[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Optimal cognitive ability is likely important for military working dogs (MWD) trained to detect explosives. An assessment of a dog's ability to rapidly learn discriminations might be useful in the MWD selection process. In this study, visual discrimination and reversal tasks were used to assess cognitive performance in Labrador retrievers selected for an explosives detection program using a modified version of the Toronto General Testing Apparatus (TGTA), a system developed for assessing performance in a battery of neuropsychological tests in canines. The results of the current study revealed that, as previously found with beagles tested using the TGTA, Labrador retrievers (N = 16) readily acquired both tasks and learned the discrimination task significantly faster than the reversal task. The present study confirmed that the modified TGTA system is suitable for cognitive evaluations in Labrador retriever MWDs and can be used to further explore effects of sex, phenotype, age, and other factors in relation to canine cognition and learning, and may provide an additional screening tool for MWD selection.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract The health consequences of sand particle inhalation are incompletely understood. This project evaluated the respiratory toxicity of sand particles collected at military bases near Fort Irwin USA, in Iraq (Camp Victory, Taji and Talil), and Khost Afghanistan. Our primary focus was on assessing the role of soluble metals in the respiratory toxicity of the sand particles using in vitro and in vivo methods. Replicating rat type II alveolar cell cultures (RLE-6TN) were exposed to sand extracts or vehicle control in serum-free media for ≤24 h. Cytotoxicity was determined using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and assessment of lactate dehydrogenase leakage. The relative in vitro cytotoxicity of the sand extracts was Taji ≈ Talil > Afghanistan > Camp Victory ≈ Fort Irwin. We also assessed extracts of Camp Victory, Afghanistan, and Taji sand for acute and delayed pulmonary toxicity in rats following intratracheal administration. Assessments included biochemical analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung histopathology. The in vitro cytotoxicity assay results were partially predictive of in vivo responses. The more cytotoxic Taji sand extract induced an acute irritant response in rats following intratracheal administration. Rats given the less cytotoxic Camp Victory sand extract had minimal biochemical or cytological BALF changes whereas rats given either the Afghanistan or Taji sand extracts demonstrated BALF changes that were suggestive of mild lung inflammation. Unexpectedly, we observed similar lung pathology in all extract-exposed rats. The results of our study can be used to prioritize future particle inhalation studies or guide epidemiological study design.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) is a reactive chemical used in the commercial production of polyurethanes. Toxic effects in rodents exposed to HDI vapor primarily occur in the nasal passages, yet some individuals exposed occupationally to concentrations exceeding current regulatory limits may experience temporary reduction in lung function and asthma-like symptoms. Knowledge of interspecies differences in respiratory tract dosimetry of inhaled HDI would improve our understanding of human health risks to this compound. HDI uptake was measured in the upper respiratory tract of anesthetized Fischer-344 rats. Nasal uptake of HDI was >90% in rats at unidirectional flow rates of 150 and 300 ml/min and a target air concentration of 200 ppb. Uptake data was used to calibrate nasal and lung dosimetry models of HDI absorption in rats and humans. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models of the nasal passages were used to simulate inspiratory airflow and HDI absorption. Transport of HDI through lung airways was simulated using convection-diffusion based mass transport models. HDI nasal uptake of 90% and 78% was predicted using the rat and human nasal CFD models, respectively. Total respiratory tract uptake was estimated to be 99% in rats and 97% in humans under nasal breathing. Predicted human respiratory uptake decreased to 87% under oral breathing conditions. Absorption rates of inhaled HDI in human lung airways were estimated to be higher than the rat due to lower uptake in head airways. Model predictions demonstrated significant penetration of HDI to human bronchial airways, although absorption rates were sensitive to breathing style.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Optimal cognitive ability is likely important for military working dogs (MWD) trained to detect explosives. An assessment of a dog's ability to rapidly learn discrim-inations might be useful in the MWD selection process. In this study, visual discrimination and reversal tasks were used to assess cognitive performance in Labrador retrievers selected for an explosives detection program using a modified version of the Toronto General Testing Apparatus (TGTA), a system developed for assessing performance in a battery of neuropsychological tests in canines. The results of the current study revealed that, as previously found with beagles tested using the TGTA, Labrador retrievers (N = 16) readily acquired both tasks and learned the dis-crimination task significantly faster than the reversal task. The present study confirmed that the modified TGTA system is suitable for cognitive evaluations in Labrador retriever MWDs and can be used to further explore effects of sex, phenotype, age, and other factors in relation to canine cognition and learning, and may provide an addi-tional screening tool for MWD selection.