Barret J Bulmer

Tufts University, Georgia, United States

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Publications (35)57.37 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background Cardiac biomarkers provide objective data that augments clinical assessment of heart disease (HD).Hypothesis/Objectives Determine the utility of plasma N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide concentration [NT-proBNP] measured by a 2nd generation canine ELISA assay to discriminate cardiac from noncardiac respiratory distress and evaluate HD severity.AnimalsClient-owned dogs (n = 291).Methods Multicenter, cross-sectional, prospective investigation. Medical history, physical examination, echocardiography, and thoracic radiography classified 113 asymptomatic dogs (group 1, n = 39 without HD; group 2, n = 74 with HD), and 178 with respiratory distress (group 3, n = 104 respiratory disease, either with or without concurrent HD; group 4, n = 74 with congestive heart failure [CHF]). HD severity was graded using International Small Animal Cardiac Health Council (ISACHC) and ACVIM Consensus (ACVIM-HD) schemes without knowledge of [NT-proBNP] results. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis assessed the capacity of [NT-proBNP] to discriminate between dogs with cardiac and noncardiac respiratory distress. Multivariate general linear models containing key clinical variables tested associations between [NT-proBNP] and HD severity.ResultsPlasma [NT-proBNP] (median; IQR) was higher in CHF dogs (5,110; 2,769–8,466 pmol/L) compared to those with noncardiac respiratory distress (1,287; 672–2,704 pmol/L; P < .0001). A cut-off >2,447 pmol/L discriminated CHF from noncardiac respiratory distress (81.1% sensitivity; 73.1% specificity; area under curve, 0.84). A multivariate model comprising left atrial to aortic ratio, heart rate, left ventricular diameter, end-systole, and ACVIM-HD scheme most accurately associated average plasma [NT-proBNP] with HD severity.Conclusions and Clinical ImportancePlasma [NT-proBNP] was useful for discriminating CHF from noncardiac respiratory distress. Average plasma [NT-BNP] increased significantly as a function of HD severity using the ACVIM-HD classification scheme.
    Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 10/2014; · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Diet might influence progression of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM).Objective To investigate whether diet composition could alter clinical, biochemical, or echocardiographic variables in cats with HCM.AnimalsTwenty-nine cats with HCM (International Small Animal Cardiac Health Council stage 1b) examined at a university teaching hospital.Methods Randomized, placebo-controlled trial. After physical examination, echocardiogram, and blood collection, cats were randomized to 1 of 3 diets, which varied in carbohydrate and fat content and ingredients. Measurements were repeated after 6 months.ResultsThere were no significant differences among the 3 groups at baseline. After 6 months, there were no significant changes in the primary endpoints, left ventricular free wall (Group A, P = .760; Group B, P = .475; Group C, P = .066) or interventricular septal thickness in diastole (Group A, P = .528; Group B, P = .221; Group C, P = .097). Group A had significant increases in BUN (P = .008) and cholesterol (P = .021), while Group B had significant increases in BUN (P = .008), cholesterol (P = .007), and triglycerides (P = .005), and significant decreases in NT-proBNP (P = .013) and hs-troponin I (P = .043). Group C had significant decreases in body weight (P = .021), left atrial dimension (P = .035), interventricular septal thickness in systole (P = .038), and liver enzymes (P = .034–.038).Conclusions and Clinical ImportanceThese data suggest that diet might influence some clinical, biochemical, and echocardiographic variables in cats with HCM.
    Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 04/2014; · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective-To validate the use of a human enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kit for measurement of plasma antidiuretic hormone (ADH) concentration in dogs and evaluate plasma ADH concentrations in dogs with congestive heart failure (CHF) attributable to acquired cardiac disease, compared with findings in healthy dogs. Animals-6 healthy dogs and 12 dogs with CHF as a result of chronic degenerative valve disease or dilated cardiomyopathy. Procedures-Plasma samples from the 6 healthy dogs were pooled and used to validate the EIA kit for measurement of plasma ADH concentration in dogs by assessing intra-assay precision, dilutional linearity, and spiking recovery. Following validation, plasma ADH concentrations were measured in the 6 healthy dogs and in the 12 dogs with CHF for comparison. Results-The EIA kit measured ADH concentrations in canine plasma samples with acceptable intra-assay precision, dilutional linearity, and spiking recovery. The intra-assay coefficient of variation was 11%. By use of this assay, the median plasma concentration of ADH in dogs with CHF was 6.15 pg/mL (SD, 3.2 pg/mL; range, 4.18 to 15.47 pg/mL), which was significantly higher than the median concentration in healthy dogs (3.67 pg/mL [SD, 0.93 pg/mL; range, 3.49 to 5.45 pg/mL]). Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Plasma ADH concentrations in dogs can be measured with the tested EIA kit. Plasma ADH concentrations were higher in dogs with CHF induced by acquired cardiac disease than in healthy dogs. This observation provides a basis for future studies evaluating circulating ADH concentrations in dogs with developing heart failure.
    American Journal of Veterinary Research 09/2013; 74(9):1206-11. · 1.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a training course in focused echocardiography can improve the proficiency of noncardiology house officers in accurately interpreting cardiovascular disease and echocardiography findings in dogs entering the emergency room setting. DESIGN: Prospective, blinded, educational study. SETTING: University veterinary teaching hospital. STUDY SUBJECTS: House officers underwent training in focused echocardiography. Fifteen dogs, including normal dogs and dogs with stable congenital or acquired cardiac disease, were used as study subjects during the laboratory session. INTERVENTIONS: A 6-hour curriculum on focused echocardiography was developed that included didactic lectures, clinical cases, and hands-on echocardiography. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Pre- and postcourse written examinations were administered to participants. House officers attended didactic lectures that were subsequently followed by a hands-on laboratory session and practical examination, which involved performing transthoracic echocardiography on dogs with and without cardiovascular disease. Twenty-one house officers completed the focused echocardiography training course. Written examination scores were 57 ± 12% before and 75 ± 10% after training (P < 0.001). Following the course, 97% of participants in the practical examination were able to obtain the correct right parasternal short- or long-axis view. Posttraining, most participants correctly identified pleural effusion (90%) and pericardial effusion (95%) and discriminated normal atrial size from atrial enlargement (86%). However, successful identification of a cardiac mass, volume status, and ability to recognize a poor quality study as nondiagnostic remained relatively low. Most trainees responded that the length of hands-on laboratory training was too abbreviated and that the course should be > 6 hours. CONCLUSION: A focused echocardiography training course improved knowledge and yielded acceptable proficiency in some echocardiographic findings commonly identified in the emergency room. This training course was not able to provide the skills needed for house officers to accurately assess fluid volume status, identify cardiac masses, ventricular enlargement or hypertrophy, and certain cardiac diseases.
    Journal of veterinary emergency and critical care (San Antonio, Tex. : 2001). 05/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: An interplay between growth, glucose regulation and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) may exist, but has not been studied in detail. The purpose of this study was to characterize morphometric features, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and glucose metabolism in Maine Coon cats with HCM. Body weight, body condition score (BCS), head length and width, and abdominal circumference were measured in Maine Coon cats >2 years of age. Echocardiography and thoracic radiography (for measurement of humerus length, and fourth and twelfth vertebrae length) were also performed. Blood was collected for biochemistry profile, DNA testing, insulin and IGF-1. Sixteen of 63 cats had HCM [myosin binding protein C (MYBPC)+, n = 3 and MYBPC−, n = 13] and 47/63 were echocardiographically normal (MYBPC+, n = 17 and MYBPC−, n = 30). There were no significant differences in any measured parameter between MYBPC+ and MYBPC− cats. Cats with HCM were significantly older (P <0.001), heavier (P = 0.006), more obese (P = 0.008), and had longer humeri (P = 0.02) compared with the HCM− group. Cats with HCM also had higher serum glucose (P = 0.01), homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) and IGF-1 (P = 0.01) concentrations, were from smaller litters (P = 0.04), and were larger at 6 months (P = 0.02) and at 1 year of age (P = 0.03). Multivariate analysis revealed that age (P <0.001), BCS (P = 0.03) and HOMA (P = 0.047) remained significantly associated with HCM. These results support the hypothesis that early growth and nutrition, larger body size and obesity may be environmental modifiers of genetic predisposition to HCM. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the effects of early nutrition on the phenotypic expression of HCM.
    Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery 02/2013; 15(2):74-80. · 1.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To develop, validate, and evaluate a questionnaire (Cats' Assessment Tool for Cardiac Health [CATCH] questionnaire) for assessing health-related quality of life in cats with cardiac disease. Prospective study. 275 cats with cardiac disease. The questionnaire was developed on the basis of clinical signs of cardiac disease in cats. A CATCH score was calculated by summing responses to questionnaire items; possible scores ranged from 0 to 80. For questionnaire validation, owners of 75 cats were asked to complete the questionnaire (10 owners completed the questionnaire twice). Disease severity was assessed with the International Small Animal Cardiac Health Council (ISACHC) classification for cardiac disease. Following validation, the final questionnaire was administered to owners of the remaining 200 cats. Internal consistency of the questionnaire was good, and the CATCH score was significantly correlated with ISACHC classification. For owners that completed the questionnaire twice, scores were significantly correlated. During the second phase of the study, the CATCH score ranged from 0 to 74 (median, 7) and was significantly correlated with ISACHC classification. Results suggested that the CATCH questionnaire is a valid and reliable method for assessing health-related quality of life in cats with cardiac disease. Further research is warranted to test the tool's sensitivity to changes in medical treatment and its potential role as a clinical and research tool.
    Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 05/2012; 240(10):1188-93. · 1.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In order to more fully understand degenerative mitral valve disease (DMVD) in the Norfolk terrier, we sought to characterize findings from the physical and echocardiographic examination; biochemical, biomarker, and nutritional profiles; and select environmental variables from a cohort of apparently healthy Norfolk terriers. Overtly healthy Norfolk terriers ≥ 6 yrs old were recruited by 3 different veterinary hospitals and underwent historical, physical, electrocardiographic (ECG), and 2D/color-flow Doppler echocardiographic examinations. Anterior mitral valve leaflet length, maximal thickness, area, and degree of prolapse were measured or calculated from two-dimensional images. Blood samples were obtained for serum biochemistry, serum serotonin, plasma NT-proBNP, amino acid profile, C-reactive protein, and cardiac troponin I. Of the 48 dogs entered into the study, 23 (48%) had murmurs, 2 (4%) had mid-systolic clicks, 11 (23%) had ECG P pulmonale, and 41 (85%) were deemed to have echocardiographic evidence of DMVD, including 18 Norfolk terriers without a murmur. Seven (15%), 28 (58%), and 13 (27%) dogs were classified as normal (stage 0), International Small Animal Cardiac Health Council (ISACHC) stage 1a, and 1b, respectively. Mean indexed echocardiographic mitral leaflet thickness (P = 0.017), area (P = 0.0002), prolapse (P = 0.0004), and left atrial to aortic diameter (P = 0.01) were significantly different between ISACHC 0, 1a, and 1b. DMVD is relatively common in Norfolk terriers and echocardiographic changes consistent with mild DMVD can be seen in dogs without a heart murmur.
    Journal of veterinary cardiology: the official journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology 02/2012; 14(1):261-7.
  • Barret J Bulmer
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    ABSTRACT: Myocardial dysfunction is commonly encountered in humans, and presumably in dogs with sepsis and critical illness. This dysfunction contributes to increased mortality. With management of the underlying diseases and an understanding of the processes contributing to myocardial dysfunction, steps may be taken to mitigate the consequences of cardiac impairment. Clinical findings, proposed pathophysiologic mechanisms, and current treatment considerations are discussed. Further study is needed to find practical ways to identify myocardial dysfunction and to determine whether timed interventions intended to augment cardiac performance will reduce mortality in this patient population.
