Thuy Trang Nguyen

Philipps-Universität Marburg, Marburg, Hesse, Germany

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Publications (19)89.2 Total impact

  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: Comorbidity in adult ADHD (aADHD) has been investigated in a large number of studies using varying research approaches with divergent results. In contrast, there is limited information about sex- or subtype-related differences from studies with small sample size. Method: A large sample of 910 individuals (458 males, 452 females) affected with aADHD was recruited at a tertiary referral center. All probands underwent a four-step procedure for diagnosing aADHD, including the Structured Clinical Interview of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV) Axis I disorders to assess comorbidity. This study will provide additional information regarding the co-morbidity of Axis I disorders in the currently largest clinical referral sample. However, the main objective of this study is to gain information about sex- or subtype-related differences. Results: Affected females show higher rates of mood (61% vs. 49%), anxiety (32% vs. 22%), and eating disorders (16% vs. 1%) than affected males, while substance use disorders were more frequent in affected males (45% vs. 29%), which mirrors sex differences in prevalence in the general population. There were hardly any relevant differences in comorbidities between subtypes, with the exception of the inattentive subtype having an especially low prevalence of panic disorder. Comorbidity in general and substance use disorders in particular, but not sex or subtype, were highly predictive of lower psychosocial status. Conclusion: Sex-related differences in the comorbidity of aADHD are more pronounced than subtype-related differences. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX).
    Journal of Attention Disorders 11/2013; · 2.16 Impact Factor
  • Thuy Trang Nguyen, Helmut Schäfer, Nina Timmesfeld
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    ABSTRACT: An index measuring the utility of testing a DNA marker before deciding between two alternative treatments is proposed which can be estimated from pharmaco-epidemiological case-control or cohort studies. In the case-control design, external estimates of the prevalence of the disease and of the frequency of the genetic risk variant are required for estimating the utility index. Formulas for point and interval estimates are derived. Empirical coverage probabilities of the confidence intervals were estimated under different scenarios of disease prevalence, prevalence of drug use, and population frequency of the genetic variant. To illustrate our method, we re-analyse pharmaco-epidemiological case-control data on oral contraceptive intake and venous thrombosis in carriers and non-carriers of the factor V Leiden mutation. We also re-analyse cross-sectional data from the Framingham study on a gene-diet interaction between an APOA2 polymorphism and high saturated fat intake on obesity. We conclude that the utility index may be helpful to evaluate and appraise the potential clinical and public health relevance of gene-environment interaction effects detected in genomic and candidate gene association studies and may be a valuable decision support for designing prospective studies on the clinical utility.
    Genetic Epidemiology 04/2013; · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder in children with striking persistence into adulthood and a high co-morbidity with other psychiatric disorders, including personality disorders (PD). The 4p15.31 region was shown to be associated with ADHD in several genome wide association studies (GWAS). In the present study we also report association of the 4p15.31 locus with Cluster B and Cluster C PD as identified by a pooled genome-wide association study in 400 individuals suffering from PD. The gene coding for the Kv channel-interacting protein 4 (KCNIP4) is located in this region. KCNIP4 is an interaction partner of presenilin and plays a role in a negative feedback loop in the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Thus, we reasoned it to be a promising candidate gene for ADHD as well as for PD. To clarify the role of KCNIP4 in those disorders, we conducted candidate gene based association studies in 594 patients suffering from adult ADHD and 630 PD patients as compared to 974 healthy control individuals. In the adult ADHD sample, six single markers and one haplotype block revealed to be associated with disease (p values from 0.0079 to 0.049). Seven markers within the KCNIP4 gene showed an association with PD (p values from 0.0043 to 0.0437). The results of these studies suggest a role of KCNIP4 in the etiology of ADHD, PD and other co-morbid disorders.
