[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The gC1qR (i.e., gC1q receptor, gC1q binding protein, p32, p33) is a multifunctional cellular protein that interacts with components of the complement, kinin, and coagulation cascades and select microbial pathogens. Enhanced gC1qR expression has been reported in adenocarcinomas arising in a variety of organs. The present study compared gC1qR expression in normal, inflammatory, dysplastic, and malignant tissue of epithelial and mesenchymal origin. gC1qR expression was visualized in tissue sections by immunohistochemistry using the 60.11 monoclonal antibody (i.e., IgG(1) mouse monoclonal antibody directed against gC1qR) and the UltraVision LP Detection System. Sections were counterstained with hematoxylin and examined by light microscopy. Strongest gC1qR expression was noted in epithelial tumors of breast, prostate, liver, lung, and colon, as well as in squamous and basal cell carcinoma of the skin. However, increased gC1qR staining was appreciated also in inflammatory and proliferative lesions of the same cell types, as well as in normal continuously dividing cells. In contrast, tumors of mesenchymal origin generally stained weakly, with the exception of osteoblasts, which stained in both benign and malignant tissues. The data suggest that increased gC1qR expression may be a marker of benign and pathologic cell proliferation, particularly in cells of epithelial origin, with potential diagnostic and therapeutic applications.
Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry 06/2012; 60(6):467-74. · 2.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) is widely used as a screening coagulation test and for monitoring unfractionated heparin therapy. Various commercial reagents are available, with different performance characteristics, particularly responsiveness to the lupus anticoagulant (LA). Because aPTT reagent selection significantly affects the interpretation of results, we reviewed College of American Pathologists proficiency testing data involving approximately 4,000 coagulation laboratories, and conducted a survey of coagulation laboratories (n = 93) using The Fritsma Factor hemostasis Web site to determine the basis for aPTT reagent selection. The data demonstrate that for routine aPTT testing, most laboratories use reagents with high/moderate responsiveness to LA. Significant misunderstanding was apparent regarding the use of appropriate aPTT reagent for routine testing and LA identification. We recommend aPTT reagents with low LA responsiveness to screen for coagulation factor deficiencies and heparin monitoring, and suggest continued education of laboratory professionals and reagent manufacturers about appropriate aPTT reagent use.
American Journal of Clinical Pathology 06/2012; 137(6):904-8. · 2.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The endothelium is a continuous physical barrier that regulates coagulation and selective passage of soluble molecules and circulating cells through the vessel wall into the tissue. Due to its anatomic localization, the endothelium may establish contact with components of the complement, the kinin and the coagulation systems which are the main, though not exclusive, inducers of vascular leakage. Although the complement and the kinin systems may act independently, increasing evidence suggest that there is a crosstalk that involve different components of both systems. Activation is required for the function of the two systems which are involved in pathological conditions such as hereditary and acquired angioedema (AE) and vasculitidis. The aim of this review is to discuss the contribution of complement and kinin systems to vascular leakage and the cross-talk between the two systems in the development of AE. This clinical condition is characterized by episodic and recurrent local edema of subcutaneous and submucosal tissues and is due to inherited or acquired C1-INH deficiency. Although the pathogenesis of the swelling in patients with AE was originally thought to be mediated by C2, ample evidence indicate bradykinin (BK) as the most effective mediator even though the possibility that both the complement and the kinin-forming systems may contribute to the edema has not been completely excluded. BK induces endothelial leakage interacting with B2 receptors but other molecules may be involved in the onset and maintenance of AE. In this review we shall discuss the role of B1 receptors and gC1qR/p33 in addition to that of B2 receptors in the onset of AE attacks and the importance of these receptors as new possible molecular targets for therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) elicits rapid pathological changes in the structure and function of parenchymal vessels (≤ 100 μm). The role of neutrophils in these changes has not been determined. This study investigates the role of neutrophils in early microvascular changes after SAH METHOD: Rats were either untreated, treated with vinblastine or anti-polymorphonuclear (PMN) serum, which depletes neutrophils, or treated with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), which limits neutrophil activity. SAH was induced by endovascular perforation. Neutrophil infiltration and the integrity of vascular endothelium and basement membrane were assessed immunohistochemically. Vascular collagenase activity was assessed by in situ zymography.
