Kazimierz Wrobel

Universidad de Guanajuato, Ciudad Guanajuato, Guanajuato, Mexico

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Publications (85)229.57 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Over the past few decades, reduction of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) has been studied in many physicochemical contexts. In this research, we reveal the mechanism underlying the favorable effect of Mn(II) observed during Cr(VI) reduction by oxalic acid using liquid chromatography with spectrophotometric diode array detector (HPLC-DAD), nitrogen microwave plasma atomic emission spectrometry (HPLC-MP-AES), and high resolution mass spectrometry (ESI-QTOFMS). Both reaction mixtures contained potassium dichromate (0.67mM Cr(VI)) and oxalic acid (13.3mM), pH 3, one reaction mixture contained manganese sulfate (0.33mM Mn(II)). In the absence of Mn(II) only trace amounts of reaction intermediates were generated, most likely in the following pathways: (1) Cr(VI)→Cr(IV) and (2) Cr(VI)+Cr(IV)→2Cr(V). In the presence of Mn(II), the active reducing species appeared to be Mn(II) bis-oxalato complex (J); the proposed reaction mechanism involves a one-electron transfer from J to any chromium compound containing CrO bond, which is reduced to CrOH, and the generation of Mn(III) bis-oxalato complex (K). Conversion of K to J was observed, confirming the catalytic role of Mn(II). Since no additional acidification was required, the results obtained in this study may be helpful in designing a new, environmentally friendly strategy for the remediation of environments contaminated with Cr(VI). Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Journal of hazardous materials 07/2015; 300:144-152. DOI:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2015.06.066 · 4.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Somatic embryogenesis is a powerful biotechnological tool for the mass production of economically important cultivars. Due to the cellular totipotency of plants, somatic cells under appropriate conditions are able to develop a complete functional embryo. During the induction of somatic embryogenesis, there are different factors involved in the success or failure of the somatic embryogenesis response. Among these factors, the origin of the explant, the culture medium and the in vitro environmental conditions have been the most studied. However, the secretion of molecules into the media has not been fully addressed. We found that the somatic embryogenesis of Coffea canephora , a highly direct embryogenic species, is disrupted by the metabolites secreted from C . arabica , a poorly direct embryogenic species. These metabolites also affect DNA methylation. Our results show that the abundance of two major phenolic compounds, caffeine and ch
    PLoS ONE 06/2015; 10(6-6):e0126414. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0126414 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Melatonin, a hormoneknown for its effects onfree radical scavenging and antioxidant activity, can reduce lead toxicity in vivo and in vitro.We examined the effects ofmelatonin on lead bio-distribution. Rats were intraperitoneally injected with lead acetate (10, 15 or 20mg/kg/day) with or without melatonin (10mg/kg/day) daily for 10 days. In rats intoxicated with the highest lead doses, those treated with melatoninhad lower leadlevelsin blood and higher levels in urine and feces than those treated with lead alone, suggesting that melatonin increaseslead excretion. To explore the mechanism underlying this effect, we firstassessed whether lead/melatonin complexes were formed directly. Electronic density functional (DFT) calculations showed that a lead/melatonin complex is energetically feasible; however, UV spectroscopy and NMRanalysis showed noevidence of such complexes. Next, we examined the liver mRNA levels of metallothioneins (MT) 1 and 2. Melatonin cotreatment increased the MT2 mRNA expression in theliver ofrats that received the highest doses of lead. The potential effectsof MTs on the tissue distribution and excretion of lead are not well understood. This is the first report to suggest that melatonindirectlyaffectslead levels in organisms exposed to subacute lead intoxication. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
    Toxicology Letters 01/2015; 233(2). DOI:10.1016/j.toxlet.2015.01.009 · 3.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Cr(VI) reducing capability of growing cells of the environmental A. tubingensis Ed8 strain is remarkably efficient compared to reference strains A. niger FGSC322 and A. tubingensis NRRL593. Extracellular glucose oxidase (GOX) activity levels were clearly higher in colonies developed in solid medium and in concentrated extracts of the spent medium of liquid cultures of the Ed8 strain in comparison with the reference strains. In addition, concentrated extracts of the spent medium of A. tubingensis Ed8, but not those of the reference strains, exhibited the ability to reduce Cr(VI). In line with this observation, it was found that A. niger purified GOX is capable of mediating the conversion of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) in a reaction dependent on the presence of glucose that is stimulated by organic acids. Furthermore, it was found that a decrease in Cr(VI) may occur in the absence of the GOX enzyme, as long as the reaction products gluconolactone and hydrogen peroxide are present; this conversion of Cr(VI) is stimulated by organic acids in a reaction that generates hydroxyl radicals, which may involve the formation of an intermediate peroxichromate(V) complex. These findings indicated that fungal glucose oxidase acts an indirect chromate reductase through the formation of Cr(VI) reducing molecules, which interact cooperatively with other fungal metabolites in the biotransformation of Cr(VI). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Chemosphere 01/2015; 134. DOI:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.12.009 · 3.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Three α-ketoaldehydes, potentially present in high fructose agave syrups (HFASs) as intermediates of the Maillard reaction, were determined. A previously reported HPLC-FLD procedure based on pre-column derivatisation with 4-methoxy-o-phenylenediamine was adopted, yielding the method quantification limits 0.11mg/kg, 0.10mg/kg, 0.09mg/kg for glyoxal, methylglyoxal (MGo) and diacetyl, respectively. The obtained results revealed high concentrations of methylglyoxal in HFASs (average 102±91mg/kg, range 15.6-315mg/kg) as compared to commercial Mexican bee honeys or corn syrups. Hydrogen peroxide was generated in all HFASs upon dilution, yet to less extent than in bee honeys. HFASs presented bacteriostatic activity against Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli; catalase addition had minimum effect on the assay results in syrups with elevated MGo. Principal component analysis revealed direct association between growth inhibition and MGo. It is concluded that elevated concentration of MGo in HFASs is at least in part responsible for their non-peroxide bacteriostatic activity.
    Food Chemistry 12/2014; 165C:444-450. DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.05.140 · 3.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A straightforward synthetic protocol to directly incorporate stabilized 1,3-dicarbonyl C nucleophiles to the meso position of BODIPY (4,4-difluoro-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene) is reported. Soft nucleophiles generated by deprotonation of 1,3-dicarbonyl derivatives smoothly displace the 8-methylthio group from 8-(methylthio)BODIPY analogues in the presence of CuI thiophenecarboxylate in stoichiometric amounts at room temperature. Seven highly fluorescent new derivatives are prepared with varying yields (20–92 %) in short reaction times (5–30 min). The excellent photophysical properties of the new dyes allow focusing on applications never analyzed before for BODIPYs substituted with stabilized C nucleophiles such as pH sensors and lasers in liquid and solid state, highlighting the relevance of the synthetic protocol described in the present work. The attainment of these dyes, with strong UV absorption and highly efficient and stable laser emission in the green spectral region, concerns to one of the greatest challenges in the ongoing development of advanced photonic materials with relevant applications. In fact, organic dyes with emission in the green are the only ones that allow, by frequency-doubling processes, the generation of tunable ultraviolet (250-350 nm) radiation, with ultra-short pulses.
    Chemistry - A European Journal 12/2014; 21(4). DOI:10.1002/chem.201405233 · 5.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Experimental evidence indicates that diabetic patients and individuals with impaired copper homeostasis could be at risk of molybdenum toxicity. A self-administered food frequency questionnaire revealed that in central Mexico, diabetic patients with severe complications tend to consume beans more often than individuals with less advanced disease. Four varieties of Phaseolus vulgaris were comparatively evaluated as the dietary sources of two elements; the results showed molybdenum concentration decreasing in the order peruvian > pinto > mayflower > black, whereas for copper, the order was peruvian > pinto ∼ black > mayflower. The two elements were determined in pre-soaking water, cooked legumes, and broth obtained in cooking procedure; an in vitro gut model was also applied to assess potentially bioavailable fraction of both elements in cooked beans. The results indicated that the black variety would be the healthiest bean choice for diabetic patients and individuals susceptible to Mo toxicity. Relatively low total molybdenum was found in this variety (2.9 ± 1.4 versus 4.3-10.9 μg g(-1) in other types), element availability was also low (15 % in supernatant from enzymolysis, 24.9 % in combined broth + supernatant fractions), and the molar ratio of Cu/Mo was the highest among four types (41, versus Cu/Mo <10 in peruvian, pinto, or mayflower). Considering peruvian and pinto beans, broth elimination would help to lower molybdenum intake with marginal effect on Cu/Mo molar ratio. This recommendation would be especially important for peruvian variety, which provided 1090, 803, and 197 μg day(-1) of molybdenum in raw grains, broth + supernatant, and supernatant, respectively (based on 100-g portion), exceeding the recommended daily allowance of 45 μg day(-1).
