[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The formation of extracellular traps (ETs) has recently been recognized as a novel defense mechanism in several types of innate immune cells. It has been suggested that these structures are toxic to microbes and contribute significantly to killing several pathogens. However, the role of ETs formed by macrophages (METs) in defense against microbes remains little known. In this study, we demonstrated that a subset of murine J774A.1 macrophage cell line (8% to 17%) and peritoneal macrophages (8.5% to 15%) form METs-like structures (METs-LS) in response to Escherichia coli and Candida albicans challenge. We found only a portion of murine METs-LS, which are released by dying macrophages, showed detectable killing effects on trapped E. coli but not C. albicans. Fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy analyses revealed that, in vitro, both microorganisms were entrapped in J774A.1 METs-LS composed of DNA and microbicidal proteins such as histone, myeloperoxidase and lysozyme. DNA components of both nucleus and mitochondrion origins were detectable in these structures. Additionally, METs-LS formation occurred independently of ROS produced by NADPH oxidase, and this process did not result in cell lysis. In summary, our results emphasized that microbes induced METs-LS in murine macrophage cells and that the microbicidal activity of these METs-LS differs greatly. We propose the function of METs-LS is to contain invading microbes at the infection site, thereby preventing the systemic diffusion of them, rather than significantly killing them.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(2):e90042. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Trichinellosis has major economic impacts on the animal husbandry and food safety, and the control and elimination of trichinellosis is a major objective of veterinary medicine. A gene encoding serine protease of Trichinella spiralis (T. spiralis) (Ts-Adsp) was identified by immunoscreening an adult T. spiralis cDNA library. In this study, the recombinant Ts-Adsp protein (rTs-Adsp) was cloned and expressed in a prokaryotic expression system and purified by Ni-affinity chromatography. To determine whether the purified rTs-Adsp is a potential vaccine candidate for the control of T. spiralis infection, we immunized BALB/c mice with this protein in combination with an alum adjuvant and subsequently challenged with T. spiralis larvae. The results showed that mice vaccinated with rTs-Adsp exhibited an average reduction in the muscle larvae burden of 46.5% relative to the control group. Immunization with the rTs-Adsp antigen induced both humoral and cellular immune responses, which manifested as elevated specific anti-rTs-Adsp IgG and IgE antibodies and a mixed Th1/Th2 response, as determined by Th1 (IFN-γ and IL-2) and Th2 (IL-4, IL-10 and IL-13) cytokine profiling, with the Th2 predominant. Thus, purified rTs-Adsp is able to limit the invasion of T. spiralis, and this protein could be an effective vaccine candidate for trichinellosis.
Journal of Parasitology 12/2012; · 1.32 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tuberculosis (TB) is still one of the most common causes of death in the world. The emergence of multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant (XDR-TB) Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) strains has increased the importance of searching for alternative targets to develop new antimycobacterial drugs. Linezolid, the first of oxazolidinones, is active in vitro against M. tuberculosis, but the response mechanisms of M. tuberculosis to linezolid are still poorly understood. To reveal the possible mechanism of action of linezolid against M. tuberculosis, commercial oligonucleotide microarrays were used to analyze the genome-wide transcriptional changes triggered by treatment with subinhibitory concentrations of linezolid. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR was performed for selected genes to verify the microarray results. A total of 729 genes were found to be differentially regulated by linezolid. Among these, 318 genes were upregulated, and 411 genes were downregulated. A number of important genes were significantly regulated that are involved in various pathways, such as protein synthesis, sulfite metabolism, and genes involved in the cell envelope and virulence. This genome-wide transcriptomics approach produced the first insights into the response of M. tuberculosis to a linezolid challenge.
Current Microbiology 03/2012; 64(6):530-8. · 1.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The acaricidal activity of trans-cinnamaldehyde was evaluated in vitro on Psoroptes cuniculi. In this study, different concentrations of trans-cinnamaldehyde were tested, and the observed mites mortality was compared with that observed in untreated and treated (Acacerulen R®) controls. The morphological changes in P. cuniculi treated with trans-cinnamaldehyde were examined with light microscopy. By the analysis of variance one-way test, up to 8 μg/ml of trans-cinnamaldehyde gave highly significant (P < 0.01) percentages of mite mortality compared with the untreated controls, but only up to 256 μg/ml, it showed the same efficacy of Acacerulen R®. At the same time, a bioassay was conducted by exposing mites to varying doses of trans-cinnamaldehyde in vitro cultures. The resulting data were analyzed by using a time-dose-mortality modeling technique, yielding the parameters for time and dose effects of P. cuniculi. The β value was 2.01, indicating that trans-cinnamaldehyde had a good activity to kill P. cuniculi adults. Based on the time-dose-mortality relationships fitted and the virulence indices estimated, trans-cinnamaldehyde is a promising microbial agent for mites control.