Vinblastine and anti-PMN serum reduced post-SAH accumulation of neutrophils in cerebral vessels and in brain parenchyma. PDTC increased the neutrophil accumulation in cerebral vessels and decreased accumulation in brain parenchyma. In addition, each of the three agents decreased vascular collagenase activity and post-SAH loss of vascular endothelial and basement membrane immunostaining.
Our results implicate neutrophils in early microvascular injury after SAH and indicate that treatments which reduce neutrophil activity can be beneficial in limiting microvascular injury and increasing survival after SAH.
Journal of Neuroinflammation 08/2011; 8:103. · 4.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endovascular infections with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) are associated with high mortality. gC1qR/p33 (gC1qR), a receptor for the complement component C1q expressed on endothelial cells, interacts with protein A of S. aureus and gC1qR blockade reduces S. aureus colonization during infective endocarditis. The aim of this study was to analyze in vivo whether this observation is due to a decreased interaction of S. aureus with the microvascular endothelium. A dorsal skinfold chamber was prepared in Syrian golden hamsters, which were treated with the monoclonal antibody (MAb) 74.5.2 directed against gC1qR or vehicle. The interaction of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled staphylococci and leukocytes with the endothelium was analyzed under physiological conditions as well as after TNF-α-induced inflammation using intravital fluorescence microscopy. Administration of MAb 74.5.2 significantly reduced adherence of S. aureus to the endothelium in untreated and TNF-α-exposed tissue. In addition, we could demonstrate in vitro that S. aureus adherence to human endothelial cells was inhibited by MAb 74.5.2. Blockade of gC1qR did not affect leukocyte-endothelial cell interaction. In conclusion, our findings indicate that immunological inhibition of gC1qR may be therapeutically used to decrease the interaction of S. aureus with the microvascular endothelium.
Microvascular Research 07/2011; 82(1):66-72. · 2.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Platelets participate in a variety of responses of the blood to injury. An emerging body of evidence suggests that these cells express an intrinsic capacity to interact with and trigger both classical and alternative pathways of complement. This activity requires cell activation with biochemical agonists and/or shear stress, and is associated with the expression of P-selectin, gC1qR, and chondroitin sulfate. Platelet mediated complement activation measurably increases soluble inflammatory mediators (C3a and C5a). Platelets may also serve as targets of classical complement activation in autoimmune conditions such as antiphospholipid syndromes (APS) and immune thrombocytopenia purpura (ITP). Retrospective correlation with clinical data suggests that enhanced platelet associated complement activation correlates with increased arterial thrombotic events in patients with lupus erythematosus and APS, and evidence of enhanced platelet clearance from the circulation in patients with ITP. Taken together, these data support a role for platelet mediated complement activation in vascular inflammation and thrombosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Activation of bradykinin-mediated B2 receptor has been shown to play an important role in the onset of angioedema associated with C1 inhibitor deficiency. This finding has led to the development of novel therapeutic drugs such as the B2 receptor antagonist icatibant. However, it is unclear whether other receptors expressed on endothelial cells contribute to the release of kinins and vascular leakage in these patients. The recognition of their role may have obvious therapeutic implications.
Our aim was to investigate the involvement of B1 and gC1q receptors in in vitro and in vivo models of vascular leakage induced by plasma samples obtained from patients with C1 inhibitor deficiency.
The vascular leakage was evaluated in vitro on endothelial cells by a transwell model system and in vivo on rat mesentery microvessels by intravital microscopy.
We observed that the attack phase plasma from C1 inhibitor-deficient patients caused a delayed fluorescein-labeled albumin leakage as opposed to the rapid effect of bradykinin, whereas remission plasma elicited a modest effect compared with control plasma. The plasma permeabilizing effect was prevented by blocking the gC1q receptor-high-molecular-weight kininogen interaction, was partially inhibited by B2 receptor or B1 receptor antagonists, and was totally prevented by the mixture of the 2 antagonists. Involvement of B1 receptor was supported by the finding that albumin leakage caused by attack phase plasma was enhanced by IL-1beta and was markedly reduced by brefeldin A.