    Biological Trace Element Research 11/2014; 163(1-2). DOI:10.1007/s12011-014-0191-5 · 1.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The ability of human serum albumin to capture unbound copper under different clinical conditions is an important variable potentially affecting homeostasis of this element. Here, we propose a simple procedure based on size-exclusion chromatography with on-line UV and nitrogen microwave-plasma atomic-emission spectrometry (MP-AES) for quantitative evaluation of Cu(II) binding to HSA upon its glycation in vitro. The Cu-to-protein molar ratio for non-glycated albumin was 0.98 ± 0.09; for HSA modified with glyoxal (GO), methylglyoxal (MGO), oxoacetic acid (GA), and glucose (Glc), the ratios were 1.30 ± 0.22, 0.72 ± 0.14, 0.50 ± 0.06, and 0.95 ± 0.12, respectively. The results were confirmed by using ICP-MS as an alternative detection system. A reduced ability of glycated protein to coordinate Cu(II) was associated with alteration of the N-terminal metal-binding site during incubation with MGO and GA. In contrast, glycation with GO seemed to generate new binding sites as a result of tertiary structural changes in HSA. Capillary reversed-phase liquid chromatography with electrospray-ionization quadrupole-time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry enabled detection and identification of Cu(II) coordinated to the N-terminal metal-binding site (Cu(II)–DAHK) in all tryptic digests analyzed. This is the first report confirming Cu(II)–DAHK species in HSA by means of high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry, and the first report on the use of MP-AES in combination with chromatographic separation. Graphical Abstract General scheme designed to study Cu(II) binding to glycated versus non-glycated albumin and MPAESinstrumentation used
    Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 11/2014; 407(4). DOI:10.1007/s00216-014-8335-1 · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this work, the sorption of pentachlorophenol (PCP) by non-viable biomass of Rhizopus oryzae ENHE was evaluated. The kinetics and isotherm studies were performed at pH 5.0, 6.0, and 8.0. The point of zero charge of the biomass was determined; this value allowed us to explain the changes of pH during sorption studies. The analyzed experimental kinetic data revealed that Ho's model adjusted better to the experimental data than Lagergren's model. PCP sorption was fast; an equilibrium sorption time was reached within 30 min, regardless of pH. PCP sorption at pH 5.0 and 6.0 was better described by the Freundlich isotherm than by the Langmuir isotherm. In contrast, at pH 8.0, the Langmuir isotherm describes better the PCP sorption. Sorption data showed that at pH 5.0 and 6.0, the sorption capacity of PCP was higher than at pH 8.0. Sorption of PCP by the fungal biomass occurred spontaneously; it was endothermic and due to physical sorption. Finally, FT-IR analysis of the dried biomass indicated that amino and hydroxyl groups were involved in the sorption of PCP. This work is one of the few reporting the effect of pH and temperature on the sorption of PCP by microbial biomass from a filamentous fungus belonging to the genus Rhizopus.
    Water Air and Soil Pollution 05/2014; 225(5). DOI:10.1007/s11270-014-1947-4 · 1.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tequila is elaborated from Agave tequilana Weber blue variety and it is commercialized at different stages of aging. Chemical composition of this product has often been addressed; however, data on phenolic compounds are scarce. In this work, a high-performance liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization-ion trap mass spectrometry (HPLC–ESI-ITMS) procedure has been established for the determination of 34 small phenolic compounds. The combination of suitable separation conditions with extraction of chromatograms at individual m/z values has enabled for total analysis run of 17 min (11 min separation plus 6 min column cleaning/equilibration) with the detection limits in the range 1.28–75.0 μg l−1 (0.07–6.1 pmol on-column). Commercial tequilas analyzed included 6 white, 12 rested, and 4 aged. The following acids were found and quantified: gallic, procatechuic, 4-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, syringic, homovanillic, 3-hydroxybenzoic, ferulic, salicylic, and benzoic. The white tequilas contained fewer compounds and lower total phenolics concentrations (range 36–408 μg l−1) as compared to the rested and aged liquors (515–4,296 and 2,048–3,249 μg l−1, respectively). In the latter products, syringic, vanillic, procatechuic, and gallic acids were the most abundant, which indicates that maturation in wooden barrels is the main source of small phenolics in tequila. On the other part, homovanillic acid was found in all tequila types (medians for white, rested, and aged products 82, 153, and 162 μg l−1, respectively), suggesting that some phenolics may originate from the raw material or might be formed during liquor elaboration.