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Accumulating evidence suggests that outdoor air pollution may have a significant impact on central nervous system (CNS) health and disease. To address this issue, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences/National Institute of Health convened a panel of research scientists that was assigned the task of identifying research gaps and priority goals essential for advancing this growing field and addressing an emerging human health concern. Here, we review recent findings that have established the effects of inhaled air pollutants in the brain, explore the potential mechanisms driving these phenomena, and discuss the recommended research priorities/approaches that were identified by the panel.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Manganese (Mn) is an essential element that is neurotoxic under certain exposure conditions. Monkeys and humans exposed to Mn develop similar neurological effects; thus, an improved understanding of the dose-response relationship seen in nonhuman primates could inform the human health risk assessment for this essential metal. A previous analysis of this dose-response relationship in experimental animals (Gwiazda, R., Lucchini, R., and Smith, D., 2007, Adequacy and consistency of animal studies to evaluate the neurotoxicity of chronic low-level manganese exposure in humans, J. Toxicol. Environ. Health Part A 70, 594-605.) relied on estimates of cumulative intake of Mn as the sole measure for comparison across studies with different doses, durations, and exposure routes. In this study, a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model that accurately accounts for the dose dependencies of Mn distribution was used to estimate increases in brain Mn concentrations in monkeys following Mn exposure. Experimental studies evaluated in the analysis included exposures by inhalation, oral, iv, ip, and sc dose routes, and spanned durations ranging from several weeks to over 2 years. This analysis confirms that the dose-response relationship for the neurotoxic effects of Mn in monkeys is independent of exposure route and supports the use of target tissue Mn concentration or cumulative target tissue Mn as the appropriate dose metric for these comparisons. These results also provide strong evidence of a dose-dependent transition in the mode of action for the neurological effects of Mn that needs to be considered in risk assessments for this essential metal.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, a variety of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models have been developed for the essential element manganese. This paper reviews the development of PBPK models (e.g., adult, pregnant, lactating, and neonatal rats, nonhuman primates, and adult, pregnant, lactating, and neonatal humans) and relevant risk assessment applications. Each PBPK model incorporates critical features including dose-dependent saturable tissue capacities and asymmetrical diffusional flux of manganese into brain and other tissues. Varied influx and efflux diffusion rate and binding constants for different brain regions account for the differential increases in regional brain manganese concentrations observed experimentally. We also present novel PBPK simulations to predict manganese tissue concentrations in fetal, neonatal, pregnant, or aged individuals, as well as individuals with liver disease or chronic manganese inhalation. The results of these simulations could help guide risk assessors in the application of uncertainty factors as they establish exposure guidelines for the general public or workers.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Respiratory symptoms are frequently reported in personnel deployed to the Middle East. This project characterized the respiratory toxicity of inhaled Iraqi sand (IS). Adult rats underwent a 6-wk inhalation to air or mainstream cigarette smoke (MSCS) (3 h/d, 5 d/wk) that included exposure to IS or crystalline silica (1 mg/m(3), 19 h/d, 7 d/wk) or air during the last 2 weeks. Assessments included motor activity, whole-body plethysmography, cytological and biochemical analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, lung metal burden, nasal and lung pathology, and changes in lung protein and gene expression. A number of metals including nickel, manganese, vanadium, and chromium were detected in IS. Elevated lung parenchyma aluminum, silica, barium, manganese, and vanadium concentrations were seen in IS-exposed rats, suggesting that several metals present in IS are bioavailable. Rats exposed to IS only developed mild inflammation in the anterior nose and lung. Silica inhalation was associated with some pulmonary responses that were not seen in IS-exposed rats, such as mild laryngeal and tracheal inflammation, mild tracheal epithelial hyperplasia, and elevated lung silica concentrations. MSCS inhalation with or without co-exposure to either IS or silica resulted in changes consistent with pulmonary inflammation and stress response. Rats exposed to MSCS and silica had more widespread airway lesions when compared with rats exposed to MSCS only. Silica-exposed rats had more robust pulmonary gene expression and proteomic responses than that seen in IS-exposed rat. Our studies show that the respiratory toxicity of IS is qualitatively similar to or less than that seen following short-term silica exposure.