Our data suggest that both B1 receptor and gC1q receptor are involved in the vascular leakage induced by hereditary and acquired angioedema plasma.
The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 09/2009; 124(6):1303-10.e4. · 12.05 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to develop proteomic profiles that would distinguish between resting and activated platelets in a clinical setting using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization (SELDI) time of flight (TOF) technology. A data set of 50 donors was analyzed. Distinct spectral patterns emerged in the low-molecular-weight range (2-10 kDa) for resting platelets and platelets aggregated with adenosine diphosphate (ADP) or thrombin receptor activation peptide SFLLRN (TRAP) and in platelets exposed to shear stress. Platelets from patients treated with ADP receptor antagonists did not show the expected change in proteomic profile following aggregation with ADP. These data provide the first demonstration that proteomic signatures of platelets can be developed using SELDI-TOF in a clinical laboratory setting.
American Journal of Clinical Pathology 07/2008; 129(6):862-9. · 2.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the prevalence and clinical correlates of anti-heparin platelet factor 4 antibodies (anti-HPF4) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients with and without antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL).
Sera and clinical data were obtained from the Hospital for Special Surgery Autoimmune Disease Registry for 78 aPL-positive and 91 aPL-negative SLE patients without heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). Controls were 90 blood donors of comparable age and sex. Sera were assayed for anti-HPF4, IgG/IgM antiphospholipid antibodies (APhL), and IgG/IgM anti-beta2-glycoprotein 1 antibodies (anti-beta 2GP1). Serotonin release assays (SRAs) were performed for subjects with positive anti-HPF4.
Positive anti-HPF4 was seen in 9% of aPL-positive SLE patients, 4% of aPL-negative SLE patients and 1% of controls (p = 0.026, aPL-positive SLE vs controls). Two of 12 subjects with positive anti-HPF4 had reactive SRAs. In SLE patients, anti-HPF4 significantly correlated with IgM APhL, IgM anti-beta2GP1, and inversely with complement C4. In immunoabsorption experiments, there was partial cross-reactivity of IgM anti-HPF4 with IgM APhL, but not with IgM anti-beta 2GP1. SLE patients with positive anti-HPF4 had increased odds of the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS; odds ratio (OR) 4.5, p = 0.019), and APS with arterial thrombosis (OR 6.1, p = 0.007). In multivariate linear regression analyses, APS and IgM APhL were independently associated with anti-HPF4.
Anti-HPF4 is detectable in SLE patients with and without aPL in the absence of HIT, and is most prevalent in aPL-positive SLE patients. In this SLE cohort, anti-HPF4 correlates with IgM APhL, IgM anti-beta 2GP1 and inversely with C4, and is associated with manifestations of APS.
Annals of the rheumatic diseases 04/2008; 67(3):395-401. · 8.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We studied cone and plate(let) analysis (CPA) for evaluating global platelet function in whole blood under arterial flow conditions (approximately 1,800 seconds(-1)). CPA allows direct visualization and quantitation of platelet adhesion (surface coverage [SC]) and determination of average aggregate size (AS) following brief shearing of a small blood sample (3.2% sodium citrate) in plastic wells. By using blood from healthy volunteers manipulated to alter platelet or RBC counts and blood from patients with myeloproliferative disorders (MPDs), quantitative and qualitative changes in SC and AS were observed. Thrombocytosis resulted in increased SC, whereas erythrocytosis increased AS. The RBC volume (mean corpuscular volume) had no effect. It is interesting that differences in CPA AS were discerned among subgroups of patients with MPD undergoing different treatment regimens. These studies suggest that CPA platelet deposition patterns may provide novel insight into global platelet function during hemodynamic flow.