    European neuropsychopharmacology: the journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology 09/2012; · 3.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common, highly heritable psychiatric disorder. Because of its multifactorial etiology, however, identifying the genes involved has been difficult. The authors followed up on recent findings suggesting that rare copy number variants (CNVs) may be important for ADHD etiology. The authors performed a genome-wide analysis of large, rare CNVs (<1% population frequency) in children with ADHD (N=896) and comparison subjects (N=2,455) from the IMAGE II Consortium. The authors observed 1,562 individually rare CNVs >100 kb in size, which segregated into 912 independent loci. Overall, the rate of rare CNVs >100 kb was 1.15 times higher in ADHD case subjects relative to comparison subjects, with duplications spanning known genes showing a 1.2-fold enrichment. In accordance with a previous study, rare CNVs >500 kb showed the greatest enrichment (1.28-fold). CNVs identified in ADHD case subjects were significantly enriched for loci implicated in autism and in schizophrenia. Duplications spanning the CHRNA7 gene at chromosome 15q13.3 were associated with ADHD in single-locus analysis. This finding was consistently replicated in an additional 2,242 ADHD case subjects and 8,552 comparison subjects from four independent cohorts from the United Kingdom, the United States, and Canada. Presence of the duplication at 15q13.3 appeared to be associated with comorbid conduct disorder. These findings support the enrichment of large, rare CNVs in ADHD and implicate duplications at 15q13.3 as a novel risk factor for ADHD. With a frequency of 0.6% in the populations investigated and a relatively large effect size (odds ratio=2.22, 95% confidence interval=1.5–3.6), this locus could be an important contributor to ADHD etiology.
    American Journal of Psychiatry 02/2012; 169(2):195-204. · 14.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, several genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on bipolar disorder (BPD) suggested novel risk genes. However, only few of them were followed up and further, the specificity of these genes is even more elusive. To address these issues, we genotyped SNPs in ANK3, CACNA1C, CMTM8, DGKH, EGFR, and NPAS3, which were significantly associated with BPD in previous GWAS, in a sample of 380 BPD patients. Replicated SNPs were then followed up in patients suffering from unipolar depression (UPD; n=387) or adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (aADHD; n=535). While we could not confirm an association of ANK3, CACNA1C, and EGFR with BPD, 10 SNPs in DGKH, CMTM8, and NPAS3 were nominally associated with disease, with two DGKH markers surviving correction for multiple testing. When these were followed up in UPD and aADHD, seven DGKH SNPs were also associated with UPD, while one SNP each in NPAS3 and CMTM8 and four in DGKH were linked to aADHD. Furthermore, a DGKH haplotype consisting of rs994856/rs9525580/rs9525584 GAT was associated with all disorders tested, while the complementary AGC haplotype was protective. The corresponding haploblock spans a 27-kb region covering exons coding for amino acids 65-243, and thus might include functional variants yet to be identified. We demonstrate an association of DGKH with BPD, UPD, and aADHD by applying a two-stage design. These disorders share the feature of mood instability, so that this phenotype might be associated with genetic variation in DGKH.
    Neuropsychopharmacology: official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology 06/2011; 36(10):2076-85. · 6.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although twin and family studies have shown attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to be highly heritable, genetic variants influencing the trait at a genome-wide significant level have yet to be identified. Thus additional genomewide association studies (GWAS) are needed. We used case-control analyses of 896 cases with DSM-IV ADHD genotyped using the Affymetrix 5.0 array and 2,455 repository controls screened for psychotic and bipolar symptoms genotyped using Affymetrix 6.0 arrays. A consensus SNP set was imputed using BEAGLE 3.0, resulting in an analysis dataset of 1,033,244 SNPs. Data were analyzed using a generalized linear model. No genome-wide significant associations were found. The most significant results implicated the following genes: PRKG1, FLNC, TCERG1L, PPM1H, NXPH1, PPM1H, CDH13, HK1, and HKDC1. The current analyses are a useful addition to the present literature and will make a valuable contribution to future meta-analyses. The candidate gene findings are consistent with a prior meta-analysis in suggesting that the effects of ADHD risk variants must, individually, be very small and/or include multiple rare alleles.
    Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 09/2010; 49(9):906-20. · 4.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although twin and family studies have shown attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to be highly heritable, genetic variants influencing the trait at a genome-wide significant level have yet to be identified. As prior genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have not yielded significant results, we conducted a meta-analysis of existing studies to boost statistical power. We used data from four projects: a) the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP); b) phase I of the International Multicenter ADHD Genetics project (IMAGE); c) phase II of IMAGE (IMAGE II); and d) the Pfizer-funded study from the University of California, Los Angeles, Washington University, and Massachusetts General Hospital (PUWMa). The final sample size consisted of 2,064 trios, 896 cases, and 2,455 controls. For each study, we imputed HapMap single nucleotide polymorphisms, computed association test statistics and transformed them to z-scores, and then combined weighted z-scores in a meta-analysis. No genome-wide significant associations were found, although an analysis of candidate genes suggests that they may be involved in the disorder. Given that ADHD is a highly heritable disorder, our negative results suggest that the effects of common ADHD risk variants must, individually, be very small or that other types of variants, e.g., rare ones, account for much of the disorder's heritability.
    Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 09/2010; 49(9):884-97. · 4.98 Impact Factor
  • Thuy Trang Nguyen, Roman Pahl, Helmut Schäfer
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    ABSTRACT: Optimal robust two-stage designs for genome-wide association studies are proposed using the maximum of the recessive, additive and dominant linear trend test statistics. These designs combine cost-saving two-stage genotyping with robustness against misspecification of the genetic model and are much more efficient than designs based on a single model specific test statistic in detecting multiple loci with different modes of inheritance. For given power of 90%, typical cost savings of 34% can be realised by increasing the total sample size by about 13% but genotyping only about half of the sample for the full marker set in the first stage and carrying forward about 0.06% of the markers to the second stage analysis. We also present robust two-stage designs providing optimal allocation of a limited budget for pre-existing samples. If a sample is available which would yield a power of 90% when fully genotyped, genotyping only half of the sample due to a limited budget will typically cause a loss of power of more than 55%. Using an optimal two-stage approach in the same sample under the same budget restrictions will limit the loss of power to less than 10%. In general, the optimal proportion of markers to be followed up in the second stage strongly depends on the cost ratio for chips and individual genotyping, while the design parameters of the optimal designs (total sample size, first stage proportion, first and second stage significance limit) do not much depend on the genetic model assumptions.
    Annals of Human Genetics 11/2009; 73(Pt 6):638-51. · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The INSIG2 rs7566605 polymorphism was identified for obesity (BMI> or =30 kg/m(2)) in one of the first genome-wide association studies, but replications were inconsistent. We collected statistics from 34 studies (n = 74,345), including general population (GP) studies, population-based studies with subjects selected for conditions related to a better health status ('healthy population', HP), and obesity studies (OB). We tested five hypotheses to explore potential sources of heterogeneity. The meta-analysis of 27 studies on Caucasian adults (n = 66,213) combining the different study designs did not support overall association of the CC-genotype with obesity, yielding an odds ratio (OR) of 1.05 (p-value = 0.27). The I(2) measure of 41% (p-value = 0.015) indicated between-study heterogeneity. Restricting to GP studies resulted in a declined I(2) measure of 11% (p-value = 0.33) and an OR of 1.10 (p-value = 0.015). Regarding the five hypotheses, our data showed (a) some difference between GP and HP studies (p-value = 0.012) and (b) an association in extreme comparisons (BMI> or =32.5, 35.0, 37.5, 40.0 kg/m(2) versus BMI<25 kg/m(2)) yielding ORs of 1.16, 1.18, 1.22, or 1.27 (p-values 0.001 to 0.003), which was also underscored by significantly increased CC-genotype frequencies across BMI categories (10.4% to 12.5%, p-value for trend = 0.0002). We did not find evidence for differential ORs (c) among studies with higher than average obesity prevalence compared to lower, (d) among studies with BMI assessment after the year 2000 compared to those before, or (e) among studies from older populations compared to younger. Analysis of non-Caucasian adults (n = 4889) or children (n = 3243) yielded ORs of 1.01 (p-value = 0.94) or 1.15 (p-value = 0.22), respectively. There was no evidence for overall association of the rs7566605 polymorphism with obesity. Our data suggested an association with extreme degrees of obesity, and consequently heterogeneous effects from different study designs may mask an underlying association when unaccounted for. The importance of study design might be under-recognized in gene discovery and association replication so far.
