[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ability of circulating blood monocytes to express C1q receptors (cC1qR and gC1qR) as well as to synthesize and secrete the classical pathway proteins C1q, C1r, and C1s and their regulator, C1-INH is very well established. What is intriguing, however, is that, in addition to secretion of the individual C1 proteins monocytes are also able to display macromolecular C1 on their surface in a manner that is stable and functional. The cell surface C1 complex is presumably formed by a Ca(2+)-dependent association of the C1r2⋅C1s2 tetramer to C1q, which in turn is anchored via a membrane-binding domain located in the N-terminus of its A-chain as shown previously. Monocytes, which circulate in the blood for 1-3 days before they move into tissues throughout the body, not only serve as precursors of macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs), but also fulfill three main functions in the immune system: phagocytosis, antigen presentation, and cytokine production. Since the globular heads of C1q within the membrane associated C1 are displayed outwardly, we hypothesize that their main function - especially in circulating monocytes - is to recognize and capture circulating immune complexes or pathogen-associated molecular patterns in the blood. This in turn may give crucial signal, which drives the monocytes to migrate into tissues, differentiate into macrophages or DCs, and initiate the process of antigen elimination. Unoccupied C1q on the other hand may serve to keep monocytes in a pre-dendritic phenotype by silencing key molecular players thus ensuring that unwarranted DC-driven immune response does not occur. In this paper, we will discuss the role of monocyte/DC-associated C1q receptors, macromolecular C1 as well as secreted C1q in both innate and acquired immune responses.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The survival and growth of a primary tumor depends, by and large, on three major events: immune evasion, angiogenesis and metastasis. Tumor cells are “modified self”, and as such express a plethora of modified surface antigens capable of inducing antibody production. Anti-tumor cell antibodies should, in theory, activate complement resulting in cell destruction. But this is not the case. Akin to many pathogenic microorganisms whose survival depends on evading the immune system, cancer cells have also evolved diverse mechanisms to prevent host mediated cell destruction by either retaining critical regulatory molecules or by hijacking host proteins to ensure their survival. Although immune evasion, angiogenesis and metastasis are complex biological processes involving a myriad of tumor associated proteins, enzymes, and cytokines, C1qRs can, nonetheless play an important role in all or part of these processes. Although both cC1qR/CR and gC1qR are expressed by all somatic cells, with the exception of red blood cells, both are highly upregulated on almost all types of tumors. It is not surprising therefore that blockade of C1qR on tumor cells inhibits their proliferation suggesting the significance of C1qRs in tumor growth and progression. Interestingly, the two C1q receptors: cC1qR/CR and gC1qR play a differential role in carcinogenesis. While gC1qR promotes tumor cell survival by enhancing angiogenesis and metastasis and also by contributing to the hypercoagulable and prothrombotic microenvironment, cC1qR/CR expression represents a pro-phagocytic “eat-me” signal through which cC1qR/CR expressing tumor cells are tagged for destruction by macrophages. The data accumulated to date therefore identify gC1qR and cC1qR/CR as potential targets for the design of either protein-based, antibody-based or chemical based therapeutic intervention that could be used to enhance conventional anti-cancer therapy. The inhibition of tumor cell proliferation by monoclonal antibody recognizing the C1q site on gC1qR, as well as the identification of agents such as anthracyclin that enhance cC1qR/CR expression on tumor cells, are indeed steps in the right direction.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The recognition subunit of C1, C1q, has emerged as an important player in various pathophysiologic conditions largely in part due to its ability to interact with pathogen-associated or cell surface expressed ligands and receptors. Identification and purification of these molecules is therefore of paramount importance if we are to procure valuable information with regards to the structure, function, and cell surface distribution. Since the interaction of C1q is better served when the receptors are purified from homologous species, we discuss here a simple guideline for the purification and characterization of the two C1q receptors, cC1qR (calreticulin) and gC1qR, from human cell lines.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bradykinin (BK) is one of the most potent vasodilator agonists known and belongs to the kinin family of proinflammatory peptides. BK induces its activity via two G protein-coupled receptors: BK receptor 1 (B1R) and BK receptor 2. Although BK receptor 2 is constitutively expressed on endothelial cells (ECs), B1R is induced by IL-1β. The C1q receptor, receptor for the globular heads of C1q (gC1qR), which plays a role in BK generation, is expressed on activated ECs and is also secreted as soluble gC1qR (sgC1qR). Because sgC1qR can bind to ECs, we hypothesized that it may also serve as an autocrine/paracrine signal for the induction of B1R expression. In this study, we show that gC1qR binds to ECs via a highly conserved domain consisting of residues 174-180, as assessed by solid-phase binding assay and deconvolution fluorescence microscopy. Incubation of ECs (24 h, 37°C) with sgC1qR resulted in enhancement of B1R expression, whereas incubation with gC1qR lacking aa 174-180 and 154-162 had a diminished effect. Binding of sgC1qR to ECs was through surface-bound fibrinogen and was inhibited by anti-fibrinogen. In summary, our data suggest that, at sites of inflammation, sgC1qR can enhance vascular permeability by upregulation of B1R expression through de novo synthesis, as well as rapid translocation of preformed B1R.