American Journal of Clinical Pathology 04/2007; 127(3):422-8. · 2.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endothelial cells regulate vascular integrity and express complement binding proteins including gC1qR/p33 (gC1qR), which recognize C1q, a subunit of the first component of the classical complement pathway. Experiments were performed to investigate classical complement pathway activation on resting endothelial cells and endothelial cells exposed to shear stress. C1q deposition and C4 activation (C4d) were demonstrated by solid phase ELISA and flow cytometry on human microvascular and umbilical vein endothelial cells after exposure to serum or plasma. C4d deposition was accompanied by downstream complement activation including C3b and C5b-9 deposition. C4 activation failed to occur in C1q depleted serum, but was not affected by Factor B depleted serum, confirming classical complement pathway activation. Moreover, C4 activation occurred following exposure of endothelial cells to purified C1 and C4, in the absence of other plasma proteins, and in the absence of detectable cell surface IgG and IgM. Shear stress (18 dynes/cm2) increased C1q (n=9, p<0.05) and C4d (n=9, p<0.05) deposition approximately two-fold, and enhanced endothelial cell gC1qR expression (n=7, p<0.05). Treatment of endothelial cells with anti gC1qR monoclonal antibody F(ab')2 fragments reduced C4d deposition by approximately 20% (n=5, p<0.05). These data demonstrate direct classical complement pathway activation on endothelial cells. gC1qR appears to play a minor but definable role, whereas cell surface IgG or IgM are not required.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The association between C1q and autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is well established. Deficiency in C1q is considered to be a strong susceptibility factor and is corroborated by the fact that > or = 92% of the known cases of hereditary deficiency in C1q develop rheumatic disease. Furthermore, the observation of the presence of high-affinity autoantibodies against C1q antibodies in patients with SLE provides a strong correlation between these antibodies and the inflammatory processes that occur in this disease. Recent evidence using C1q-deficient mice has shown the presence of glomerulonephritis with immune deposits and a large number of apoptotic bodies in the diseased glomeruli suggesting a defect in the clearance of apoptotic cell by macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs). Although these data are consistent with the hypothesis that C1q deficiency may induce a generalized failure to clear immune complexes and apoptotic cells, this concept alone cannot wholly explain why individuals with C1q deficiency are prone to develop SLE. Therefore, C1q alone or in conjunction with other surface molecules must play a much more fundamental role in immunoregulation, especially those processes that regulate T cell function and tolerance. In support of this hypothesis is the finding that C1q causes inhibition of mitrogen-induced T cell-proliferative response by interaction with C1q receptors. Furthermore, macrophages and possibly DCs not only synthesize but also display C1q as a type II cell surface molecule, especially at sites of inflammation. Although it is not yet known what role the surface-expressed C1q plays, it is tempting to assume that it plays a role in the priming of naïve T cells by DCs. This work will review the current concepts of the role of C1q and C1q receptors in autoimmunity.
Current directions in autoimmunity 02/2004; 7:87-97.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plasmin has been reported to activate and inhibit platelet function depending on dose and exposure temperature. The present study examines the induction of fibrinogen-dependent platelet aggregation following prolonged (60 min) platelet exposure to very low doses of plasmin (0.05 CU/ml) at either 22 or 37 degrees C. Maximum aggregation [mean +/- SD, 60 +/- 19 light transmission units (LTU); n = 43] occurred following platelet exposure to plasmin at 22 degrees C, but significant platelet aggregation (28 +/- 4 LTU, n = 3) also occurred following plasmin treatment at 37 degrees C. Plasmin-induced platelet aggregates appeared microscopically larger than aggregates of adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-activated platelets, and were less reversible. Aggregated plasmin-treated platelets also expressed more procoagulant activity than platelets aggregated with ADP, as reflected by shortening of the plasma kaolin recalcification time. Aggregation of platelets exposed to very low doses of plasmin was not accompanied by dense or alpha-granule secretion, and was unaffected by ADP antagonists or aspirin. Partial inhibition of platelet aggregation, however, was achieved with metabolic inhibitors, PGE1, and inhibitors of phosphoinositide 3-kinase or protein kinase C. Although fibrinogen was required for plasmin-treated platelet aggregation, [125I]-fibrinogen binding comprised only 58 +/- 3% (n = 3) of fibrinogen binding associated with ADP aggregated platelets. This was consistent with observed decreases in reptilase-induced fibrin clot retraction. Taken together, these data suggest that sustained exposure of platelets to very low plasmin doses leads to platelet activation and thus may contribute to thrombotic complications in vivo.