    PLoS Genetics 10/2009; 5(10):e1000694. · 8.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Several lines of evidence indicate that the central cannabinoid receptor 1 (CNR1) as well as the major endocannabinoid degrading enzymes fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), N-acylethanolamine-hydrolyzing acid amidase (NAAA) and monoglyceride lipase (MGLL) are implicated in mediating the orexigenic effects of cannabinoids. The aim of this study was to analyse whether nucleotide sequence variations in the CNR1, FAAH, NAAA and MGLL genes are associated with anorexia nervosa (AN). We analysed the association of a previously described (AAT)n repeat in the 3' flanking region of CNR1 as well as a total of 15 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) representative of regions with restricted haplotype diversity in CNR1, FAAH, NAAA or MGLL in up to 91 German AN trios (patient with AN and both biological parents) using the transmission-disequilibrium-test (TDT). One SNP was additionally analysed in an independent case-control study comprising 113 patients with AN and 178 normal weight controls. Genotyping was performed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, ARMS-PCR or using 3730xl capillary sequencers. The TDT revealed no evidence for association for any of the SNPs or the (AAT)n repeat with AN (all two-sided uncorrected p-values > 0.05). The lowest p-value of 0.11 was detected for the A-allele of the CNR1 SNP rs1049353 for which the transmission rate was 59% (95% confidence interval 47%...70%). Further genotyping of rs1049353 in 113 additional independent patients with AN and 178 normal weight controls could not substantiate the initial trend for association (p = 1.00). As we found no evidence for an association of genetic variation in CNR1, FAAH, NAAA and MGLL with AN, we conclude that genetic variations in these genes do not play a major role in the etiology of AN in our study groups.
    Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health 11/2008; 2(1):33.
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    ABSTRACT: DLK1 is part of the Notch signalling pathway that controls various developmental processes. A functional role for DLK1 in adipogenesis is suggested by several animal models. Interestingly, the DLK1 gene is imprinted in eutherian mammals. To study whether variations in DLK1 affect body weight in humans, we analysed 32 polymorphisms in a 109 kb genomic region encompassing DLK1 on human chromosome 14. In a study sample of 1025 French and German trio families comprised of both parents and extremely obese offspring we found a single nucleotide polymorphism (rs1802710) associated with child and adolescent obesity. Analysis of the allelic transmission pattern indicated the existence of polar overdominance, an unusual mode of non-Mendelian inheritance in humans previously known from the callipyge mutation in sheep.
    European Journal of HumanGenetics 05/2008; 16(9):1126-34. · 4.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Homozygotes for the C-allele of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs7566605, located approximately 10 kb upstream of insulin-induced gene 2 (INSIG2), showed a slightly increased risk of becoming obese. The aim of this study was to analyze whether children homozygous for the C-allele lose less weight in an intervention than children with the GG- or GC-genotype. We genotyped rs7566605 in 293 obese children (mean age 10.8 years, 45% male, mean BMI 28.1 kg/m(2)) who presented for a 1-year intervention. The reduction of SD score (SDS) BMI was compared based on an intention-to-treat analysis between the children with different genotypes. Blood pressure, triglycerides, insulin and glucose concentrations, and total, HDL, and LDL cholesterol were measured before and after intervention. After 1 year, obese children with the CC-genotype had reduced their SDS BMI to a lower extent than obese children with GC- or GG-genotypes (recessive model P = 0.007). There was no evidence for an association of rs7566605 with the cardiovascular risk factor profile (nominal P > 0.1). CC-homozygotes at SNP rs7566605 in the vicinity of INSIG2 lost less weight in this lifestyle intervention. This finding further implicates this polymorphism in weight regulation.