Parasitology Research 02/2012; 110(4):1321-6. · 2.85 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The excretory-secretory products (ESP) released by muscle stage of Trichinella spiralis have been suggested to be involved in nurse cell formation. However, the molecular mechanisms by which ESP modulate nurse cell formation remain unclear. In the present study, the ability of ESP of muscle larvae of T. spiralis (ML-ESP) to influence the proliferation and differentiation of murine myoblasts and the mechanisms were evaluated in vitro using C2C12 myoblast cell line, which were incubated for various times under grow or differentiation culture medium containing various concentrations of ML-ESP. The results indicated that ML-ESP promoted myoblast proliferation in a dose-dependent manner and increased the expression of the cell-cycle regulator cyclin D1 as well as that of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Conversely, ML-ESP inhibited the differentiation of these cells, which was evidenced by a reduction in the levels of MHC and MRFs expression (MyoD and myogenin) as well as that of p21. In addition, ML-ESP also inhibited the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK in differentiating C2C12 myoblast. Taken together, these results imply that certain critical mediators contained in ML-ESP inhibit myogenesis through enhancing skeletal myoblasts proliferation and down-regulating the expression of MRFs as well as involving p38 MAPK signalling pathway, which provides insight into the mechanisms utilised by T. spiralis to interfere normal wound repair in infected muscle cells and affect nurse cell formation.
Parasitology Research 12/2011; 110(6):2481-90. · 2.85 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate effective new rabies vaccines, a fusion protein consisting of the rabies virus (RV) glycoprotein and the heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit of Escherichia coli (LTB) was successfully constructed and delivered in a live attenuated Salmonella strain LH430. Mice were immunised with LH430 carrying pVAX1-G, pVAX1-G-LTB or pVAX1-ori-G-LTB. The antibody titres of mice immunised with oral LH430 carrying pVAX1-G-LTB or pVAX1-ori-G-LTB were significantly higher than those of pVAX1-G-immunised mice. The results of the challenge with the rabies virus standard strain (CVS-11) showed that the LH430 strain carrying the G-LTB gene induced immunity and elevated IL-2 levels in immunised mice ((∗∗)P<0.01), whereas LH430 carrying pVAX1-G did not contribute to protection. These results show that LH430 carrying recombinant G-LTB could provide overall immunity against challenge with CVS-11 and should be considered to be a potential rabies vaccine.
Research in Veterinary Science 10/2011; 93(2):675-81. · 1.77 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Helminth infection may modulate the expression of Toll like receptors (TLR) in dendritic cells (DCs) and modify the responsiveness of DCs to TLR ligands. This may regulate aberrant intestinal inflammation in humans with helminthes and may thus help alleviate inflammation associated with human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Epidemiological and experimental data provide further evidence that reducing helminth infections increases the incidence rate of such autoimmune diseases. Fine control of inflammation in the TLR pathway is highly desirable for effective host defense. Thus, the use of antagonists of TLR-signaling and agonists of their negative regulators from helminths or helminth products should be considered for the treatment of IBD.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Trichinella spiralis is a zoonotic nematode and food borne parasite and infection with T. spiralis leads to suppression of the host immune response and other immunopathologies. The excretory/secretory (ES) products of T. spiralis play important roles in the process of immunomodulation. However, the mechanisms and related molecules are unknown. Macrophages, a target for immunomodulation by the helminth parasite, play a critical role in initiating and modulating the host immune response to parasite infection. In this study, we examined the effect of ES products from different stages of T. spiralis on modulating J774A.1 macrophage activities. ES products from different stages of T. spiralis reduced the capacity of macrophages to express pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-1β , interleukin-6 , and interleukin-12) in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. However, only ES products from 3-day-old adult worms and 5-day-old adult worms/new-born larvae significantly inhibited inducible nitric oxide synthase gene expression in LPS-induced macrophages. In addition, ES products alone boosted the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor-β and effector molecule arginase 1 in J774A.1 macrophages. Signal transduction studies showed that ES products significantly inhibited nuclear factor-κB translocation into the nucleus and the phosphorylation of both extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in LPS-stimulated J774A.1 macrophages. These results suggest that ES products regulate host immune response at the macrophage level through inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines production and induction of macrophage toward the alternative phenotype, which maybe important for worm survival and host health.
Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 09/2011; 360(1-2):79-88. · 2.33 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Candida albicans is the most common fungal pathogen in humans. The emergence of resistance to azole antifungals has raised the issue of using such antifungals in combination to optimise therapeutic outcome. The objective of this study was to evaluate in vitro synergy of pseudolaric acid B (PAB) and fluconazole (FLC) against clinical isolates of C. albicans. The in vitro antifungal activity of PAB, a diterpene acid from Pseudolarix kaempferi Gordon, was evaluated alone and in combination with FLC against 22 FLC-resistant (FLC-R) and 12 FLC-susceptible (FLC-S) C. albicans using the chequerboard microdilution method and time-killing test assays. Synergism was observed in all 22 (100%) FLC-R strains tested as determined by both fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) with values ranging from 0.02 to 0.13 and bliss independence (BI) models. Synergism was observed in two of 12 (17%) FLC-S strains as determined by FICI model with values ranging from 0.25 to 0.5 and in three of 12 (18%) FLC-S strains as determined by BI model. For FLC-R strains, the drug concentrations of FLC and PAB, where synergistic interactions were found, ranged from 0.06 to 4 μg ml(-1) and 0.5 to 4 μg ml(-1) respectively. For FLC-S strains, the drug concentrations of FLC and PAB were 1-8 μg ml(-1) and 0.5-4 μg ml(-1) respectively. The BI model gave results consistent with FICI, but no antagonistic activity was observed in any of the strains tested. These interactions between PAB and FLC were confirmed using the time-killing test for the selected strains. Fluconazole and PAB exhibited a good synergism against azole-R isolates of C. albicans.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Salidroside, a major component of Rhodiola rosea L., has shown various pharmacological functions, including antioxidant effects, but the signal transduction pathway of its antioxidant effects is not very clear. In this study, we found that salidroside could attenuate hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-induced HL-7702 cell damage, inhibit H(2)O(2)-induced cytosolic free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) elevation, scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increase 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) level in a dose-dependent manner, but it couldn't influence 3'-5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) levels. Therefore, these results indicated that the antioxidant effects of salidroside were associated with down-regulation of [Ca2+]i, ROS occur via a cAMP-dependent pathway.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sodium houttuyfonate (SH), an addition compound of sodium bisulfite and houttuynin, showed in vitro antibacterial activity against 21 Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) strains grown in planktonic cultures. Microarray results showed decreased levels of autolysin atl, sle1, cidA and lytN transcripts in the SH-treated strain as compared to the control strain, consistent with the induction of the autolytic repressors lrgAB and sarA and with the downregulation of the positive regulators agrA and RNAIII. Triton X-100-induced autolysis was significantly decreased by SH in S. aureus ATCC 25923, and quantitative bacteriolytic assays and zymographic analysis demonstrated SH-mediated reduction of extracellular murein hydrolase activity in these cells. Anti-biofilm assay showed that SH is poorly active against S. aureus grown in biofilm cultures, whereas SH diminished the amounts of extracellular DNA (eDNA) of S. aureus in a dose-dependent manner, which suggested that SH may impede biofilm formation by reducing the expression of cidA to inhibit autolysis and eDNA release in the early phase. Some of the microarray results were confirmed by real-time RT-PCR.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Piperine, a major plant alkaloid found in black pepper (Piper nigrum) and long pepper (Piper longum), has shown potential for inhibiting the efflux pump (EP) of Staphylococcus aureus. In this study, a modulation assay showed that piperine could decrease the MIC of ethidium bromide (EtBr) twofold at 32 μg ml(-1) and fourfold at 64 μg ml(-1) against Mycobacterium smegmatis mc(2) 155 ATCC 700084. A real-time, 96-well plate fluorometric method was employed to evaluate the EP inhibition ability of piperine in M. smegmatis. Reserpine, chlorpromazine, verapamil and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone were used as positive controls. Piperine significantly enhanced accumulation and decreased the efflux of EtBr in M. smegmatis, which suggests that it has the ability to inhibit mycobacterial EPs.
Journal of Medical Microbiology 11/2010; 60(Pt 2):223-9. · 2.30 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reports have shown that oleanolic acid (OA), a triterpenoid, exists widely in food, medicinal herbs and other plants, and that it has antimycobacterial activity against the Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain H37Rv (ATCC 27294). In this study it was found that OA had antimycobacterial properties against eight clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis and that the MICs of OA against drug-sensitive and drug-resistant isolates were 50-100 and 100-200 microg ml(-1), respectively. The combination of OA with isoniazid (INH), rifampicin (RMP) or ethambutol (EMB) showed favourable synergistic antimycobacterial effects against six drug-resistant strains, with fractional inhibitory concentration indices of 0.121-0.347, 0.113-0.168 and 0.093-0.266, respectively. The combination treatments of OA/INH, OA/RMP and OA/EMB displayed either a synergistic interaction or did not show any interaction against two drug-sensitive strains. No antagonism resulting from the OA/INH, OA/RMP or OA/EMB combination was observed for any of the strains tested. OA exhibited a relatively low cytotoxicity in Vero cells. These results indicate that OA may serve as a promising lead compound for future antimycobacterial drug development.