    Food Analytical Methods 04/2014; 8(4):1-9. DOI:10.1007/s12161-014-9967-7 · 1.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bioanalytical relevance of glyoxal (Go) and methylglyoxal (MGo) arises from their role as biomarkers of glycation processes and oxidative stress. The third compound of interest in this work is diacetyl (DMGo), a component of different food products and alcoholic beverages and one of the small α-ketoaldehydes previously reported in urine. The original idea for the determination of the above compounds by reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorimetric detection was to use 4-methoxy-o-phenylenediamine (4MPD) as a derivatizing reagent and diethylglyoxal (DEGo) as internal standard. Acetonitrile was added to urine for matrix precipitation, and derivatization reaction was carried out in the diluted supernatant at neutral pH (40 °C, 4 h); after acidification, salt-induced phase separation enabled recovery of the obtained quinoxalines in the acetonitrile layer. The separation was achieved within 12 min using a C18 Kinetex column and gradient elution. The calibration detection limits for Go, MGo, and DMGo were 0.46, 0.39, and 0.28 μg/L, respectively. Within-day precision for real-world samples did not exceed 6%. Several urine samples from healthy volunteers, diabetic subjects, and juvenile swimmers were analyzed. The sensitivity of the procedure proposed here enabled detection of differences between analyte concentrations in urine from patients at different clinical or exposure-related conditions.
    Analytical Biochemistry 03/2014; 449:52–58. DOI:10.1016/j.ab.2013.12.014 · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of cadmium [Cd(II) as cadmium chloride], selenium [Se(IV) as sodium selenite] and their mixtures on phenolic compounds (PCs) and antioxidant activity (AOx) in Lepidium sativum. The biomass fractions corresponding to free (F1), soluble glycoside-bound (F2) and cell wall ester-bound phenolics (F3) were obtained for each treatment and PCs were screened by gas chromatography (GC-FID); F1 and F2 fractions were also analyzed by liquid chromatography with UV and fluorimetric detection. The treated plants presented different profiles of PCs as compared to controls, specifically in F1 and F2 fractions; the plant response was element-, and concentration-dependent. The cultures challenged with Cd(II) up to 5 mg L−1, presented higher AOx with respect to controls, and this increase was associated with glycoside-bound PCs, whereas for Se(IV) the increase of AOx was less marked and associated with free PCs. Under simultaneous exposure to Cd(II) + Se(IV) (0.5–2.0 mg L−1 each), the AOx values were relatively constant and lower than those found in the presence of Se(IV) or Cd(II) alone, providing further evidence of the protective role of Se(IV) against stress imposed by Cd(II) in this plant species. The evaluation of AOx of individual PCs and the results of principal component analysis enabled to attain several relationships among exposure conditions, antioxidant activity, free- and glycoside-bound phenolic compounds.
    Acta Physiologiae Plantarum 01/2014; 35(2). DOI:10.1007/s11738-012-1086-8 · 1.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Arsenic release from the abandoned mines and its fate in a local stream were studied. Physicochemical parameters, metals/metalloids and arsenic species were determined. One of the mine drainages was found as a point source of contamination with 309 μg L(-1) of dissolved arsenic; this concentration declined rapidly to 10.5 μg L(-1) about 2 km downstream. Data analysis confirmed that oxidation of As(III) released from the primary sulfide minerals was favored by the increase of pH and oxidation reduction potential; the results obtained in multivariate approach indicated that self-purification of water was due to association of As(V) with secondary solid phase containing Fe, Mn, Ca.
    Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 09/2013; 91(5). DOI:10.1007/s00128-013-1091-7 · 1.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Plant cells have the capacity to generate a new plant without egg fertilization by a process known as somatic embryogenesis (SE), in which differentiated somatic cells can form somatic embryos able to generate a functional plant. Although there have been advances in understanding the genetic basis of SE, the epigenetic mechanism that regulates this process is still unknown. Here, we show that the embryogenic development of Coffea canephora proceeds through a crosstalk between DNA methylation and histone modifications during the earliest embryogenic stages of SE. We found that low levels of DNA methylation, histone H3 lysine 9 dimethylation (H3K9me2) and H3K27me3 change according to embryo development. Moreover, the expression of LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1) and BABY BOOM1 (BBM1) are only observed after SE induction, whereas WUSCHEL-RELATED HOMEOBOX4 (WOX4) decreases its expression during embryo maturation. Using a pharmacological approach, it was found that 5-Azacytidine strongly inhibits the embryogenic response by decreasing both DNA methylation and gene expression of LEC1 and BBM1. Therefore, in order to know whether these genes were epigenetically regulated, we used Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays. It was found that WOX4 is regulated by the repressive mark H3K9me2, while LEC1 and BBM1 are epigenetically regulated by H3K27me3. We conclude that epigenetic regulation plays an important role during somatic embryogenic development, and a molecular mechanism for SE is proposed.
    PLoS ONE 08/2013; 8(8):e72160. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0072160 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this work, the effect of cadmium (0-5.0 mg L(-1) as cadmium chloride, Cd(ii)) and selenium (0-2.0 mg L(-1) as sodium selenite, Se(iv)) was studied in Lepidium sativum with specific focus on glyoxal (GO) and methylglyoxal (MGO) and on the cellular distribution of both elements under different exposure conditions. The concentrations of two reactive α-ketoaldehydes present as natural metabolites and as by-products of lipid peroxidation, were increased in plants treated with Cd(ii), providng complementary experimental evidence on element phytotoxicity in garden cress, in terms of oxidative damage. Even though for higher than 1.0 mg L(-1) Se in medium similar adverse effect was found, under simultaneous exposure to both elements the changes in GO and MGO concentrations were clearly attenuated as compared to a single stressor treatment. This effect was accompanied by lower uptake of the two elements, significant decrease of their relative distribution in the fraction containing polar compounds and their increase in fraction corresponding to insoluble cell fragments/components, suggesting that the direct in vivo interaction between two element forms might be involved in the favorable effects of simultaneous treatment with Cd(ii) + Se(iv). The fluorescence spectra obtained for biomass extracts corresponding to different exposure conditions suggested possible in vivo formation of CdSe quantum dots; however further studies are needed for ultimate identification and characterization of such nanoparticulate species.
    Metallomics 06/2013; 5(9). DOI:10.1039/c3mt00058c · 3.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Large amounts of phosphate fertilizers utilized in agriculture and their relatively poor efficiency are of high ecological and economic concern. Therefore, transgenic plants capable of metabolizing phosphite are being engineered. In support of this biotechnological task, analytical speciation of phosphorus in biological tissues is required. In this study, plant extracts were analyzed by liquid chromatography - inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry at m/z of elemental phosphorus and phosphorus oxide ions. Using polymeric-based anion exchange column and millimolar concentration of nitric acid in potassium phthalate mobile phase (pH 2.5), phosphite and phosphate ions were baseline resolved with retention times 6.95 ± 0.03 min and 7.90 ± 0.03 min and with total chromatographic run time 10 min. The detection limits were 1.58 μgP L-1 and 1.74 μgP L-1 at m/z 47, as compared to 2.18 μgP L-1 and 2.04 μgP L-1 at m/z 31, respectively. The results obtained in real world samples for the two detection modes were in good agreement, yet signal acquisition at m/z 47 enabled for better precision without collision/reaction cell (RSD below 2%) as compared to RSD around 4% obtained at m/z 31 while using He pressurized cell (3.5 mL min-1).