    Veterinary Clinics of North America Small Animal Practice 07/2011; 41(4):717-26, v. · 1.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Anomalies of conotruncal septation are rare in dogs and uncommon in humans. Congenital conotruncal defects most commonly reported in veterinary medicine include aorto-pulmonary window and persistent truncus arteriosus. We report a case of an anomalous vessel connecting the ascending aorta to the right pulmonary artery causing left-to-right shunting, left-sided volume overload, and pulmonary overcirculation. Transesophageal echocardiography, cardiac catheterization, and contrast-enhanced computed tomography assisted in the diagnosis and facilitated the surgical correction of the anomalous vessel. The authors hypothesize this defect represents an unusual anomalous vessel connecting the ascending aorta to the right pulmonary artery.
    Journal of veterinary cardiology: the official journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology 06/2011; 13(2):147-52.
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    ABSTRACT: A 6-year-old, 35-kg, female spayed German wirehaired pointer was referred for evaluation of collapse/seizure-like activity and a suspected mediastinal mass. Echocardiographic examination revealed an obstructive, intraluminal aortic mass with aortic dissection. Gross and histopathological findings confirmed the aortic dissection with right pulmonary artery compression and an aortopulmonary fistula. The mass was histologically consistent with an intraluminal chondrosarcoma. To the authors knowledge this case represents only the second case of aortic chondrosarcoma in a dog, and interestingly the first case in either a dog or human to have aortic dissection associated with aortic obstruction by an intraluminal aortic tumor.
    Journal of veterinary cardiology: the official journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology 10/2010; 12(3):203-10.
  • Kenneth R Harkin, Barret J Bulmer, David S Biller
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    ABSTRACT: To describe echocardiographic findings in dogs with dysautonomia. Prospective case series: 20 dogs with dysautonomia (13 confirmed during necropsy and 7 with results of antemortem testing [tear production, pilocarpine response test, atropine response test, and ID histamine response] supportive of the diagnosis). Dogs with dysautonomia were evaluated by use of echocardiography, and M-mode measurements were obtained on all dogs. A dobutamine response test was performed on 1 dog, starting at a rate of 1 microg/kg/min and doubling the rate every 15 minutes until fractional shortening (FS) increased to > 2 times the baseline value. Evidence of systolic dysfunction was detected in 17 of 20 dogs with dysautonomia, as determined on the basis of FS (median, 17.9%; range, 4.0% to 31.1%). Left ventricular internal dimension during diastole or left ventricular internal dimension during systole was enlarged in 4 of 20 and 14 of 20 dogs, respectively. Enlargement of the left atrium or aorta was identified in 3 of 15 and 1 of 15 dogs in which it was measured, respectively. Administration of dobutamine at a rate of 4 microg/kg/min resulted in dramatic improvement in FS (increase from 4% to 17%) in the 1 dog tested. Results suggested that echocardiographic evidence of diminished systolic function was common in dogs with dysautonomia. Whether the diminished function was a result of sympathetic denervation or myocardial hibernation was unclear, although myocardial hibernation was more likely.
    Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 12/2009; 235(12):1431-6. · 1.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine whether serum N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) concentration is useful in discriminating between cardiac and noncardiac (ie, primary respiratory tract disease) causes of respiratory signs (ie, coughing, stertor, stridor, excessive panting, increased respiratory effort, tachypnea, or overt respiratory distress) in dogs. Multicenter cross-sectional study. P 115 dogs with respiratory signs. Dogs with respiratory signs were solicited for study. Physical examination, thoracic radiography, and echocardiography were used to determine whether respiratory signs were the result of cardiac (ie, congestive heart failure) or noncardiac (ie, primary respiratory tract disease) causes. Serum samples for NT-proBNP assay were obtained at time of admission for each dog. Receiver-operating characteristic curves were constructed to determine the ability of serum NT-proBNP concentration to discriminate between cardiac and noncardiac causes of respiratory signs. Serum NT-proBNP concentration was significantly higher in dogs with cardiac versus noncardiac causes of respiratory signs. In dogs with primary respiratory tract disease, serum NT-proBNP concentration was significantly higher in those with concurrent pulmonary hypertension than in those without. A serum NT-proBNP cutoff concentration > 1,158 pmol/L discriminated between dogs with congestive heart failure and dogs with primary respiratory tract disease with a sensitivity of 85.5% and a specificity of 81.3%. Measuring serum NT-proBNP concentration in dogs with respiratory signs helps to differentiate between congestive heart failure and primary respiratory tract disease as an underlying cause.
    Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 12/2009; 235(11):1319-25. · 1.67 Impact Factor
  • Marco L Margiocco, Barret J Bulmer, D David Sisson
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate feasibility, repeatability and reproducibility (R&R) of Doppler-derived deformation imaging (DI) in healthy adult dogs. Forty-nine dogs underwent physical examination, ECG, blood pressure measurement and echocardiography. Doppler-derived DI parameters obtained from six selected Regions of Interest (ROI) within the left ventricle (LV) were: strain (S), systolic strain rate (SSR), strain rate E wave (SRE), and strain rate A wave (SRA). The averages of the six ROIs were calculated and labeled avS, avSSR, avSRE, and avSRA. Randomly selected dogs underwent two echocardiographic studies to evaluate intraoperator (n=14) and interoperator (n=17) variability. DI data were obtained in 87.2% of dogs and 77.2% of ROIs. Compared to controls, avSSR was significantly reduced in Doberman Pinchers (DP) and it was increased in dogs < 30 kg, compared to dogs > 30 kg. The intraoperator Coefficient of Variability (CV) for some ROIs was greater than 15% but for averaged measurements it was < or = 5.0%. Interoperator CV varied widely but were all < 15% for avSSR, avS, and avSRA. The CV for Doppler-derived DI varied widely. Averaging values from multiple ROIs improved R&R. DI may help elucidate differences in LV mechanics between canine breeds.
    Journal of veterinary cardiology: the official journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology 10/2009; 11(2):89-102.
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    ABSTRACT: To develop a method for in vitro culture of canine valvular interstitial cells (VICs). Canine VICs were isolated from the distal third of the anterior mitral valve leaflet using an explant technique and maintained in cell culture. Molecular phenotyping of the cultured cells was performed using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunocytochemistry. Cells resembling fibroblasts migrated from canine mitral valve explants and were maintained in culture for up to eight passages. Establishment of the valve explant required collagen but once established, subsequent passages grew on non-coated plastic plates. At confluence the cultured cells exhibited the characteristic whorled pattern of fibroblasts in culture. The isolated valve cells expressed vimentin but not platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule or von Willebrand's factor, consistent with the molecular phenotype of VICs. VICs can be readily isolated from canine mitral valve leaflets and successfully maintained in culture using standard culture techniques. The described techniques permit the study of bioactive VICs in a controlled environment and may be a useful in vitro model for investigation of cellular and molecular alterations associated with canine chronic degenerative valve disease.
    Journal of veterinary cardiology: the official journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology 06/2009; 11(1):1-7.
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    ABSTRACT: Two dogs were referred to the Kansas State University Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital for pulmonary arterial embolization and one to Washington State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital for right heart embolization of jugular catheter fragments. Endovascular retrieval of foreign bodies was accomplished under general anesthesia in all three cases. Although the incidence of, and complications associated with catheter embolization in dogs are unknown, it appears that they can be safely and easily retrieved with a nitinol gooseneck snare.
    Journal of veterinary cardiology: the official journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology 07/2008; 10(1):81-5.
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    ABSTRACT: A 4-year-old Boxer dog with a history of ventricular premature contractions was evaluated for anorexia. An electrocardiogram revealed atrial dissociation and an echocardiogram supported simultaneous mechanical atrial systole with the ectopic atrial electrical activity. This case and the supporting images provide further credence to the existence of atrial dissociation.
    Journal of veterinary cardiology: the official journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology 07/2008; 10(1):53-5.
  • Marco L Margiocco, Barret J Bulmer, D David Sisson
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    ABSTRACT: Ventricular septal defects are a relatively common congenital cardiac disease that, when severe, can be associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Several minimally invasive methods of repair have been described in the human literature. This report describes the first case of percutaneous closure of a naturally occurring muscular septal defect using an Amplatzer occluder in a dog affected by concurrent pulmonic stenosis. Based on this experience catheter-based occlusion of muscular ventricular septal defects is a feasible option in dogs. Further studies are necessary to identify the attributes and limitations of the technique.