The Journal of Immunology 12/2013; · 5.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The receptor for the globular heads of C1q, gC1qR/p33, is a widely expressed cellular -protein, which binds to diverse ligands including plasma proteins, cellular proteins, and microbial ligands. In addition to C1q, gC1qR also binds high molecular weight kininogen (HK), which also has two other cell surface sites, namely, cytokeratin 1 and urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR). On endothelial cells (ECs), the three molecules form two closely associated bimolecular complexes of gC1qR/cytokeratin 1 and uPAR/cytokeratin 1. However, by virtue of its high affinity for HK, gC1qR plays a central role in the assembly of the kallikrein-kinin system, leading to the generation of bradykinin (BK). BK in turn is largely responsible for the vascular leakage and associated inflammation seen in angioedema patients. Therefore, blockade of gC1qR by inhibitory peptides or antibodies may not only prevent the generation of BK but also reduce C1q-induced or microbial-ligand-induced inflammatory responses. Employing synthetic peptides and gC1qR deletion mutants, we confirmed previously predicted sites for C1q (residues 75-96) and HK (residues 204-218) and identified additional sites for both C1q and HK (residues190-202), for C1q (residues 144-162), and for HIV-1 gp41 (residues 174-180). With the exception of residues 75-96, which is located in the αA coiled-coil N-terminal segment, most of the identified residues form part of the highly charged loops connecting the various β-strands in the crystal structure. Taken together, the data support the notion that gC1qR could serve as a novel molecular target for the design of antibody-based and/or peptide-based therapy to attenuate acute and/or chronic inflammation associated with vascular leakage and infection.
Advances in experimental medicine and biology 01/2013; 734:97-110. · 1.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: C1q modulates the differentiation and function of cells committed to the monocyte-derived dendritic cell (DC) lineage. Because the 2 C1q receptors found on the DC surface-gC1qR and cC1qR-lack a direct conduit into intracellular elements, we postulated that the receptors must form complexes with transmembrane partners. In the present study, we show that DC-SIGN, a C-type lectin expressed on DCs, binds directly to C1q, as assessed by ELISA, flow cytometry, and immunoprecipitation experiments. Surface plasmon resonance analysis revealed that the interaction was specific, and both intact C1q and the globular portion of C1q bound to DC-SIGN. Whereas IgG reduced this binding significantly, the Arg residues (162-163) of the C1q-A chain, which are thought to contribute to the C1q-IgG interaction, were not required for C1q binding to DC-SIGN. Binding was reduced significantly in the absence of Ca(2+) and by preincubation of DC-SIGN with mannan, suggesting that C1q binds to DC-SIGN at its principal Ca(2+)-binding pocket, which has increased affinity for mannose residues. Antigen-capture ELISA and immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that C1q and gC1qR associate with DC-SIGN on blood DC precursors and immature DCs. The results of the present study suggest that C1q/gC1qR may regulate DC differentiation and function through the DC-SIGN-mediated induction of cell-signaling pathways.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) is widely used as a screening coagulation test and for monitoring unfractionated heparin therapy. Various commercial reagents are available, with different performance characteristics, particularly responsiveness to the lupus anticoagulant (LA). Because aPTT reagent selection significantly affects the interpretation of results, we reviewed College of American Pathologists proficiency testing data involving approximately 4,000 coagulation laboratories, and conducted a survey of coagulation laboratories (n = 93) using The Fritsma Factor hemostasis Web site to determine the basis for aPTT reagent selection. The data demonstrate that for routine aPTT testing, most laboratories use reagents with high/moderate responsiveness to LA. Significant misunderstanding was apparent regarding the use of appropriate aPTT reagent for routine testing and LA identification. We recommend aPTT reagents with low LA responsiveness to screen for coagulation factor deficiencies and heparin monitoring, and suggest continued education of laboratory professionals and reagent manufacturers about appropriate aPTT reagent use.