    Diabetes 03/2008; 57(3):623-6. · 7.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Studies in rodent models demonstrated that the central cannabinoid receptor (Cnr1) mediates the orexigenic effects of cannabinoids. To analyze whether genetic variation in the cannabinoid receptor gene (CNR1) is implicated in human obesity, we initially genotyped 8 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in the 5' region (rs9353527, rs754387, rs6454676), intron 2 (rs806379, rs1535255), exon 3 (rs2023239), intron 3 (rs806370) and the coding region (rs1049353) in up to 364 German obesity trios (extremely obese child or adolescent and both parents). The transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) was negative for these SNPs (p>0.05). However, there was a slight trend towards preferential transmission of the A-allele of rs1049353 (p=0.12). We therefore genotyped this SNP in 235 independent German obesity families (at least two obese sibs and both parents) and in parallel screened the CNR1 coding region for sequence variations in 120 German extremely obese children and adolescents who mainly contributed to the initial trend observed for rs1049353. The trend for preferential transmission of the A-allele could not be substantiated (pedigree disequilibrium test, PDT p=0.15; A-allele less frequently transmitted). In the mutation screen we detected two rare variations, one novel non-conservative mutation (c.1256C>A; A419E) and the known variant 1419+1G>C. In addition, we confirmed the presence of rs1049353. As these variants could not explain the initial TDT, we conclude that there is no evidence for an association of CNR1 alleles with obesity in our study groups.
    Molecular Genetics and Metabolism 04/2007; 90(4):429-34. · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A SNP upstream of the INSIG2 gene, rs7566605, was recently found to be associated with obesity as measured by body mass index (BMI) by Herbert and colleagues. The association between increased BMI and homozygosity for the minor allele was first observed in data from a genome-wide association scan of 86,604 SNPs in 923 related individuals from the Framingham Heart Study offspring cohort. The association was reproduced in four additional cohorts, but was not seen in a fifth cohort. To further assess the general reproducibility of this association, we genotyped rs7566605 in nine large cohorts from eight populations across multiple ethnicities (total n = 16,969). We tested this variant for association with BMI in each sample under a recessive model using family-based, population-based, and case-control designs. We observed a significant (p < 0.05) association in five cohorts but saw no association in three other cohorts. There was variability in the strength of association evidence across examination cycles in longitudinal data from unrelated individuals in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring cohort. A combined analysis revealed significant independent validation of this association in both unrelated (p = 0.046) and family-based (p = 0.004) samples. The estimated risk conferred by this allele is small, and could easily be masked by small sample size, population stratification, or other confounders. These validation studies suggest that the original association is less likely to be spurious, but the failure to observe an association in every data set suggests that the effect of SNP rs7566605 on BMI may be heterogeneous across population samples.