Blood Coagulation and Fibrinolysis 10/2001; 12(6):415-25. · 1.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: C1q and the outer envelope protein of HIV, gp120, have several structural and functional similarities. Therefore, it is plausible to assume that proteins that are able to interact with C1q may also interact with isolated gp120 as well as the whole HIV-1 virus. Based on this hypothesis, we studied the potential ability of the recombinant form of the 33-kDa protein, which binds to the globular "heads" of C1q (gC1q-R/p33), to inhibit the growth of different HIV-1 strains in cell cultures. gC1q-R/p33 was found to effectively and dose-dependently inhibit the production of one T-lymphotropic (X4) and one macrophage-tropic (R5) strain in human T cell lines (MT-4 and H9) and human monocyte-derived macrophage cultures, respectively. At a concentration range of 5-25 microg/ml, gC1q-R caused a marked and prolonged suppression of virus production. The extent of inhibition was enhanced when gC1q-R was first incubated with and then removed from the target cell cultures before virus infection, compared to that when the cells were infected with gC1q-R-HIV mixtures. The extent of inhibition was comparable to that of the Leu3a anti-CD4 antibody. Addition of gC1q-R to the cell cultures on day 1 or 2 after infection induced markedly less inhibition of HIV-1 growth than pretreatment of the cells just before or together with the infective HIV strains. In ELISA experiments, gC1q-R did not bind to a solid-phase recombinant gp120 while strong and dose-dependent binding of gC1q-R to solid-phase CD4 was observed. Our present findings indicate that gC1q-R is an effective inhibitor of HIV-1 infection, which prevents viral entry by blocking the interaction between CD4 and gp120. Since gC1q-R is a human protein, it is most probably not antigenic in humans. It would seem logical, therefore, to consider gC1q-R or its fragments involved in the CD4 binding as potential therapeutic agents.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: gC1qR is an ubiquitously expressed cell protein that interacts with the globular heads of C1q (gC1q) and many other ligands. In this study, the 7.8-kilobase pair (kb) human gC1qR/p32 (C1qBP) gene was cloned and found to consist of 6 exons and 5 introns. Analysis of a 1.3-kb DNA fragment at the 5'-flanking region of this gene revealed the presence of multiple TATA, CCAAT, and Sp1 binding sites. Luciferase reporter assays performed in different human cell lines demonstrated that the reporter gene was ubiquitously driven by this 1.3-kb fragment. Subsequent 5' and 3' deletion of this fragment confined promoter elements to within 400 base pairs (bp) upstream of the translational start site. Because the removal of the 8-bp consensus TATATATA at -399 to -406 and CCAAT at -410 to -414 did not significantly affect the transcription efficiency of the promoter, GC-rich sequences between this TATA box and the translation start site may be very important for the promoter activity of the C1qBP gene. One of seven GC-rich sequences in this region binds specifically to PANC-1 nuclear extracts, and the transcription factor Sp1 was shown to bind to this GC-rich sequence by the supershift assay. Primer extension analysis mapped three major transcription start regions. The farthest transcription start site is 49 bp upstream of the ATG translation initiation codon and is in close proximity of the specific SP1 binding site.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 06/2001; 276(20):17069-75. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Platelets are involved in the development of many types of vascular lesions. In addition to their role in primary hemostasis, they participate in inflammatory processes that may contribute to the development of thrombosis, atherosclerosis and vasculitis. In this regard, we have been interested in platelet interactions with the complement subcomponent C1q. C1q has been shown to modulate platelet interactions with collagen and immune complexes, and has been identified at sites of vascular injury and inflammation, as well as in atherosclerotic lesions. Platelets express a variety of C1q binding sites, including gC1qR/p33 (gC1qR), a multifunctional, multicompartment cellular protein. Here we focus on the structure and function of platelet gC1qR and its emerging role in modulating platelet function at sites of vascular injury and inflammation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human gC1q-R (p33, p32, C1qBP, TAP) is a ubiquitously expressed, multiligand-binding, multicompartmental cellular protein involved in various ligand-mediated cellular responses. Although expressed on the surface of cells, an intriguing feature of the membrane-associated form of gC1q-R is that its translated amino acid sequence does not predict the presence of either a sequence motif compatible with a