American Journal of Clinical Pathology 06/2012; 137(6):904-8. · 2.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The gC1qR (i.e., gC1q receptor, gC1q binding protein, p32, p33) is a multifunctional cellular protein that interacts with components of the complement, kinin, and coagulation cascades and select microbial pathogens. Enhanced gC1qR expression has been reported in adenocarcinomas arising in a variety of organs. The present study compared gC1qR expression in normal, inflammatory, dysplastic, and malignant tissue of epithelial and mesenchymal origin. gC1qR expression was visualized in tissue sections by immunohistochemistry using the 60.11 monoclonal antibody (i.e., IgG(1) mouse monoclonal antibody directed against gC1qR) and the UltraVision LP Detection System. Sections were counterstained with hematoxylin and examined by light microscopy. Strongest gC1qR expression was noted in epithelial tumors of breast, prostate, liver, lung, and colon, as well as in squamous and basal cell carcinoma of the skin. However, increased gC1qR staining was appreciated also in inflammatory and proliferative lesions of the same cell types, as well as in normal continuously dividing cells. In contrast, tumors of mesenchymal origin generally stained weakly, with the exception of osteoblasts, which stained in both benign and malignant tissues. The data suggest that increased gC1qR expression may be a marker of benign and pathologic cell proliferation, particularly in cells of epithelial origin, with potential diagnostic and therapeutic applications.
Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry 06/2012; 60(6):467-74. · 2.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Research conducted over the past 20 years have helped us unravel not only the hidden structural and functional subtleties of human C1q, but also has catapulted the molecule from a mere recognition unit of the classical pathway to a well-recognized molecular sensor of damage-modified self or non-self antigens. Thus, C1q is involved in a rapidly expanding list of pathological disorders - including autoimmunity, trophoblast migration, preeclampsia, and cancer. The results of two recent reports are provided to underscore the critical role C1q plays in health and disease. First is the observation by Singh et al. (2011) showing that pregnant C1q-/- mice recapitulate the key features of human preeclampsia that correlate with increased fetal death. Treatment of the C1q-/- mice with pravastatin restored trophoblast invasiveness, placental blood flow, and angiogenic balance and, thus, prevented the onset of preeclampsia. Second is the report by Hong et al. (2009) which showed that C1q can induce apoptosis of prostate cancer cells by activating the tumor suppressor molecule WW-domain containing oxydoreductase (WWOX or WOX1) and destabilizing cell adhesion. Downregulation of C1q on the other hand, enhanced prostate hyperplasia and cancer formation due to failure of WOX1 activation. C1q belongs to a family of structurally and functionally related TNF-α-like family of proteins that may have arisen from a common ancestral gene. Therefore C1q not only shares the diverse functions with the tumor necrosis factor family of proteins, but also explains why C1q has retained some of its ancestral "cytokine-like" activities. This review is intended to highlight some of the structural and functional aspects of C1q by underscoring the growing list of its non-traditional functions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The synthesis of the subunits of the C1 complex (C1q, C1s, C1r), and its regulator C1 inhibitor (C1-Inh) by human monocytes has been previously established. However, surface expression of these molecules by monocytes has not been shown. Using flow cytometry and antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we show here for the first time that, in addition to C1q, peripheral blood monocytes, and the monocyte-derived U937 cells express C1s and C1r, as well as Factor B and C1-Inh on their surface. C1s and C1r immunoprecipitated with C1q, suggesting that at least some of the C1q on these cells is part of the C1 complex. Furthermore, the C1 complex on U937 cells was able to trigger complement activation via the classical pathway. The presence of C1-Inh may ensure that an unwarranted autoactivation of the C1 complex does not take place. Since C1-Inh closely monitors the activation of the C1 complex in a sterile or infectious inflammatory environment, further elucidation of the role of C1 complex is crucial to dissect its function in monocyte, dendritic cell, and T cell activities, and its implications in host defense and tolerance.