    Journal of veterinary cardiology: the official journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology 07/2008; 10(1):61-6.
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is characterized by reduced systolic function, heightened sympathetic tone, and high morbidity and mortality. Little is known regarding the safety and efficacy of ß-blocker treatment in dogs with DCM.Hypothesis: Carvedilol improves echocardiographic and neurohormonal variables in dogs with DCM over a 4-month treatment period.Methods: Prospective, placebo-controlled, double-blinded randomized study. Dogs with DCM underwent echocardiography, ECG, thoracic radiographs, and neurohormonal profiling, followed by titration onto Carvedilol (0.3 mg/kg q12h) or placebo over a 4-week period and subsequently received 3 months of therapy. Primary study endpoints included left ventricular volume and function.Results: Sixteen dogs received carvedilol and 7 received placebo. At study end, 13 carvedilol dogs and 5 placebo dogs were alive. There was no difference in the mean percentage change in left ventricular volume at end-diastole (LVVd), left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVVs), and ejection fraction (EF) between treatment groups, suggesting that both groups experienced similar amounts of disease progression. Carvedilol treatment did not result in significant changes in neurohormonal activation, radiographic heart size, heart rate, or owner perceived quality-of-life. Baseline B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) predicted dogs in the carvedilol-treated group that maintained or improved their EF over the study duration.Conclusions and Clinical Importance: Carvedilol administration did not improve echocardiographic or neurohormonal indicators of heart function. The lack of effect may be related to severity of disease, carvedilol dose, or brevity of follow-up time. Statistical power of the present study was adversely affected by a high fatality rate in study dogs and small sample size.
    Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 10/2007; 21(6):1272 - 1279. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is characterized by reduced systolic function, heightened sympathetic tone, and high morbidity and mortality. Little is known regarding the safety and efficacy of beta-blocker treatment in dogs with DCM. Carvedilol improves echocardiographic and neurohormonal variables in dogs with DCM over a 4-month treatment period. Prospective, placebo-controlled, double-blinded randomized study. Dogs with DCM underwent echocardiography, ECG, thoracic radiographs, and neurohormonal profiling, followed by titration onto carvedilol (0.3 mg/kg q12h) or placebo over a 4-week period and subsequently received 3 months of therapy. Primary study endpoints included left ventricular volume and function. Sixteen dogs received carvedilol and 7 received placebo. At study end, 13 carvedilol dogs and 5 placebo dogs were alive. There was no difference in the mean percentage change in left ventricular volume at end-diastole (LVVd), left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVVs), and ejection fraction (EF) between treatment groups, suggesting that both groups experienced similar amounts of disease progression. Carvedilol treatment did not result in significant changes in neurohormonal activation, radiographic heart size, heart rate, or owner perceived quality-of-life. Baseline B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) predicted dogs in the carvedilol-treated group that maintained or improved their EF over the study duration. Carvedilol administration did not improve echocardiographic or neurohormonal indicators of heart function. The lack of effect may be related to severity of disease, carvedilol dose, or brevity of follow-up time. Statistical power of the present study was adversely affected by a high fatality rate in study dogs and small sample size.
    Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 01/2007; 21(6):1272-9. · 2.22 Impact Factor
  • Emily E Olson, Barret J Bulmer, Allison M Heaney
    Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 01/2007; 21(2):332-5. · 2.22 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

169 Citations
57.37 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2011
    • Tufts University
      • Department of Clinical Sciences
      Georgia, United States
  • 2004–2009
    • Kansas State University
      • • Department of Clinical Sciences
      • • College of Veterinary Medicine
      Kansas, United States
  • 2008
    • Oregon State University
      • College of Veterinary Medicine
      Corvallis, Oregon, United States
  • 2004–2006
    • University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
      • Veterinary Clinical Medicine
      Urbana, Illinois, United States