Journal of Medical Microbiology 05/2010; 59(Pt 5):567-72. · 2.30 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: p-Anisaldehyde (4-methoxybenzaldehyde), an extract from Pimpinella anisum L. seeds, is a potential novel preservative. To reveal the possible action mechanism of p-anisaldehyde against microorganisms, yeast-based commercial oligonucleotide microarrays were used to analyze the genome-wide transcriptional changes in response to p-anisaldehyde. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR was performed for selected genes to verify the microarray results. We interpreted our microarray data with the clustering tool, T-profiler. Analysis of microarray data revealed that p-anisaldehyde induced the expression of genes related to sulphur assimilation, aromatic aldehydes metabolism, and secondary metabolism, which demonstrated that the addition of p-anisaldehyde may influence the normal metabolism of aromatic aldehydes. This genome-wide transcriptomics approach revealed first insights into the response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) to p-anisaldehyde challenge.
Journal of Industrial Microbiology 12/2009; 37(3):313-22. · 1.80 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A checkerboard microdilution method, performed according to the recommendations of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards, was used to study the in vitro interaction of fluconazole and allicin in 24 fluconazole-resistant clinical isolates of Candida albicans, one experimentally induced strain S-1, and one ATCC type strain 10231. The interaction intensity was determined by spectrophotometric methods and visual reading of the checkerboard assay, and the nature of the interactions was assessed using two nonparametric approaches [fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) and DeltaE models]. Synergism was observed in 23 strains using FICI, and in 22 strains using DeltaE. The DeltaE model gave results consistent with FICI, but no antagonistic action was observed. The positive interactions were also confirmed by the time-killing test and agar diffusion in the selected strains. Moreover, the in vivo experiment showed that a combination of fluconazole and allicin exhibited a good synergism against C. albicans.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thymol (THY) was found to have in vitro antifungal activity against 24 fluconazole (FLC)-resistant and 12 FLC-susceptible clinical isolates of Candida albicans, standard strain ATCC 10231 and one experimentally induced FLC-resistant C. albicans S-1. In addition, synergism was observed for clinical isolates of C. albicans with combinations of THY-FLC and THY-amphotericin B (AMB) evaluated by the chequerboard microdilution method. The interaction intensity was determined by spectrophotometry for the chequerboard assay, and the nature of the interactions was assessed using two non-parametric approaches [fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) and DeltaE models]. The interaction between THY-FLC or THY-AMB in FLC-resistant and -susceptible strains of C. albicans showed a high percentage of synergism by the FICI method and the DeltaE method. The DeltaE model gave results consistent with FICI, and no antagonistic action was observed in the strains tested.
Journal of Medical Microbiology 07/2009; 58(Pt 8):1074-9. · 2.30 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) strains with multiple antibiotic resistances are increasingly widespread, and new agents are required for the treatment of S. aureus. Cryptotanshinone (CT), a major tanshinone of medicinal plant Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, demonstrated effective in vitro antibacterial activity against all 21 S. aureus strains tested in this experiment. Affymetrix GeneChips were utilized to determine the global transcriptional response of S. aureus ATCC 25923 to treatment with subinhibitory concentrations of CT. Transcriptome profiling indicated that the antibacterial action of CT may be associated with its action as active oxygen radical generator; S. aureus undergoes an oxygen-limiting state upon exposure to CT.
BioMed Research International 02/2009; 2009:617509. · 2.88 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 8-Methoxypsoralen (8-MOP), a naturally occurring furocoumarin found in many plant species, has been reported to have antimycobacterial
activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain H37Rv (ATCC 27294). In the present study, we further test the in vitro synergistic activity of 8-MOP and ethambutol
(EMB), isoniazid (INH), or rifampin (RMP) against M. tuberculosis. This study showed that 8-MOP has antimycobacterial activity against two drug-sensitive and six drug-resistant clinical isolates
of M. tuberculosis, with the minimum inhibitory concentrations of 100–200 and 200–400μg/mL, respectively. A synergistic antimycobacterial effect
between 8-MOP and EMB, INH, or RMP against six drug-resistant strains was observed, with the fractional inhibitory concentration
indices (FICIs) of 0.093–0.156, 0.138–0.285 and 0.093–0.262, respectively. The combination of 8-MOP/EMB, 8-MOP/INH, and 8-MOP/RMP
displayed either synergistic activity or had no interaction when tested against the two clinical drug-sensitive strains and
the standard strain. No antagonism was observed for any drug combination against any of the strains tested. To our knowledge,
this is first report that 8-MOP has synergistic activity with first-line antimycobacterial agents.
World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 26(4):623-628. · 1.26 Impact Factor