    PLoS Genetics 04/2007; 3(4):e61. · 8.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity is a major health problem. Although heritability is substantial, genetic mechanisms predisposing to obesity are not very well understood. We have performed a genome wide association study (GWA) for early onset (extreme) obesity. a) GWA (Genome-Wide Human SNP Array 5.0 comprising 440,794 single nucleotide polymorphisms) for early onset extreme obesity based on 487 extremely obese young German individuals and 442 healthy lean German controls; b) confirmatory analyses on 644 independent families with at least one obese offspring and both parents. We aimed to identify and subsequently confirm the 15 SNPs (minor allele frequency > or =10%) with the lowest p-values of the GWA by four genetic models: additive, recessive, dominant and allelic. Six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FTO (fat mass and obesity associated gene) within one linkage disequilibrium (LD) block including the GWA SNP rendering the lowest p-value (rs1121980; log-additive model: nominal p = 1.13 x 10(-7), corrected p = 0.0494; odds ratio (OR)(CT) 1.67, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.22-2.27; OR(TT) 2.76, 95% CI 1.88-4.03) belonged to the 15 SNPs showing the strongest evidence for association with obesity. For confirmation we genotyped 11 of these in the 644 independent families (of the six FTO SNPs we chose only two representing the LD bock). For both FTO SNPs the initial association was confirmed (both Bonferroni corrected p<0.01). However, none of the nine non-FTO SNPs revealed significant transmission disequilibrium. Our GWA for extreme early onset obesity substantiates that variation in FTO strongly contributes to early onset obesity. This is a further proof of concept for GWA to detect genes relevant for highly complex phenotypes. We concurrently show that nine additional SNPs with initially low p-values in the GWA were not confirmed in our family study, thus suggesting that of the best 15 SNPs in the GWA only the FTO SNPs represent true positive findings.
    PLoS ONE 02/2007; 2(12):e1361. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Accounting for interactions with environmental factors in association studies may improve the power to detect genetic effects and may help identifying important environmental effect modifiers. The power of unphased genotype-versus haplotype-based methods in regions with high linkage disequilibrium (LD), as measured by D', for analyzing gene x environment (gene x sex) interactions was compared using the Genetic Analysis Workshop 15 (GAW15) simulated data on rheumatoid arthritis with prior knowledge of the answers. Stepwise and regular conditional logistic regression (CLR) was performed using a matched case-control sample for a HLA region interacting with sex. Haplotype-based analyses were performed using a haplotype-sharing-based Mantel statistic and a test for haplotype-trait association in a general linear model framework. A step-down minP algorithm was applied to derive adjusted p-values and to allow for power comparisons. These methods were also applied to the GAW15 real data set for PTPN22.For markers in strong LD, stepwise CLR performed poorly because of the correlation/collinearity between the predictors in the model. The power was high for detecting genetic main effects using simple CLR models and haplotype-based methods and for detecting joint effects using CLR and Mantel statistics. Only the haplotype-trait association test had high power to detect the gene x sex interaction.In the PTPN22 region with markers characterized by strong LD, all methods indicated a significant genotype x sex interaction in a sample of about 1000 subjects. The previously reported R620W single-nucleotide polymorphism was identified using logistic regression, but the haplotype-based methods did not provide any precise location information.
    BMC proceedings 02/2007; 1 Suppl 1:S73.
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    ABSTRACT: Accounting for interactions with environmental factors in association studies may improve the power to detect genetic effects and may help identifying important environmental effect modifiers. The power of unphased genotype-versus haplotype-based methods in regions with high linkage disequilibrium (LD), as measured by D', for analyzing gene × environment (gene × sex) interactions was compared using the Genetic Analysis Workshop 15 (GAW15) simulated data on rheumatoid arthritis with prior knowledge of the answers. Stepwise and regular conditional logistic regression (CLR) was performed using a matched case-control sample for a HLA region interacting with sex. Haplotype-based analyses were performed using a haplotype-sharing-based Mantel statistic and a test for haplotype-trait association in a general linear model framework. A step-down minP algorithm was applied to derive adjusted p-values and to allow for power comparisons. These methods were also applied to the GAW15 real data set for PTPN22. For markers in strong LD, stepwise CLR performed poorly because of the correlation/collinearity between the predictors in the model. The power was high for detecting genetic main effects using simple CLR models and haplotype-based methods and for detecting joint effects using CLR and Mantel statistics. Only the haplotype-trait association test had high power to detect the gene × sex interaction.
    BMC Proceedings - BMC Proc. 01/2007; 1.