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The endothelial cell receptor complex for kininogen (HK) comprises gC1qR, cytokeratin 1, and urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor and is essential for activation of the kinin system that leads to bradykinin (BK) generation. Of these, gC1qR/p33 constitutes a high affinity site for HK - the BK precursor - and is therefore critical for the assembly of the kinin-generating cascade. Previous studies have identified a putative HK site within the C-terminal domain (residues 204-218) of gC1qR recognized by mAb 74.5.2. In these studies, we used information from the crystal structure of gC1qR, to engineer several deletion (Δ) mutants and test their ability to bind and/or support BK generation. While deletion of residues 204-218 (gC1qRΔ204-218), showed significantly reduced binding to HK, BK generation was not affected when tested by a sensitive bradykinin immunoassay. In fact, all of the gC1qR deletion mutants supported BK generation with the exception of gC1qRΔ154-162 and a point mutation in which Trp 233 was substituted with Gly. Binding studies also identified the existence of two additional sites at residues 144-162 and 190-202. Moreover, binding of HK to a synthetic peptide 190-202 was inhibited by mAbs 48 and 83, but not by mAb 74.5.2. Since a single residue separates domains 190-202 and 204-218, they may be part of a highly stable HK binding pocket and therefore a potential target for drug design to prevent vascular permeability and inflammation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The endothelium is a continuous physical barrier that regulates coagulation and selective passage of soluble molecules and circulating cells through the vessel wall into the tissue. Due to its anatomic localization, the endothelium may establish contact with components of the complement, the kinin and the coagulation systems which are the main, though not exclusive, inducers of vascular leakage. Although the complement and the kinin systems may act independently, increasing evidence suggest that there is a crosstalk that involve different components of both systems. Activation is required for the function of the two systems which are involved in pathological conditions such as hereditary and acquired angioedema (AE) and vasculitidis. The aim of this review is to discuss the contribution of complement and kinin systems to vascular leakage and the cross-talk between the two systems in the development of AE. This clinical condition is characterized by episodic and recurrent local edema of subcutaneous and submucosal tissues and is due to inherited or acquired C1-INH deficiency. Although the pathogenesis of the swelling in patients with AE was originally thought to be mediated by C2, ample evidence indicate bradykinin (BK) as the most effective mediator even though the possibility that both the complement and the kinin-forming systems may contribute to the edema has not been completely excluded. BK induces endothelial leakage interacting with B2 receptors but other molecules may be involved in the onset and maintenance of AE. In this review we shall discuss the role of B1 receptors and gC1qR/p33 in addition to that of B2 receptors in the onset of AE attacks and the importance of these receptors as new possible molecular targets for therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endovascular infections with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) are associated with high mortality. gC1qR/p33 (gC1qR), a receptor for the complement component C1q expressed on endothelial cells, interacts with protein A of S. aureus and gC1qR blockade reduces S. aureus colonization during infective endocarditis. The aim of this study was to analyze in vivo whether this observation is due to a decreased interaction of S. aureus with the microvascular endothelium. A dorsal skinfold chamber was prepared in Syrian golden hamsters, which were treated with the monoclonal antibody (MAb) 74.5.2 directed against gC1qR or vehicle. The interaction of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled staphylococci and leukocytes with the endothelium was analyzed under physiological conditions as well as after TNF-α-induced inflammation using intravital fluorescence microscopy. Administration of MAb 74.5.2 significantly reduced adherence of S. aureus to the endothelium in untreated and TNF-α-exposed tissue. In addition, we could demonstrate in vitro that S. aureus adherence to human endothelial cells was inhibited by MAb 74.5.2. Blockade of gC1qR did not affect leukocyte-endothelial cell interaction. In conclusion, our findings indicate that immunological inhibition of gC1qR may be therapeutically used to decrease the interaction of S. aureus with the microvascular endothelium.
