[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cystinosis is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by cystine crystal accumulation leading to multiorgan dysfunctions and caused by mutation in CTNS. CTNS encodes cystinosin, a cystine/H(+) symporter that exports cystine out of the lysosomes. Patients with cystinosis frequently exhibit blond hair and fair complexion, suggesting an alteration in melanogenesis. However, the pigmentation singularities of these patients have not been studied, and the role of cystinosin in melanogenesis has remained unknown. In our study, a clinical evaluation of 27 patients with cystinosis showed that 44% had a cutaneous pigmentation dilution compared to their relatives. Analysis of the hair melanin content in these patients by HPLC demonstrated a 50% decrease in eumelanin (4360 vs. 9360 ng/mg), and a 2-fold increase in pheomelanin (53 vs. 20 ng/mg), the yellow/red pigments. Cystinosin-deficient mice also showed a 4-fold increase in hair pheomelanin content. In vitro studies showed that cystinosin was located at melanosomes. CTNS silencing led to a 75% reduction of melanin synthesis that was caused by a degradation of tyrosinase by lysosomal proteases. Our results objectify the pigmentation defect in patients with cystinosis. We also identify the role of CTNS in melanogenesis and add a new gene to the list of the genes involved in the control of skin and hair pigmentation.
The FASEB Journal 05/2012; 26(9):3779-89. · 5.70 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Few publications have described the long-term effects of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) in uremic patients. This
study reports the results of rhGH therapy at the end of treatment and at adult age in 178 French patients. At enrollment,
63 patients were under conservative treatment (CT), 40 under hemodialysis (HD), and 75 had a functioning renal transplant
(RT). Under rhGH treatment, height velocities (HV) significantly increased in all patients, but the effect was significantly
better in the CT group. The HV gain (HV under rhGH-HV before treatment) was similar in all three groups. Increases in HV allowed
height standard deviation scores (SDS) catch up, and this effect persisted over a 5-year period. SDS height at the completion
of treatment was significantly related to group (best in CT) and response to treatment during the first year. Data on adult
height was available for 102 patients. Mean adult height was 162.2cm in men and 152.9cm in women, and 46% were > −2 SDS
for height. Adult height SDS was correlated with height SDS and spontaneous HV before treatment and effect of treatment. Analysis
of adult height in the 49 patients who entered the protocol with a height SDS between −2 and −3 (the current recommendation
for rhGH use) revealed that 65% had an adult-height SDS >−2. These adult heights were significantly better if compared with
historical cohorts of patients not treated by rhGH; rhGH significantly improves the adult-height prognosis of uremic patients
suffering from growth retardation. Early rhGH administration during CT gives better height SDS at both the end of rhGH therapy
and in adulthood.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Patients with infantile nephropathic cystinosis have progressive accumulation of cystine in tissues leading to delayed extrarenal complications. No simple tool is available to evaluate the level of body cystine accumulation. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the value of in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy of the skin in patients with infantile nephrogenic cystinosis. METHODS: Nine patients and control subjects were recruited for this study. Images were acquired by means of a near-infrared reflectance confocal laser scanning microscope. RESULTS: Scattered bright particles within the papillary dermis were observed in all patients but not in control subjects. The density of particles ranged from numerous (+++) to very few (+/-) and their distribution was heterogeneous. Electron microscopy confirmed that these particles corresponded to cystine crystal deposits within dermal fibroblasts. The density of cystine crystals within the dermis was greater in older patients, in patients with a high leukocyte cystine concentration, and with delayed cysteamine therapy. There was no correlation between the density of cystine deposits and renal disease or hypopigmentation but high levels of deposition occurred in association with extrarenal manifestations. LIMITATIONS: This is a preliminary study on a small sample of patients. Repeated examination and longer follow-up is necessary. CONCLUSION: In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy of the skin appears to be a noninvasive means of assessing body cystine accumulation in infantile cystinosis and could be used as a complementary marker of treatment response in addition to leukocyte cystine measurement.
Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 09/2011; · 4.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nephropathic cystinosis is a multisystem autosomal recessive disease caused by cystine accumulation, which is usually treated by oral cysteamine. In order to determine long-term effects of this therapy, we enrolled 86 adult patients (mean age 26.7 years) diagnosed with nephropathic cystinosis, 75 of whom received cysteamine. Therapy was initiated at a mean age of 9.9 years with a mean duration of 17.4 years. By last follow-up, 78 patients had end-stage renal disease (mean age 11.1 years), 62 had hypothyroidism (mean age 13.4), 48 developed diabetes (mean age 17.1 years), and 32 had neuromuscular disorders (mean age 23.3 years). Initiating cysteamine therapy before 5 years of age significantly decreased the incidence and delayed the onset of end-stage renal disease, and significantly delayed the onset of hypothyroidism, diabetes, and neuromuscular disorders. The development of diabetes and hypothyroidism was still significantly delayed, however, in patients in whom therapy was initiated after 5 years of age, compared with untreated patients. The life expectancy was significantly improved in cysteamine-treated versus untreated patients. Thus, cysteamine decreases and delays the onset of complications and improves life expectancy in cystinosis. Hence, cysteamine therapy should be introduced as early as possible during childhood and maintained lifelong.
