[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The multi-organizational collaborative is a popular model for quality improvement (QI) initiatives. It assumes organizations will share information and social support. However, there is no comprehensive documentation of the extent to which teams do interact. Considering QI collaboratives as networks, interactions among reams were documented, and the associations between network roles and performance were examined.
A telephone survey of official team contact persons for 94 site teams in three QI collaborarives was conducted in 2002 and 2003. Four performance measures were used to assess the usefulness of ties to other teams and being considered a leader by peers.
Eighty percent of the teams said they would contact another team again if they felt the need. Teams made a change as a direct result of interaction in 86% of reported relationships. Teams typically exchanged tools such as software and interacted outside of planned activities. Having a large number of ties to other teams is strongly related to the number of mentions as a leader. Both of these variables are related to faculty-assessed performance, number of changes the ream made to improve care, and depth of those changes.
The Findings suggest that collaborative teams do indeed exchange important information, and the social dynamics of the collaborarives contribute to individual and collaborative success.
Joint Commission journal on quality and patient safety / Joint Commission Resources 06/2007; 33(5):267-76.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is a need to identify effective practical interventions to decrease cardiovascular disease risk in patients with diabetes.
We examine the impact of participation in a collaborative implementing the chronic care model (CCM) on the reduction of cardiovascular disease risk in patients with diabetes.
Controlled pre- and postintervention study.
Persons with diabetes receiving care at 13 health care organizations exposed to the CCM collaborative and controls receiving care in nonexposed sites.
Ten-year risk of cardiovascular disease; determined using a modified United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study risk engine score. A total number of 613 patients from CCM intervention sites and 557 patients from usual care control sites met the inclusion criteria. The baseline mean 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease was 31% for both the intervention group and the control group. Participants in both groups had improved blood pressure, lipid levels, and HbA1c levels during the observation period. Random intercept hierarchical regression models showed that the intervention group had a 2.1% (95% CI -3.7%, -0.5%) greater reduction in predicted risk for future cardiovascular events when compared to the control group. This would result in a reduced risk of one cardiovascular disease event for every 48 patients exposed to the intervention.
Over a 1-year interval, this collaborative intervention using the CCM lowered the cardiovascular disease risk factors of patients with diabetes who were cared for in the participating organization's settings. Further work could enhance the impact of this promising multifactorial intervention on cardiovascular disease risk reduction.
Journal of General Internal Medicine 03/2007; 22(2):215-22. · 3.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To measure organizations' implementation of Chronic Care Model (CCM) interventions for chronic care quality improvement (QI).
Monthly reports submitted by 42 organizations participating in three QI collaboratives to improve care for congestive heart failure, diabetes, depression, and asthma, and telephone interviews with key informants in the organizations.
We qualitatively analyzed the implementation activities of intervention organizations as part of a larger effectiveness evaluation of yearlong collaboratives. Key study variables included measures of implementation intensity (quantity and depth of implementation activities) as well as fidelity to the CCM.
We developed a CCM-based scheme to code sites' intervention activities and criteria to rate their depth or likelihood of impact.
The sites averaged more than 30 different change efforts each to implement the CCM. The depth ratings for these changes, however, were more modest, ranging from 17 percent to 76 percent of the highest rating possible. The participating organizations significantly differed in the intensity of their implementation efforts (p<.001 in both quantity and depth ratings). Fidelity to the CCM was high.
Collaborative participants were able, with some important variation, to implement large numbers of diverse QI change strategies, with high CCM fidelity and modest depth of implementation. QI collaboratives are a useful method to foster change in real world settings.
Health Services Research 08/2005; 40(4):978-96. · 2.49 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Organizationally based, disease-targeted collaborative quality improvement efforts are widely applied but have not been subject to rigorous evaluation. We evaluated the effects of the Institute of Healthcare Improvement's Breakthrough Series (IHI BTS) on quality of care for chronic heart failure (CHF).
We conducted a quasi-experiment in 4 organizations participating in the IHI BTS for CHF in 1999-2000 and 4 comparable control organizations. We reviewed a total of 489 medical records obtained from the sites and used a computerized data collection tool to measure performance on 23 predefined quality indicators. We then compared differences in indicator performance between the baseline and post-intervention periods for participating and non-participating organizations.
Participating and control patients did not differ significantly with regard to measured clinical factors at baseline. After adjusting for age, gender, number of chronic conditions, and clustering by site, participating sites showed greater improvement than control sites for 11 of the 21 indicators, including use of lipid-lowering and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition therapy. When all indicators were combined into a single overall process score, participating sites improved more than controls (17% versus 1%, P < 0.0001). The improvement was greatest for measures of education and counseling (24% versus -1%, P < 0.0001).
Organizational participation in a common disease-targeted collaborative provider interaction improved a wide range of processes of care for CHF, including both medical therapeutics and education and counseling. Our data support the use of programs like the IHI BTS in improving the processes of care for patients with chronic diseases.
Medical Care 08/2005; 43(7):667-75. · 2.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lower rates of preventive medication use and higher rates of hospitalization and emergency department use have been documented among Latino children and adolescents with asthma. However, little is known about how language barriers influence asthma management practices and outcomes.
To examine the effects of language on asthma management practices and asthma-related outcomes.
Cross-sectional survey of asthma management practices, perceived efficacy, asthma knowledge, family functioning, and health-related quality of life in 405 white non-Latino, African American non-Latino, and Latino children and adolescents from English- and Spanish-speaking homes.
Latino children and adolescents from Spanish-speaking homes had lower rates of goal setting and peak flow monitoring, poorer asthma knowledge, and greater negative family impact than white children and adolescents (P < .05 for all). Although Latino children and adolescents from English-speaking homes did worse than their non-Latino white peers, the decrements were modest and not statistically significant (P>.16 for all). Management practices and outcomes for non-Latino African American children and adolescents closely approximated those of white children and adolescents.
Language barriers seem to contribute to poorer asthma management practices and knowledge among Latino children and adolescents. Efforts to increase knowledge in this group may enhance asthma self-care and limit the morbidity associated with asthma.
Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 04/2005; 159(3):283-9. · 4.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We sought to assess the reliability and validity of the PedsQL 4.0 SF15, a shortened version of the 23-item PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales, which is a pediatric health-related quality of life (HRQoL) instrument, and the PedsQL 3.0 SF22 Asthma Module, a short-form of the PedsQL 3.0 Asthma Module.
The PedsQL 4.0 SF15 and the PedsQL 3.0 SF22 Asthma Module were administered by telephone to 125 adolescents (aged 12-18) and 338 parents of children with asthma (aged 2-11). Healthy (n = 451) and chronically ill (n = 422) children, matched by age, respondent status, and ethnicity to the asthma sample, provided data for selected validity tests.
The Total Score from the PedsQL 4.0 SF15 and the Asthma Symptoms scale and Treatment Problems scale from the PedsQL 3.0 SF22 Asthma Module were sufficiently reliable for group comparisons (alpha > or = 0.70 across all age groups) in the asthma sample. The PedsQL 4.0 SF15 and the PedsQL 3.0 SF22 Asthma Module were able to distinguish between children of different clinical status and correlated as expected with measures of productivity and family functioning in the asthma sample. The psychometric properties of the PedsQL 4.0 SF15 were generally comparable to those of the original instrument.
The Total Score of the PedsQL 4.0 SF15 and the Asthma Symptoms scale of the PedsQL 3.0 SF22 Asthma Module demonstrated the best reliability and validity and should be suitable for group-level comparisons of generic and asthma-specific HRQoL in clinical research studies of children with asthma.
Medical Care 04/2005; 43(3):256-65. · 2.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine whether a collaborative to improve pediatric asthma care positively influenced processes and outcomes of that care.
Medical record abstractions and patient/parent interviews were used to make pre- and postintervention comparisons of patients at 9 sites that participated in the evaluation of a Breakthrough Series (BTS) collaborative for asthma care with patients at 4 matched control sites.
Thirteen primary care clinics.
Three hundred eighty-five asthmatic children who received care at an intervention clinic and 126 who received care at a control clinic (response rate = 76%).
Three 2-day educational sessions for quality improvement teams from participating sites followed by 3 "action" periods over the course of a year.
The overall process of asthma care improved significantly in the intervention group but remained unchanged in the control group (change in process score +13% vs 0%; P < .0001). Patients in the intervention group were more likely than patients in the control group to monitor their peak flows (70% vs 43%; P < .0001) and to have a written action plan (41% vs 22%; P = .001). Patients in the intervention group had better general health-related quality of life (scale score 80 vs 77; P = .05) and asthma-specific quality of life related to treatment problems (scale score 89 vs 85; P < .05).
The intervention improved some important aspects of processes of care that have previously been linked to better outcomes. Patients who received care at intervention clinics also reported higher general and asthma-specific quality of life.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The importance of teams for improving quality of care has received increased attention. We examine both the correlates of self-assessed or perceived team effectiveness and its consequences for actually making changes to improve care for people with chronic illness. STUDY SETTING AND METHODS: Data were obtained from 40 teams participating in the national evaluation of the Improving Chronic Illness Care Program. Based on current theory and literature, measures were derived of organizational culture, a focus on patient satisfaction, presence of a team champion, team composition, perceived team effectiveness, and the actual number and depth of changes made to improve chronic illness care.
