporary sensitive cTnI assay, though our cohort had relatively few early presenters.
    Clinical Cardiology 04/2014; 37(4). DOI:10.1002/clc.22244 · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives The goal of this study was to determine whether there is a relationship between aspirin dose and the potent antiplatelet agent prasugrel in the TRITON–TIMI 38 (Trial to Assess Improvement in Therapeutic Outcomes by Optimizing Platelet Inhibition With Prasugrel–Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction 38) study. Background Optimal aspirin dosing after acute coronary syndromes remains uncertain. Previous studies have raised questions regarding an interaction between high-dose aspirin and the potent antiplatelet agent ticagrelor. Methods In TRITON–TIMI 38, we classified 12,674 patients into low-dose (<150 mg) or high-dose (≥150 mg) aspirin groups based on discharge dose. We identified independent correlates of dose selection and studied the impact of aspirin dose on the clinical effects of prasugrel. Results There was significant geographical variation in aspirin dosing, with North American patients receiving high-dose aspirin more frequently than other countries (66% vs. 28%; p < 0.001). Clinical factors correlating with high-dose aspirin included previous percutaneous coronary intervention and use of aspirin before randomization. Characteristics associated with the use of low-dose aspirin included age ≥75 years, white race, and use of bivalirudin or a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor during coronary intervention. Regardless of low- or high-dose aspirin use, prasugrel had lower rates of the primary efficacy endpoint (cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke [CVD/MI/stroke]) (hazard ratio [HR]CVD/MI/stroke = 0.78 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.64 to 0.95] and HRCVD/MI/stroke = 0.87 [95% CI 0.69 to 1.10], respectively; p value for interaction = 0.48) and higher rates of the primary safety endpoint (HR TIMI major bleeding = 1.40 [95% CI 0.81 to 2.42] and TIMImajor bleeding = 1.30 [95% CI 0.63 to 2.68], respectively; p value for interaction = 0.84) compared with clopidogrel. Conclusions In TRITON–TIMI 38, the safety and efficacy outcomes of prasugrel compared with those of clopidogrel were directionally consistent regardless of aspirin dose, although only the primary efficacy endpoint achieved statistical significance. There was no clinically meaningful interaction of aspirin with prasugrel, suggesting that previous observations with potent antiplatelet agents indicating differential results are not universal. (A Comparison of Prasugrel [CS-747] and Clopidogrel in Acute Coronary Syndrome Subjects Who Are to Undergo Percutaneous Coronary Intervention; NCT00097591)
    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 01/2014; 63(3):225–232. · 15.34 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

17k Citations
3,578.77 Total Impact Points


  • 2003–2015
    • Harvard Medical School
      • Department of Medicine
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • Baylor College of Medicine
      • Section of Cardiology
      Houston, TX, United States
  • 1999–2015
    • Brigham and Women's Hospital
      • • TIMI Study Group
      • • Department of Medicine
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2001–2014
    • Harvard University
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2010
    • CUNY Graduate Center
      New York, New York, United States
  • 2002–2010
    • Partners HealthCare
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • University of Massachusetts Medical School
      Worcester, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2008–2009
    • University of Massachusetts Boston
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2006–2008
    • Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
      • Department of Medicine
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • Henry Ford Hospital
      Detroit, Michigan, United States
    • Duke University
      Durham, North Carolina, United States
  • 2007
    • University of Oslo
      Kristiania (historical), Oslo, Norway
    • Cornell University
      • Department of Medicine
      Ithaca, NY, United States
  • 2003–2006
    • University of Texas at Dallas
      Richardson, Texas, United States
  • 2004
    • Rochester General Hospital
      • Division of Internal Medicine
      Rochester, NY, United States
    • The Boston Spine Group
      Newton, Massachusetts, United States
    • Washington University in St. Louis
      • Division of Cardiovascular Division
      Saint Louis, MO, United States
  • 2003–2004
    • University of Pennsylvania
      • Department of Medicine
      Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2001–2004
    • Boston Biomedical Research Institute
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1999–2003
    • University of California, San Francisco
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Division of Hospital Medicine
      San Francisco, California, United States