Kidney International 09/2011; 81(2):179-89. · 7.92 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although steroid-free remission can usually be achieved with cyclosporin A (CsA) in patients with steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome (SDNS), some CsA-treated patients require long-term steroid therapy. Data on growth in these patients are scarce. Sixty-four boys with SDNS receiving long-term CsA and steroid therapy were retrospectively analyzed. During the 10-year follow-up period, height standard deviation score (HSDS) remained in the normal range in 47 patients but was below -2 SD in 17 patients. The occurrence of growth retardation was influenced by height at diagnosis and the number of relapses. Thirty patients were followed for at least 3 years before and after age 12. The decrease in HSDS per year of disease in patients older than 12 years was twice that observed in children younger than 12. However, adult height was < or = -2 SD in only two of the 14 patients reaching adult height, reflecting potential catch-up growth during late puberty. Careful monitoring of growth is recommended, given than up to 25% of patients experienced severe growth retardation during the course of their disease.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To analyze the corneas of patients with nephropathic cystinosis using in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) and anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT).
Prospective case series.
Sixteen eyes of 8 patients with nephropathic cystinosis aged 8 to 21 years.
The ophthalmologic evaluation included best-corrected visual acuity, evaluation of photophobia (0-4), slit-lamp biomicroscopy analysis, intraocular pressure measurement, evaluation of crystal density using a slit-lamp-based scoring of the cornea, as well as AS-OCT and IVCM analysis.
The depth of crystal deposition (DCD) in the central cornea and the central cornea thickness (CCT) were assessed using AS-OCT and IVCM. The IVCM images were evaluated for crystal density in each corneal layer and an IVCM score was calculated for each eye.
All eyes had corneal crystal deposits, with a mean slit-lamp photography score of 2.90+/-0.13 (range, 2.75-3.00). Using AS-OCT, corneal crystals were observed in all eyes. These crystals appeared as hyperreflective punctuate deposits, predominantly observed within the anterior stroma. Measured with AS-OCT, the mean depth of DCD in the central cornea was 291.40+/-81.42 microm (range, 200-531 microm); the mean CCT was 543.47+/-29.62 microm. Using IVCM, the crystals appeared as spindle, needle-shaped, and fusiform hyperreflective bodies measuring from 1 to 175 microm in length and 1 to 30 microm in thickness. Except for the endothelium, randomly oriented crystals were observed in all corneal layers, with the greatest density observed within the anterior stroma. Measured with IVCM, the mean DCD was 426.07+/-88.19 microm (range, 284-531 microm); the mean CCT was 531.87+/-34.77 microm. There was no significant difference between the CCT measurements obtained with IVCM and with AS-OCT (mean difference, 11.31 microm; P = 0.07). Nevertheless, the DCD was significantly higher with IVCM than with AS-OCT (mean difference, 126.25 microm; P<0.0001).
In patients with nephropathic cystinosis, IVCM could precisely quantify the density of crystals within the central cornea. Anterior segment OCT and IVCM should be used in further studies evaluating crystal deposition in patients with nephropathic cystinosis.
The authors have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report the first cases of atypical hemolytic and uremic syndrome associated with complement factor H (CFH) deficiency in native kidneys and glomerulonephritis with isolated C3 deposits after kidney transplantation. Two boys developed atypical hemolytic and uremic syndrome at 16 and 11 months of age, associated with low C3 and CFH levels. Both rapidly progressed to end-stage renal failure and received a kidney transplant. Patient 1 had combined CFH and complement factor I (CFI) heterozygous mutations and a membrane cofactor protein (gene symbol, CD46) gene polymorphism. Five years posttransplantation, an allograft biopsy specimen showed numerous mesangial and extramembranous C3 deposits, although the patient had no biological sign of glomerulopathy. Nine years after transplantation, he was well with stable kidney function. Patient 2, who had a homozygous CFH mutation, developed glomerulonephritis with isolated C3 deposits 5 months after kidney transplantation while he was treated for early recurrence of hemolytic anemia. Four years later, the second kidney transplant biopsy specimen showed recurrence of thrombotic microangiopathy. Six years posttransplantation, kidney function was stable and complete blood cell count was normal with regular plasma therapy. These observations suggest that constitutional dysregulation of the alternative pathway is associated with a wide spectrum of kidney diseases, and glomerulonephritis with isolated C3 deposits and thrombotic microangiopathy may be different expressions of the same condition. Several factors could influence the disease, such as degree of CFH haploinsufficiency and other complement alternative pathway regulator abnormalities, such as a membrane cofactor protein polymorphism.