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 06/2013; 61(27). DOI:10.1021/jf4012278 · 3.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the present work, application of the previously established reversed-phase liquid chromatography procedure based on fluorescent labeling of cytosine and methylcytosine moieties with 2-bromoacetophenone (HPLC-FLD) is presented for simultaneous evaluation of global DNA and total RNA methylation at cytosine carbon 5. The need for such analysis was comprehended from the recent advances in the field of epigenetics that highlight the importance of non-coding RNAs in DNA methylation and suggest that RNA methylation might play a similar role in the modulation of genetic information, as previously demonstrated for DNA. In order to adopt HPLC-FLD procedure for DNA and RNA methylation analysis in a single biomass extract, two extraction procedures with different selectivity toward nucleic acids were examined, and a simplified calibration was designed allowing for evaluation of methylation percentage based on the ratio of chromatographic peak areas: cytidine/5-methylcytidine for RNA and 2´-deoxycytidine/5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine for DNA. As a proof of concept, global DNA and total RNA methylation were determined in Lepidium sativum hydroponically grown in the presence of different Cd(II) or Se(IV) concentrations, expecting that plant exposure to abiotic stress might affect not only global DNA but also total RNA methylation. The results obtained showed the increase of DNA methylation in the treated plants up to concentration levels 2 mg L(-1) Cd and 1 mg L(-1) Se in the growth medium. For higher stressors' concentration, global DNA methylation tended to decrease. Most importantly, an inverse correlation was found between DNA and RNA methylation levels (r = -0.6788, p = 0.031), calling for further studies of this particular modification of nucleic acids in epigenetic context.
    Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 01/2013; 405(7). DOI:10.1007/s00216-013-6703-x · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The augmented consumption of dietary advanced glycation end products (dAGEs) has been associated with increased oxidative stress and inflammation, however, there is insufficient information over the effect on insulin resistance. The objective of the present study is to investigate the effect of dAGEs restriction on tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), malondialdehyde, C-reactive protein (CRP), and insulin resistance in DM2 patients. We carried out a randomized 6 weeks prospective study in two groups of patients: subjects with a standard diet (n = 13), vs low dAGEs (n = 13). At the beginning and the end of study, we collected anthropometric measurements, and values of circulating glucose, HbA1c, lipids, insulin, serum AGEs, CRP, TNF-α and malondialdehyde. Anthropometric measurements, glucose, and lipids were similar in both groups at base line and at the end of the study. Estimation of basal dAGEs was similar in both groups; after 6 weeks it was unchanged in the standard group but in the low dAGEs group decreased by 44% (p<0.0002). Changes in TNF-α levels were different under standard diet (12.5 ± 14.7) as compared with low dAGEs (-18.36 ± 17.1, p<0.00001); changes in malondialdehyde were different in the respective groups (2.0 ± 2.61 and -0.83 ± 2.0, p<0.005) no changes were found for insulin levels or HOMA-IR. In conclusion, The dAGEs restriction decreased significantly TNF-α and malondialdehyde levels.
    Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition 01/2013; 52(1):22-6. DOI:10.3164/jcbn.12-40 · 2.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this work was to examine the feasibility of using municipal sewage sludge from San Miguel de Allende city WWTP, located at central Mexico, for compost production. Experimental piles were prepared with an aerobic digested activated sludge from a municipal WWTP dewatered in a filter press, grass was added as a nitrogen source and bulking was increased by mixing with either crushed porous volcanic material called tezontle (SGT) or wooden sticks wastes collected from municipal gardening of green areas (SGW). The specific composition of the compost piles was as follows: 30 % municipal sewage sludge, 60 % grass clippings and 10 % small wooden sticks (compost SGW); 30 % municipal sewage sludge, 60 % grass clippings and 10 % tezontle (compost SGT); 100 % sewage sludge (control). The efficient reduction of fecal bacteria was achieved in both piles yielding the USEPA class A compost, yet better process performance was obtained in SGW. In this pile the thermophilic phase lasted seven days longer and higher temperatures were reached, for which the desired removal of coliforms was achieved at two weeks of composting versus three weeks required in SGT. The analysis of typical spectrophotometric assays used in the compost characterization, confirmed the decomposition of organic matter and generation of humic substances. The fractionation of humic extracts by size exclusion chromatography with spectrophotometric detection indicated the increase of humic substances amount, and also the increase of molecular mass with the time of composting process. Overall, this work demonstrates the feasibility of municipal sewage sludge compost production for soil fertilization and provides new data about the changes of the molecular mass in humic fraction during composting.
    Revista Internacional de Contaminacion Ambiental 01/2013; 29(Sup 3):89-97. · 0.33 Impact Factor