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Concerns have been raised regarding environmental manganese exposure since high exposures have been associated with neurological disorders. The USA Environmental Protection Agency most recent human health risk assessment of inhaled manganese conducted in 1993 identified specific areas of uncertainty regarding manganese pharmacokinetics. This led to the development of a test rule under the USA Clean Air Act that required the generation of pharmacokinetic information on the inorganic manganese combustion products of the organometallic fuel additive methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT). The Alternative Tier 2 testing program for MMT, described in this paper, has yielded substantial pharmacokinetic data and has enabled the generation of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models for manganese. These models are capable of predicting tissue manganese concentrations across a variety of dose routes, levels, and durations while accounting for factors such as age, gender, and reproductive status, enabling the consideration of tissue dosimetry in future risk assessments.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of inhaled particles have focused heavily on the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. Most studies have focused on inhaled metals, whereas less information is available for other particle types regarding the effects on the brain and other extra-pulmonary organs. We review here the key available literature on nanoparticle uptake and transport through the olfactory pathway, the experimental data from animal and in vitro studies, and human epidemiological observations. Nanoparticles (<0.1mum in one dimension) may easily reach the brain from the respiratory tract via sensory neurons and transport from the distal alveoli into the blood or lymph as free particles or inside phagocytic cells. These mechanisms and subsequent biologic responses may be influenced by the chemical composition of inhaled particles. Animal studies with ambient particulate matter and certain other particles show alterations in neuro-inflammatory markers of oxidative stress and central neurodegeneration. Human observations indicate motor, cognitive, and behavioral changes especially after particulate metal exposure in children. Exposure to co-pollutants and/or underlying disease states could also impact both the biokinetics and effects of airborne particles in the brain. Data are needed from the areas of inhalation, neurology, and metal toxicology in experimental and human studies after inhalation exposure. An increased understanding of the neurotoxicity associated with air pollution exposure is critical to protect susceptible individuals in the workplace and the general population.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Concerns for potential vulnerability to manganese (Mn) neurotoxicity during fetal and neonatal development have been raised due to increased needs for Mn for normal growth, different sources of exposure to Mn, and pharmacokinetic differences between the young and adults. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for Mn during human gestation and lactation was developed to predict Mn in fetal and neonatal brain using a parallelogram approach based upon extrapolation across life stages in rats and cross-species extrapolation to humans. Based on the rodent modeling, key physiological processes controlling Mn kinetics during gestation and lactation were incorporated, including alterations in Mn uptake, excretion, tissue-specific distributions, and placental and lactational transfer of Mn. Parameters for Mn kinetics were estimated based on human Mn data for milk, placenta, and fetal/neonatal tissues, along with allometric scaling from the human adult model. The model was evaluated by comparison with published Mn levels in cord blood, milk, and infant blood. Maternal Mn homeostasis during pregnancy and lactation, placenta and milk Mn, and fetal/neonatal tissue Mn were simulated for normal dietary intake and with inhalation exposure to environmental Mn. Model predictions indicate similar or lower internal exposures to Mn in the brains of fetus/neonate compared with the adult at or above typical environmental air Mn concentrations. This PBPK approach can assess expected Mn tissue concentration during early life and compares contributions of different Mn sources, such as breast or cow milk, formula, food, drinking water, and inhalation, with tissue concentration.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Manganese (Mn) is an essential nutrient with the capacity for toxicity from excessive exposure. Accumulation of Mn in the striatum, globus pallidus, and other midbrain regions is associated with neurotoxicity following high-dose Mn inhalation. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models for ingested and inhaled Mn in rats and nonhuman primates were previously developed. The models contained saturable Mn tissue-binding capacities, preferential fluxes of Mn in specific tissues, and homeostatic control processes such as inducible biliary excretion of Mn. In this study, a nonhuman primate model was scaled to humans and was further extended to include iv, ip, and sc exposure routes so that past studies regarding radiolabeled carrier-free (54)MnCl(2) tracer kinetics could be evaluated. Simulation results accurately recapitulated the biphasic elimination behavior for all exposure routes. The PBPK models also provided consistent cross-species descriptions of Mn tracer kinetics across multiple exposure routes. These results indicate that PBPK models can accurately simulate the overall kinetic behavior of Mn and predict conditions where exposures will increase free Mn in various tissues throughout the body. Simulations with the human model indicate that globus pallidus Mn concentrations are unaffected by air concentrations < 10 μg/m(3) Mn. The use of this human Mn PBPK model can become a key component of future human health risk assessment of Mn, allowing the consideration of various exposure routes, natural tissue background levels, and homeostatic controls to explore exposure conditions that lead to increased target tissue levels resulting from Mn overexposure.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aerosol cloud formation may occur when certain tungsten munitions strike hard targets, placing military personnel at increased risk of exposure. Although the pharmacokinetics of various forms of tungsten have been studied in animals following intravenous and oral administration, tungsten disposition following inhalation remains incompletely characterized. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of inhaled tungstate (WO(4)) in rats. Male, 16-wk-old, CD rats (n = 7 rats/time point) underwent a single, 90-min, nose-only exposure to an aerosol (mass median aerodynamic diameter [MMAD] 1.50 mum ) containing 256 mg W/m(3) as radiolabeled sodium tungstate (Na(2)(188)WO(4)). (188)W tissue concentrations were determined at 0, 1, 3, 7, and 21 days postexposure by gamma spectrometry. The thyroid and urine had the highest (188)W levels postexposure, and urinary excretion was the primary route of (188)W elimination. The pharmacokinetics of tungsten in most tissues was best described with a two-compartment pharmacokinetic model with initial phase half-lives of approximately 4 to 6 h and a longer terminal phase with half-lives of approximately 6 to 67 days. The kidney, adrenal, spleen, femur, lymph nodes, and brain continued to accumulate small amounts of tungsten as reflected by tissue:blood activity ratios that increased throughout the 21-day period. At day 21 all tissues except the thyroid, urine, lung, femur, and spleen had only trace levels of (188)W. Data from this study can be used for development and refinement of pharmacokinetic models for tungsten inhalation exposure in environmental and occupational settings.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Manganese (Mn) is an essential element that may be toxic in conditions of overexposure. Nearly 10 years ago, some of the authors of this article published a proposed methodology to perform a tissue-dose-based risk assessment and a detailed list of data needs necessary to perform the assessment. Since that time, a substantial body of Mn pharmacokinetic (PK) data has been generated in rats and nonhuman primates, allowing for the construction of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models for Mn. This study reviews the development of the Mn PBPK models, reassesses the previously identified data needs, and details potential uses of these models in risk assessment of Mn. Based upon numerous animal experiments, pharmacokinetic (PK) models have effectively simulated tissue kinetics of Mn from both inhaled and oral Mn intake. PK models achieve this by incorporating homeostatic control processes, saturable tissue binding capacities, and preferential fluxes in various tissue regions. While minor data gaps still exist, the models captured the main dose-dependent characteristics of Mn disposition in rodents and monkeys and provide a structure to parameterize an equivalent PK description in humans. These models are organized to contribute to a tissue-dose based risk assessment of Mn that simultaneously considers ingestion and inhalation kinetics of Mn along with homeostatic control of Mn.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part A 01/2010; 73(2):217-34. · 1.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A Physiologically Based Pharmaco Kinetic (PBPK) model, based on a published description of manganese (Mn) kinetics in adult rats, has been developed to describe Mn uptake and tissue distribution in the pregnant dam and fetus during dietary and inhalation exposures. This extension incorporated key physiological processes controlling Mn pharmacokinetics during pregnancy and fetal development. After calibration against tissue Mn concentrations observed during late gestation, the model accurately simulated Mn tissue distribution in the dam and fetus following both diet and inhalation exposures to the pregnant rat. Maternal to fetal transfer of Mn through placenta was described using two pathways: a saturable active transport with high affinity and a simple diffusion. The active transport dominates at basal and lower Mn exposure, whereas at higher Mn exposure, the relative contribution of the diffusion pathway increases. To simulate fetal tissue Mn, tissue-binding parameters and preferential influx/efflux rates in fetal brain were adjusted from the adult model based on differential developmental processes and varying tissue demands for Mn in early life. Model simulations were consistent with observed tissue Mn concentrations in fetal tissues, including brain for diet alone and for combined diet and inhalation. Simulations of Mn in placenta and other maternal tissues in late gestation correlated well with measured tissue concentrations. This model, together with our published models for Mn kinetics during lactation and postnatal development, will help to address concerns about Mn neurotoxicity in potentially sensitive human subpopulation, such as infants and children by providing an estimate of Mn exposure in the population of interest.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Manganese (Mn) is an essential element. However, excess Mn causes neurotoxicity. Fetuses and neonates have been discussed as potentially sensitive subpopulations for Mn. In the present study, a previously published physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for Mn in adult rats was extended to examine exposure conditions that could lead to increased central nervous system Mn in developing rats. The basic structure had saturable tissue binding, homeostatic control of uptake and excretion, and tissue-specific increases in Mn from inhalation. Modifications made for lactating dam and pups included differential tissue-binding capacities in developing pups, increased absorption of dietary Mn in lactating dam, and more efficient gastrointestinal absorption and lower basal biliary excretion in pups. Enhancement of biliary excretion in pups was also required to accurately simulate tissue Mn during early postnatal inhalation. Overall, these changes were concordant with the biology of Mn and other essential metals during development. The resulting model simulations match a variety of published studies on maternal Mn homeostasis during lactation, milk Mn levels, and changing patterns of neonatal tissue Mn for normal dietary intake and with Mn inhalation. Our successful description of Mn kinetics across these life stages suggests that the present model can help describe the relationship between dose of exposure and target tissue Mn concentrations across different developmental stages and its potential risks and assess whether infants and children should be regarded as susceptible populations for Mn inhalation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Most rodent developmental toxicity studies of dibutylphthalate (DBP) have relied on bolus gavage dosing. This study characterized the developmental toxicity of dietary DBP. Pregnant CD rats were given nominal doses of 0, 100, or 500 mg DBP/kg/day in diet (actual intake 0, 112, and 582 mg/kg/day) from gestational day (GD) 12 through the morning of GD 19. Rats were killed 4 or 24 hr thereafter. DBP dietary exposure resulted in significant dose-dependent reductions in testicular mRNA concentration of scavenger receptor class B, member 1; steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; cytochrome P450, family 11, subfamily a, polypeptide 1; and cytochrome P450 family 17, subfamily a, polypeptide 1. These effects were most pronounced 4 hr after the end of exposure. Testicular testosterone was reduced 24 hr post-exposure in both DBP dose groups and 4 hr after termination of the 500-mg DBP/kg/day exposure. Maternal exposure to 500 mg DBP/kg/day induced a significant reduction in male offspring's anogenital distance indicating in utero disruption of androgen function. Leydig cell aggregates, increased cord diameters, and multinucleated gonocytes were present in DBP-treated rats. Monobutyl phthalate, the developmentally toxic metabolite of DBP, and its glucuronide conjugate were found in maternal and fetal plasma, amniotic fluid, and maternal urine. Our results, when compared to previously conducted gavage studies, indicate that approximately equal doses of oral DBP exposure of pregnant rats, from diet or gavage, result in similar responses in male offspring.
Birth Defects Research Part B Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology 08/2009; 86(4):345-54. · 1.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Olfactory transport of represents an important mechanism for direct delivery of certain metals to the central nervous system (CNS). The objective of this study was to determine whether inhaled tungsten (W) undergoes olfactory uptake and transport to the rat brain. Male, 16-week-old, Sprague-Dawley rats underwent a single, 90-min, nose-only exposure to a Na(2)(188)WO(4) aerosol (256 mg W/m(3)). Rats had the right nostril plugged to prevent nasal deposition of (188)W on the occluded side. The left and right sides of the nose and brain, including the olfactory pathway and striatum, were sampled at 0, 1, 3, 7, and 21 days post-exposure. Gamma spectrometry (n=7 rats/time point) was used to compare the levels of (188)W found on the left and right sides of the nose and brain and blood to determine the contribution of olfactory uptake to brain (188)W levels. Respiratory and olfactory epithelial samples from the side with the occluded nostril had significantly lower end-of-exposure (188)W levels confirming the occlusion procedure. Olfactory bulb, olfactory tract/tubercle, striatum, cerebellum, rest of brain (188)W levels paralleled blood (188)W concentrations at approximately 2-3% of measured blood levels. Brain (188)W concentrations were highest immediately following exposure, and returned to near background concentrations within 3 days. A statistically significant difference in olfactory bulb (188)W concentration was seen at 3 days post-exposure. At this time, (188)W concentrations in the olfactory bulb from the side ipsilateral to the unoccluded nostril were approximately 4-fold higher than those seen in the contralateral olfactory bulb. Our data suggest that the concentration of (188)W in the olfactory bulb remained low throughout the experiment, i.e., approximately 1-3% of the amount of tungsten seen in the olfactory epithelium suggesting that olfactory transport plays a minimal role in delivering tungsten to the rat brain.