A focus on patient satisfaction, the presence of a team champion, and the involvement of the physicians on the team were each consistently and positively associated with greater perceived team effectiveness. Maintaining a balance among culture values of participation, achievement, openness to innovation, and adherence to rules and accountability also appeared to be important. Perceived team effectiveness, in turn, was consistently associated with both a greater number and depth of changes made to improve chronic illness care. The variables examined explain between 24 and 40% of the variance in different dimensions of perceived team effectiveness; between 13% and 26% in number of changes made; and between 20% and 42% in depth of changes made.
The data suggest the importance of developing effective teams for improving the quality of care for patients with chronic illness.
Medical Care 12/2004; 42(11):1040-8. · 2.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Commercially available electronic prescribing systems may differ in their effects on patients' health outcomes and on patients' ability to manage costs. An expert panel convened to recommend specific features that would enable electronic prescribing systems to advance these goals. The panel authored sixty recommendations and rated each using a modified Delphi process. Ratings identified fifty-two recommendations as clearly positive for patient safety and health outcomes and forty-three recommendations as achievable in the average clinician's office within three years. Overall, these recommendations offer a synthesis of evidence and expert opinion that can help guide the development of electronic prescribing policy.
Health Affairs 01/2004; Suppl Web Exclusives:W4-305-17. · 4.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several states have developed prescription-drug discount programs for Medicare beneficiaries. In California, Senate Bill 393, enacted in 1999, requires pharmacies participating in the state Medicaid program (Medi-Cal) to charge customers who present a Medicare card amounts based on Medi-Cal rates. Because Medicare beneficiaries may not be accustomed to presenting their Medicare cards at pharmacies, we assessed the compliance of pharmacies with Senate Bill 393.
Fifteen Medicare beneficiaries who received special training and acted as "standardized patients" visited a random sample of pharmacies in the San Francisco Bay area and Los Angeles County in April and May 2001. According to a script, they asked for the prices of three commonly prescribed drugs: rofecoxib, sertraline, and atorvastatin. The script enabled us to determine whether and when, during their interactions with pharmacists or salespeople, the discounts specified in Senate Bill 393 were offered. Pharmacies at which the appropriate discounts were offered were considered compliant.
The patients completed visits to 494 pharmacies. Seventy-five percent of the pharmacies complied with the prescription-drug discount program; at only 45 percent, however, was the discount offered before it was specifically requested. The discount was offered at 91 percent of pharmacies that were part of a chain, as compared with 58 percent of independent pharmacies (P<0.001). Compliance was higher in the San Francisco Bay area than in Los Angeles County (84 percent vs. 72 percent, P=0.004) and was higher in high-income than low-income neighborhoods (81 percent vs. 69 percent, P=0.002). A Medicare beneficiary taking all three drugs would have saved an average of $55.70 per month as compared with retail prices (a savings of 20 percent).
Discounts required under California's prescription-drug discount program for Medicare beneficiaries offer substantial savings. Many patients, however, especially those who use independent pharmacies or who live in low-income neighborhoods, may not receive the discounts.
New England Journal of Medicine 03/2002; 346(11):830-5. · 54.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This article examines the motivation of health care professionals to improve quality of chronic illness care using the Chronic Care Model and Plan-Do-Study-Act cycles. The findings suggest that organizational attempts to redesign care require support of activities initiated by practitioners and managers and an organizational commitment to quality improvement.
Health care management review 30(2):139-56. · 1.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We wanted to examine whether a collaborative to improve asthma care influences process and outcomes of care in asthmatic adults.
We undertook a preintervention-postintervention evaluation of 185 patients in 6 intervention clinics and 3 matched control sites that participated in the Institute for Healthcare Improvement Breakthrough Series (BTS) Collaborative for asthma care. The intervention consisted of 3, 2-day educational sessions for teams dispatched by participating sites, which were followed by 3 action periods during the course of a year.
Overall process of asthma care improved significantly in the intervention compared with the control group (change of 10% vs 1%, P = .003). Patients in the intervention group were more likely to attend educational sessions (20% vs 5%, P = .03). Having a written action plan, setting goals, monitoring peak flow rates, and using long-term asthma medications increased between 2% and 19% (not significant), but asthma-related knowledge was unchanged for the 2 groups. Patients in the BTS Collaborative were significantly more likely to be satisfied with clinician and lay educator communication (62% vs 39%, P = .02). Health-related quality of life, asthma-specific quality of life, number of bed days caused by asthma-related illness, and acute care service use were not significantly different between the 2 groups.
The intervention was associated with improved process-of-care measures that have been linked with better outcomes. Patients benefited through increased satisfaction with communication. Follow-up of patients who participated in the intervention may have been too brief to be able to detect significant improvement in health-related outcomes.
The Annals of Family Medicine 3(3):200-8. · 4.57 Impact Factor