transmembrane segment or a consensus site for a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor. Moreover, the N-terminal sequence of the pre-pro-protein gC1q-R contains a motif that targets the molecule to the mitochondria and as such was deemed unlikely to be expressed on the surface. However, several lines of experimental evidence clearly show that gC1q-R is present in all compartments of the cell, including the extracellular cell surface. First, surface labeling of B lymphocytes with the membrane-impermeable reagent sulfosuccinimidyl 6-(biotinamido)hexanoate shows specific biotin incorporation into the surface-expressed but not the intracellular form of gC1q-R. Second, FACS and confocal laser scanning microscopic analyses using anti-gC1q-R IgG mAb 60.11 or 74.5.2, and the fluorophore Alexa 488-conjugated F(ab')2 goat anti-mouse IgG as a probe, demonstrated specific staining of Raji cells (>95% viable). Three-dimensional analyses of the same cells by confocal microscopy showed staining distribution that was consistent with surface expression. Third, endothelial gC1q-R, which is associated with the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor, and cytokeratin 1 bind 125I-high molecular weight kininogen in a specific manner, and the binding is inhibited dose-dependently by mAb 74.5.2 recognizing gC1q-R residues 204-218. Fourth, native gC1q-R purified from Raji cell membranes but not intracellular gC1q-R is glycosylated, as evidenced by a positive periodic acid Schiff stain as well as sensitivity to digestion with endoglycosidase H and F. Finally, cross-linking experiments using C1q as a ligand indicate that both cC1q-R and gC1q-R are co-immunoprecipitated with anti-C1q. Taken together, the evidence accumulated to date supports the concept that in addition to its intracellular localization, gC1q-R is expressed on the cell surface and can serve as a binding site for plasma and microbial proteins, but also challenges the existing paradigm that mitochondrial proteins never leave their designated compartment. It is therefore proposed that gC1q-R belongs to a growing list of a class of proteins initially targeted to the mitochondria but then exported to different compartments of the cell through specific mechanisms which have yet to be identified. The designation 'multifunctional and multicompartmental cellular proteins' is proposed for this class of proteins.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The adhesion of Staphylococcus aureus to platelets is a major determinant of virulence in the pathogenesis of endocarditis. Molecular mechanisms mediating S. aureus interactions with platelets, however, are incompletely understood. The present study describes the interaction between S. aureus protein A and gC1qR/p33, a multifunctional, ubiquitously distributed cellular protein, initially described as a binding site for the globular heads of C1q. Suspensions of fixed S. aureus or purified protein A, chemically cross-linked to agarose support beads, were found to capture native gC1qR from whole platelets. Moreover, biotinylated protein A bound specifically to fixed, adherent, human platelets. This interaction was inhibited by unlabeled protein A, soluble recombinant gC1qR (rgC1qR), or anti-gC1qR antibody F(ab')(2) fragments. The interaction between protein A and platelet gC1qR was underscored by studies illustrating preferential recognition of the protein A-bearing S. aureus Cowan I strain by gC1qR compared to recognition of the protein A-deficient Wood 46 strain, as well as inhibition of S. aureus Cowan I strain adhesion to immobilized platelets by soluble protein A. Further characterization of the protein A-gC1qR interaction by solid-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay techniques measuring biotinylated gC1qR binding to immobilized protein A revealed specific binding that was inhibited by soluble protein A with a 50% inhibitory concentration of (3.3 +/- 0.7) x 10(-7) M (mean +/- standard deviation; n = 3). Rabbit immunoglobulin G (IgG) also prevented gC1qR-protein A interactions, and inactivation of protein A tyrosil residues by hyperiodination, previously reported to prevent the binding of IgG Fc, but not Fab, domains to protein A, abrogated gC1qR binding. These results suggest similar protein A structural requirements for gC1qR and IgG Fc binding. Further studies of structure and function using a truncated gC1qR mutant lacking amino acids 74 to 95 demonstrated that the protein A binding domain lies outside of the gC1qR amino-terminal alpha helix, which contains binding sites for the globular heads of C1q. In conclusion, the data implicate the platelet gC1qR as a novel cellular binding site for staphylococcal protein A and suggest an additional mechanism for bacterial cell adhesion to sites of vascular injury and thrombosis.
Infection and Immunity 05/2000; 68(4):2061-8. · 4.07 Impact Factor