Microvascular Research 07/2011; 82(1):66-72. · 2.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated the accuracy and precision of von Willebrand disease (vWD) testing performed by up to 50 North American Specialty Coagulation Laboratories from 2004 through 2009, using proficiency samples from healthy subjects (n = 7) and patients with type 1 vWD (n = 7) or type 2 vWD (n = 3). We analyzed 2,212 submitted results. Precision was highest for von Willebrand factor (vWF) antigen assays (coefficient of variation, 14%), which were performed predominantly by latex immunoassays, and lowest for ristocetin cofactor assays (coefficient of variation, 28%), which were increasingly replaced by collagen binding and immunofunctional methods during the 6-year evaluation period. Overall interpretation error rates ranged from 3% for normal samples, 28% for type 1 vWD, and 60% for type 2 vWD. Type 2 vWD samples were correctly identified by all laboratories using collagen binding/antigen ratios but by only one third of laboratories using ristocetin cofactor/antigen or immunofunctional/antigen ratios. In 2009, only 27% (12/45) of laboratories performed vWF multimer analysis, with error rates ranging from 7% to 22%.
American Journal of Clinical Pathology 06/2011; 135(6):862-9. · 2.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lupus anticoagulant (LAC) testing is important for evaluating patients with antiphospholipid syndromes and hypercoagulable states. We reviewed results of proficiency testing challenges (n = 5) distributed by the North American Specialized Coagulation Laboratory Association to examine LAC testing performed by participating laboratories. The activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and dilute Russell viper venom time (dRVVT) constituted major testing methods. In screening studies, LAC-sensitive APTT methods were more sensitive to weak LAC than dRVVT-based methods but less specific. In confirmatory testing, dRVVT methods performed better, but performance was LAC-dependent. The highest false-negative confirmatory test results were obtained for the platelet neutralization procedure. Noncompliance with recommendations for LAC testing by the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis was high (8%-38%), with the majority of noncompliant laboratories failing to report results of mixing studies. These data provide new insights into LAC testing in North America and identify opportunities for standardization.
American Journal of Clinical Pathology 11/2010; 134(5):764-73. · 2.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: APTT testing is integral to hemostasis testing. A prolonged result, however, can be difficult to interpret, depending on the APTT reagent's sensitivity to the lupus anticoagulant. This often generates additional laboratory testing for both factor deficiencies and the presence of a lupus anticoagulant, and in so doing, delays patient management. We have found it useful to provide APTT testing with both a lupus anticoagulant sensitive and insensitive reagent, to facilitate the rapid exclusion of significant factor deficiencies. The following case report illustrates the utility of this approach and provides a backdrop for necessary discussions between laboratories and clinicians regarding which APTT reagent best meets their clinical need for screening hemostasis testing.
American Journal of Hematology 09/2010; 85(9):726. · 4.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Platelets participate in a variety of responses of the blood to injury. An emerging body of evidence suggests that these cells express an intrinsic capacity to interact with and trigger both classical and alternative pathways of complement. This activity requires cell activation with biochemical agonists and/or shear stress, and is associated with the expression of P-selectin, gC1qR, and chondroitin sulfate. Platelet mediated complement activation measurably increases soluble inflammatory mediators (C3a and C5a). Platelets may also serve as targets of classical complement activation in autoimmune conditions such as antiphospholipid syndromes (APS) and immune thrombocytopenia purpura (ITP). Retrospective correlation with clinical data suggests that enhanced platelet associated complement activation correlates with increased arterial thrombotic events in patients with lupus erythematosus and APS, and evidence of enhanced platelet clearance from the circulation in patients with ITP. Taken together, these data support a role for platelet mediated complement activation in vascular inflammation and thrombosis.