American Journal of Kidney Diseases 05/2008; 51(4):671-7. · 5.29 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations in factor H (CFH), factor I (IF), and membrane cofactor protein (MCP) genes have been described as risk factors for atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS). This study analyzed the impact of complement mutations on the outcome of 46 children with aHUS. A total of 52% of patients had mutations in one or two of known susceptibility factors (22, 13, and 15% of patients with CFH, IF, or MCP mutations, respectively; 2% with CFH+IF mutations). Age <3 mo at onset seems to be characteristic of CFH and IF mutation-associated aHUS. The most severe prognosis was in the CFH mutation group, 60% of whom reached ESRD or died within <1 yr. Only 30% of CFH mutations were localized in SCR20. MCP mutation-associated HUS has a relapsing course, but none of the children reached ESRD at 1 yr. Half of patients with IF mutation had a rapid evolution to ESRD, and half recovered. Plasmatherapy seemed to have a beneficial effect in one third of patients from all groups except for the MCP mutation group. Only eight (33%) of 24 kidney transplantations that were performed in 15 patients were successful. Graft failures were due to early graft thrombosis (50%) or HUS recurrence. In conclusion, outcome of HUS in patients with CFH mutation is catastrophic, and posttransplantation outcome is poor in all groups except for the MCP mutation group. New therapies are urgently needed, and further research should elucidate the unexplained HUS group.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 09/2007; 18(8):2392-400. · 8.99 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The use of prenatal ultrasonography has resulted in increased numbers of fetuses being diagnosed with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), but the long-term prognosis is still not well-known. Between 1981 and 2006 we followed 26 consecutive children with enlarged hyperechoic kidneys detected between the 12th week of pregnancy and the first day of life (Day 1) as well as one affected parent. Three other fetuses were excluded following the termination of the pregnancy. The mother was the transmitting parent in 16 of the 26 children (ns, p=0.1). Clinical features that presented during follow-up were oligoamnios (5/26), neonatal pneumothorax (3/26), pyelonephritis (5/26), gross hematuria (2/26), hypertension (5/26), proteinuria (2/26) and chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) (2/26). At the last follow-up (mean duration of follow-up: 76 months; range: 0.5-262 months), 19 children (mean age: 5.5 years) were asymptomatic, five (mean age: 8.5 years) had hypertension, two (mean age: 9.7 years) had proteinuria and two (mean age: 19 years) had CRI. Children presenting enlarged kidneys postnatally tended to have more clinical manifestations than their counterparts who did not. Of 25 siblings of the patients, seven had renal cysts; these were detected during childhood in five siblings and in utero in two siblings. In conclusion, prognosis is favourable in most children with prenatal ADPKD, at least during childhood. The sex of the transmitting parent is not a risk factor of prenatal ADPKD. A high proportion of siblings develop early renal cysts. Abnormalities visualized by ultrasonography appear to be associated to more clinical manifestations.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Long-term glucocorticoid treatment contributes to the growth retardation in children after renal transplantation. We investigated whether determination of prednisone (PN) and prednisolone (PL) in plasma and PN, PL, and 6-beta-hydroxyprednisolone (betaOH-PL) in urine could help to predict growth. PN and PL pharmacokinetics were studied in 36 children, from 5 to 15 years of age, receiving daily (D) or alternate-day (AD) oral PN treatment. Statural growth velocity was evaluated over a 1-year period. We compared three groups of children according to the growth kinetics during the study year (catch-up, stable, or decline) for clinical and pharmacokinetic parameters. A multiple linear regression analysis was performed in order to determine pharmacokinetic parameters able to explain height 1 year after inclusion. Height at the beginning of the study, creatinine clearance, and type of D or AD treatment explained 94.2% of height variance 1 year after inclusion. Only PL clearance was associated with growth evolution, but introduction of PL clearance in the multivariate model did not improve the variance of height accounted for by the previous model. We, therefore, do not recommend using glucocorticoid pharmacokinetics to predict growth retardation in children with renal transplantation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Forty patients with steroid-dependent idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS), a mean follow-up of 5.5 years, and a mean number
of relapses of ten were blindly assigned to either deflazacort (DFZ) (n = 20) or prednisone (PDN) (n = 20) according to a ratio of equivalence of DFZ/PDN = 0.8. This treatment was given for 1 year. The number of relapses was
significantly lower in patients receiving DFZ. After 1 year, 12 remained in remission with DFZ compared with 2 with PDN. Growth
velocity was not different in the two groups. Bone mineral content, assessed by quantitative computed tomography of L1 L2
vertebrae, decreased after 1 year by 6% in the DFZ group versus 12% in the PDN group (NS). The mean body weight increase of
+3.9±4.1 kg in the PDN group was higher than that of the DFZ group, +1.7±2.8 kg (P = 0.06). Cushingoid symptoms tended to be less after 12 months in the DFZ group. In conclusion, this study shows that DFZ
was more effective than PDN in limiting relapses in steroid-dependent INS, and that cushingoid symptoms, weight gain, and
decrease in bone mineral content tended to be less marked with this drug than with PDN.