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    ABSTRACT: Autosomal dominant inheritance of mutations in the melanocortin-4 receptor gene (MC4R) is currently regarded as the most relevant genetic cause for extreme obesity and affects 2-4% of extremely obese individuals. Our objective was to assess the relevance of MC4R mutations in a German population-based sample. We conducted a mutation screen of the MC4R gene by capillary electrophoresis-based single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis and denaturing HPLC. Subjects included 4068 individuals of a German population-based study group [Kooperative Gesundheitsforschung im Raum Augsburg, Survey 4 (KORA-S4); i.e. Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg] and 1003 German obese adults (body mass index >or= 30 kg/m(2)). Samples with aberrant capillary electrophoresis-based single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis/denaturing HPLC patterns were resequenced. Functional studies including agonistic receptor stimulation (Nle-D-Phe-alpha-, alpha-, and beta-MSH) and cell surface expression assays were performed. Sixteen (six novel) coding nonsynonymous mutations were detected in 27 heterozygous individuals of KORA-S4. Four of the mutation alleles led to impaired receptor function in vitro; however, none of these six heterozygous mutation carriers was obese (body mass index >or= 30 kg/m(2)). In the obese adults, six coding nonsynonymous and a nonsense mutation were detected in 13 individuals. Only the nonsense mutation allele entailed impaired receptor function. Our study depicts prevalence, spectrum, and functional characterization of MC4R mutations in the German population-based sample KORA-S4. In this epidemiological study group, individuals heterozygous for nonsynonymous MC4R mutation alleles entailing impaired function were not obese. Furthermore, nonsynonymous MC4R mutations causing impaired receptor function were rare in German obese adults (two in 1003 = 0.2%).
    Journal of Clinical Endocrinology &amp Metabolism 06/2006; 91(5):1761-9. · 6.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: While an interactive effect of genes with adverse life events is increasingly appreciated in current concepts of depression etiology, no data are presently available on interactions between genetic and environmental (G×E) factors with respect to personality and related disorders. The present study therefore aimed to detect main effects as well as interactions of serotonergic candidate genes (coding for the serotonin transporter, 5-HTT; the serotonin autoreceptor, HTR1A; and the enzyme which synthesizes serotonin in the brain, TPH2) with the burden of life events (#LE) in two independent samples consisting of 183 patients suffering from personality disorders and 123 patients suffering from adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (aADHD). Simple analyses ignoring possible G×E interactions revealed no evidence for associations of either #LE or of the considered polymorphisms in 5-HTT and TPH2. Only the G allele of HTR1A rs6295 seemed to increase the risk of emotional-dramatic cluster B personality disorders (p=0.019, in the personality disorder sample) and to decrease the risk of anxious-fearful cluster C personality disorders (p=0.016, in the aADHD sample). We extended the initial simple model by taking a G×E interaction term into account, since this approach may better fit the data indicating that the effect of a gene is modified by stressful life events or, vice versa, that stressful life events only have an effect in the presence of a susceptibility genotype. By doing so, we observed nominal evidence for G×E effects as well as main effects of 5-HTT-LPR and the TPH2 SNP rs4570625 on the occurrence of personality disorders. Further replication studies, however, are necessary to validate the apparent complexity of G×E interactions in disorders of human personality. KeywordsADHD-Personality disorder-Life events-G×E interactions-Serotonin
    European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 260(4):317-326. · 3.20 Impact Factor

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633 Citations
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89.20 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2009–2013
    • Philipps-Universität Marburg
      • Institut für Medizinische Biometrie und Epidemiologie
      Marburg, Hesse, Germany
  • 2011–2012
    • University of Wuerzburg
      • Department of Psychiatry, Psychosomatics, and Psychotherapy
      Würzburg, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2008
    • Universität Witten/Herdecke
      Witten, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2006–2007
    • University Hospital Essen
      • Institut für Medizinische Informatik, Biometrie und Epidemiologie
      Essen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany