Bindu Nanduri

University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, Mississippi, United States

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Publications (45)131.15 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Listeria monocytogenes is a gram-positive, foodborne pathogen responsible for approximately 28% of all food-related deaths each year in the United States. L. monocytogenes infections are linked to the consumption of minimally processed ready-to-eat (RTE) products such as cheese, deli meats, and cold-smoked finfish products. L. monocytogenes is resistant to stresses commonly encountered in the food-processing environment, including low pH, high salinity, oxygen content, and various temperatures. The purpose of this study was to determine if cells cultured at low temperatures would result in cross-protective effects against osmotic stress. We found that cells exposed to refrigerated temperatures prior to a mild salt stress treatment had increased survival in NaCl concentrations of 3%. Additionally, the longer the cells were pre-exposed to cold temperatures, the greater the increase in survival in 3% NaCl. A proteomics analysis was performed in triplicate in order to elucidate mechanisms involved in cold-stress induced cross-protection against osmotic stress. Proteins involved in maintenance of the cell wall and cellular processes, such as penicillin binding proteins and osmolyte transporters, and processes involving amino acid metabolism, such as osmolyte synthesis, transport and lipid biosynthesis, had the greatest increase in expression when cells were exposed to cold temperatures prior to salt. By gaining a better understanding of how this pathogen adapts physiologically to various environmental conditions, improvements can be made in detection and mitigation strategies.
    Journal of Proteome Research 02/2014; · 5.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lysine acetylation is a reversible, dynamic protein modification regulated by lysine acetyltransferases and deacetylases. Recent advances in high-throughput proteomics have greatly contributed to the success of global analysis of lysine acetylation. A large number of proteins of diverse biological functions have been shown to be acetylated in several reports in human cells, E.coli, and dicot plants. However, the extent of lysine acetylation in non-histone proteins remains largely unknown in monocots, particularly in the cereal crops. Here we report the mass spectrometric examination of lysine acetylation in rice (Oryza sativa). We identified 60 lysine acetylated sites on 44 proteins of diverse biological functions. Immunoblot studies further validated the presence of a large number of acetylated non-histone proteins. Examination of the amino acid composition revealed substantial amino acid bias around the acetylation sites and the amino acid preference is conserved among different organisms. Gene ontology analysis demonstrates that lysine acetylation occurs in diverse cytoplasmic, chloroplast and mitochondrial proteins in addition to the histone modifications. Our results suggest that lysine acetylation might constitute a regulatory mechanism for many proteins, including both histones and non-histone proteins of diverse biological functions.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(2):e89283. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Currently there are definitions from many agencies and research societies defining "bioinformatics" as deriving knowledge from computational analysis of large volumes of biological and biomedical data. Should this be the bioinformatics research focus? We will discuss this issue in this review article. We would like to promote the idea of supporting human-infrastructure (HI) with no-boundary thinking (NT) in bioinformatics (HINT).
    BioData Mining 11/2013; 6(1):19.
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    ABSTRACT: Mapping RNA sequences to a reference genome often results in high percentages of short reads assigned to multiple locations within the genome. These mappings are known as "ambiguous mappings" and are often discarded by sequence mapping tools and pipelines. The number of ambiguous mappings within these data sets can sometimes be significantly large, occupying in certain cases as much as one third of the mapped sequences. We are developing task specific computer programs that utilize statistical methods as an alternative solution for the problem. This statistical approach is based upon identifying significantly expressed genomic locations. We handle ambiguous data through a multi-step process starting with a standard short read alignment tool to identify all the possible mappings within the genome for each sequence read. Custom programs are then used to identify expressed genomic locations by statistical methods. That is, we compare gene expression in the regions of interest with a number of randomly-selected genomic locations. Using these comparisons will help us in establishing a value at which a gene is significantly expressed and determine the locations that are most likely to be the best mapping for each ambiguous sequence.
    Proceedings of the International Conference on Bioinformatics, Computational Biology and Biomedical Informatics; 09/2013
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    ABSTRACT: Sodium methyldithiocarbamate (SMD) is one of the most abundantly used conventional pesticides in the U.S. At dosages relevant to occupational exposure, it causes major effects on the immune system in mice, including a decreased resistance to sepsis. This lab has identified some of the mechanisms of action of this compound and some of the immunological parameters affected, but the global effects have not previously been assessed. The purpose of the present study was to conduct transcriptomic analysis of the effects of SMD on lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of mediators important in innate immunity and inflammation. The results revealed broad effects on expression of transcription factors in both branches of TLR4 signaling (MyD88 and TRIF). However, TLR3 and interferon signaling pathways were decreased to a greater extent, and assessment of the effects of SMD on polyinosinic polycytidylic acid-induced cytokine and chemokine production revealed that these responses mediated by TLR3 were indeed sensitive to the effects of SMD, with inhibition occurring at lower dosages than required to inhibit responses to other immunological stimuli tested in our previous studies. In the downstream signaling pathways of these TLRs, functional analysis also revealed that NF-κB activation was inhibited by SMD, as indicated by gene expression analysis and a reporter construct in mice. A previously unreported effect on luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone pathways was also observed.
    Toxicological Sciences 09/2013; · 4.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Iron is a critical cofactor for many enzymes and is known to regulate gene expression in many bacterial pathogens. Streptococcus pneumoniae normally inhabits the upper respiratory mucosa but can also invade and replicate in lungs and blood. These anatomic sites vary considerably in both the quantity and form of available iron. The genome of serotype 4 pneumococcal strain TIGR4 encodes a putative iron-dependent transcriptional regulator (IDTR). A mutant deleted at idtr (Δidtr) exhibited growth kinetics similar to parent strain TIGR4 in vitro and in mouse blood for up to 48 hours following infection. However, Δidtr was significantly attenuated in a murine model of sepsis. IDTR down-regulates the expression of ten characterized and putative virulence genes in nasopharyngeal colonization and pneumonia. The host cytokine response was significantly suppressed in sepsis with Δidtr. Since an exaggerated inflammatory response is associated with a poor prognosis in sepsis, the decreased inflammatory response could explain the increased survival with Δidtr. Our results suggest that IDTR, which is dispensable for pneumococcal growth in vitro, is associated with regulation of pneumococcal virulence in specific host environments. Additionally, IDTR ultimately modulates the host cytokine response and systemic inflammation that contributes to morbidity and mortality of invasive pneumococcal disease.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(2):e55157. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: As the use of laparoscopic surgery has become more widespread in recent years, the need has increased for minimally-invasive surgical devices that effectively cut and coagulate tissue with reduced tissue trauma. Although electrosurgery (ES) has been used for many generations, newly-developed ultrasonic devices (HARMONIC® Blade, HB) have been shown at a macroscopic level to offer better coagulation with less thermally-induced tissue damage. We sought to understand the differences between ES and HB at a microscopic level by comparing mRNA transcript and protein responses at the 3-day timepoint to incisions made by the devices in subcutaneous fat tissue in a porcine model. Samples were also assessed via histological examination. ES-incised tissue had more than twice as many differentially-expressed genes as HB (2,548 vs 1,264 respectively), and more differentially-expressed proteins (508 vs 432) compared to control (untreated) tissue. Evaluation of molecular functions using Gene Ontology showed that gene expression changes for the energized devices reflected the start of wound healing, including immune response and inflammation, while protein expression showed a slightly earlier stage, with some remnants of hemostasis. For both transcripts and proteins, ES exhibited a greater response than HB, especially in inflammatory mediators. These findings were in qualitative agreement with histological results. This study has shown that transcriptomics and proteomics can monitor the wound healing response following surgery and can differentiate between surgical devices. In agreement with clinical observations, electrosurgery was shown to incur a greater inflammatory immune response than an ultrasonic device during initial iatrogenic wound healing.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(9):e73032. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) remove ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like modifications from proteins and they have been known to contribute to processes relevant in microbial infection, such as immune responses pathways. Numerous viral and bacterial DUBs have been identified, and activities of several host DUBs are known to be modulated during the infection process, either by a pathogen or by a host. Recently there have been attempts to take advantage of this feature and design therapeutic inhibitors of DUBs that can be used to limit the spread of infection. This review is focused on exploring the potential of DUBs in the treatment of infectious diseases.
    Current pharmaceutical design 11/2012; · 4.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The events leading to sepsis starts with an invasive infection of a primary organ of the body followed by an overwhelming systemic response. Intra-abdominal infections are the second most common cause of sepsis. Peritoneal fluid is the primary site of infection in these cases. A microarray-based approach was used to study the temporal changes in cells from the peritoneal cavity of septic mice and to identify potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for this subset of sepsis patients. RESULTS: We conducted microarray analysis of the peritoneal cells of mice infected with a non-pathogenic strain of Escherichia coli. Differentially expressed genes were identified at two early (1 h, 2 h) and one late time point (18 h). A multiplexed bead array analysis was used to confirm protein expression for several cytokines which showed differential expression at different time points based on the microarray data. Gene Ontology based hypothesis testing identified a positive bias of differentially expressed genes associated with cellular development and cell death at 2 h and 18 h respectively. Most differentially expressed genes common to all 3 time points had an immune response related function, consistent with the observation that a few bacteria are still present at 18 h. CONCLUSIONS: Transcriptional regulators like PLAGL2, EBF1, TCF7, KLF10 and SBNO2, previously not described in sepsis, are differentially expressed at early and late time points. Expression pattern for key biomarkers in this study is similar to that reported in human sepsis, indicating the suitability of this model for future studies of sepsis, and the observed differences in gene expression suggest species differences or differences in the response of blood leukocytes and peritoneal leukocytes.
    BMC Genomics 09/2012; 13(1):509. · 4.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne pathogen responsible for the disease listeriosis. The infectious process depends upon survival in high bile salt conditions encountered throughout the gastrointestinal tract, including the gallbladder. However, it is not clear how bile salt resistance mechanisms are induced, especially under physiologically relevant conditions. This study sought to determine how the L. monocytogenes strains EGDe (serovar 1/2a), F2365 (serovar 4a), and HCC23 (serovar 4b) respond to bile salts under anaerobic conditions. Changes in the expressed proteome were analyzed using multidimensional protein identification technology coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. In general, the response to bile salts among the strains tested involved significant alterations in the presence of cell wall associated proteins, DNA repair proteins, protein folding chaperones and oxidative stress response proteins. Strain viability correlated with an initial osmotic stress response, yet continued survival for EGDe and F2365 involved different mechanisms. Specifically, proteins associated with biofilm formation in EGDe and transmembrane efflux pumps in F2365 were expressed, suggesting variations exist in how virulent strains respond and adapt to high bile salt environments. These results indicate that the bile salt response varies among these serovars and that further research is needed to elucidate how the response to bile salts correlates with colonization potential in vivo.
    Journal of Medical Microbiology 09/2012; · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Computational methods for structural gene annotation have propelled gene discovery but face certain drawbacks with regards to prokaryotic genome annotation. Identification of transcriptional start sites, demarcating overlapping gene boundaries, and identifying regulatory elements such as small RNA are not accurate using these approaches. In this study, we re-visit the structural annotation of Mannheimia haemolytica PHL213, a bovine respiratory disease pathogen. M. haemolytica is one of the causative agents of bovine respiratory disease that results in about $3 billion annual losses to the cattle industry. We used RNA-Seq and analyzed the data using freely-available computational methods and resources. The aim was to identify previously unannotated regions of the genome using RNA-Seq based expression profile to complement the existing annotation of this pathogen. Using the Illumina Genome Analyzer, we generated 9,055,826 reads (average length ~76 bp) and aligned them to the reference genome using Bowtie. The transcribed regions were analyzed using SAMTOOLS and custom Perl scripts in conjunction with BLAST searches and available gene annotation information. The single nucleotide resolution map enabled the identification of 14 novel protein coding regions as well as 44 potential novel sRNA. The basal transcription profile revealed that 2,506 of the 2,837 annotated regions were expressed in vitro, at 95.25% coverage, representing all broad functional gene categories in the genome. The expression profile also helped identify 518 potential operon structures involving 1,086 co-expressed pairs. We also identified 11 proteins with mutated/alternate start codons. The application of RNA-Seq based transcriptome profiling to structural gene annotation helped correct existing annotation errors and identify potential novel protein coding regions and sRNA. We used computational tools to predict regulatory elements such as promoters and terminators associated with the novel expressed regions for further characterization of these novel functional elements. Our study complements the existing structural annotation of Mannheimia haemolytica PHL213 based on experimental evidence. Given the role of sRNA in virulence gene regulation and stress response, potential novel sRNA described in this study can form the framework for future studies to determine the role of sRNA, if any, in M. haemolytica pathogenesis.
    BMC Bioinformatics 09/2012; 13 Suppl 15:S4. · 3.02 Impact Factor
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    01/2012; , ISBN: 978-953-307-613-3
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    ABSTRACT: Genome structural annotation, i.e., identification and demarcation of the boundaries for all the functional elements in a genome (e.g., genes, non-coding RNAs, proteins and regulatory elements), is a prerequisite for systems level analysis. Current genome annotation programs do not identify all of the functional elements of the genome, especially small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs). Whole genome transcriptome analysis is a complementary method to identify "novel" genes, small RNAs, regulatory regions, and operon structures, thus improving the structural annotation in bacteria. In particular, the identification of non-coding RNAs has revealed their widespread occurrence and functional importance in gene regulation, stress and virulence. However, very little is known about non-coding transcripts in Histophilus somni, one of the causative agents of Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD) as well as bovine infertility, abortion, septicemia, arthritis, myocarditis, and thrombotic meningoencephalitis. In this study, we report a single nucleotide resolution transcriptome map of H. somni strain 2336 using RNA-Seq method.The RNA-Seq based transcriptome map identified 94 sRNAs in the H. somni genome of which 82 sRNAs were never predicted or reported in earlier studies. We also identified 38 novel potential protein coding open reading frames that were absent in the current genome annotation. The transcriptome map allowed the identification of 278 operon (total 730 genes) structures in the genome. When compared with the genome sequence of a non-virulent strain 129Pt, a disproportionate number of sRNAs (∼30%) were located in genomic region unique to strain 2336 (∼18% of the total genome). This observation suggests that a number of the newly identified sRNAs in strain 2336 may be involved in strain-specific adaptations.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(1):e29435. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Alcohol is the most frequently abused substance in the world. Both acute and chronic alcohol consumption have diverse and well-documented effects on the human immune system, leading to increased susceptibility to infections like bacterial pneumonia. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common bacterial etiology of community-acquired pneumonia worldwide. The frequency and severity of pneumococcal infections in individuals with a history of alcohol abuse is much higher than the general population. Despite this obvious epidemiological relevance, very few experimental studies have focused on the interaction of pneumococci with the immune system of a host acutely or chronically exposed to alcohol. Understanding these host-pathogen interactions is imperative for designing effective prophylactic and therapeutic interventions for such populations. Recent advances in pneumococcal research have greatly improved our understanding of pneumococcal pathogenesis and virulence mechanisms. Additionally, a large body of data is available on the effect of alcohol on the physiology of the lungs and the innate and adaptive immune system of the host. The purpose of this review is to integrate the available knowledge in these diverse areas of for a better understanding of the how the compromised immune system derived from alcohol exposure responds to pneumococcal infections.
    Alcohol (Fayetteville, N.Y.) 09/2011; 45(6):523-39. · 2.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sepsis is a major cause of death worldwide. The associated risks and mortality are known to significantly increase on exposure to alcohol (chronic or acute). The underlying mechanisms of the association of acute ethanol ingestion and poor prognosis of sepsis are largely unknown. The study described here was designed to determine in detail the role of ethanol and TLR4 in the pathogenesis of the sepsis syndrome. The effects of acute ethanol exposure and TLR4 on bacterial clearance, spleen cell numbers, peritoneal macrophage numbers, and cytokine production were evaluated using wild-type and TLR4 hyporesponsive mice treated with ethanol and then challenged with a nonpathogenic strain of Escherichia coli. Ethanol-treated mice exhibited a decreased clearance of bacteria and produced lesser amounts of most pro-inflammatory cytokines in both strains of mice at 2h after challenge. Neither ethanol treatment nor a hyporesponsive TLR4 had significant effects on the cell numbers in the peritoneal cavity and spleen 2h postinfection. The suppressive effect of acute ethanol exposure on cytokine and chemokine production was more pronounced in the wild-type mice, but the untreated hyporesponsive mice produced less of most cytokines than untreated wild-type mice. The major conclusion of this study is that acute ethanol exposure suppresses pro-inflammatory cytokine production and that a hyporesponsive TLR4 (in C3H/HeJ mice) decreases pro-inflammatory cytokine levels, but the cytokines and other mediators induced through other receptors are sufficient to ultimately clear the infection but not enough to induce lethal septic shock. In addition, results reported here demonstrate previously unknown effects of acute ethanol exposure on leukemia inhibitory factor and eotaxin, and provide the first evidence that interleukin (IL)-9 is induced through TLR4 in vivo.
    Alcohol (Fayetteville, N.Y.) 08/2011; 45(8):795-803. · 2.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The equine genome sequence enables the use of high-throughput genomic technologies in equine research, but accurate identification of expressed gene products and interpreting their biological relevance require additional structural and functional genome annotation. Here, we employ the equine genome sequence to identify predicted and known proteins using proteomics and model these proteins into biological pathways, identifying 582 proteins in normal cell-free equine bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). We improved structural and functional annotation by directly confirming the in vivo expression of 558 (96%) proteins, which were computationally predicted previously, and adding Gene Ontology (GO) annotations for 174 proteins, 108 of which lacked functional annotation. Bronchoalveolar lavage is commonly used to investigate equine respiratory disease, leading us to model the associated proteome and its biological functions. Modelling of protein functions using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis identified carbohydrate metabolism, cell-to-cell signalling, cellular function, inflammatory response, organ morphology, lipid metabolism and cellular movement as key biological processes in normal equine BALF. Comparative modelling of protein functions in normal cell-free bronchoalveolar lavage proteomes from horse, human, and mouse, performed by grouping GO terms sharing common ancestor terms, confirms conservation of functions across species. Ninety-one of 92 human GO categories and 105 of 109 mouse GO categories were conserved in the horse. Our approach confirms the utility of the equine genome sequence to characterize protein networks without antibodies or mRNA quantification, highlights the need for continued structural and functional annotation of the equine genome and provides a framework for equine researchers to aid in the annotation effort.
    Animal Genetics 08/2011; 42(4):395-405. · 2.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Listeria monocytogenes is able to survive and proliferate within macrophages. In the current study, the ability of three L. monocytogenes strains (serovar 1/2a strain EGDe, serovar 4b strain F2365, and serovar 4a strain HCC23) to proliferate in the murine macrophage cell line J774.1 was analyzed. We found that the avirulent strain HCC23 was able to initiate an infection but could not establish prolonged infection within the macrophages. By contrast, strains EGDe and F2365 proliferated within macrophages for at least 7 h. We further analyzed these strains by comparing their protein expression profiles at 0 h, 3 h, and 5 h post-infection using multidimensional protein identification technology coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Our results indicated that similar metabolic and cell wall associated proteins were expressed by all three strains at 3 h post-infection. However, increased expression of stress response and DNA repair proteins was associated with the ability to proliferate in macrophages at 5 h post-infection. By comparing the protein expression patterns of these three L. monocytogenes strains during intracellular growth in macrophages, we were able to detect biological differences that may determine the ability of L. monocytogenes to survive in macrophages.
    Journal of proteomics 05/2011; 74(10):1906-17. · 5.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: High-density tiling arrays provide closer view of transcription than regular microarrays and can also be used for annotating functional elements in genomes. The identified transcripts usually have a complex overlapping architecture when compared to the existing genome annotation. Therefore, there is a need for customized tiling array data analysis tools. Since most of the initial tiling arrays were conducted in eukaryotes, data analysis methods are well suited for eukaryotic genomes. For using whole-genome tiling arrays to identify previously unknown transcriptional elements like small RNA and antisense RNA in prokaryotes, existing data analysis tools need to be tailored for prokaryotic genome architecture. Furthermore, automation of such custom data analysis workflow is necessary for biologists to apply this powerful platform for knowledge discovery. Here we describe TAAPP, a web-based package that consists of two modules for prokaryotic tiling array data analysis. The transcript generation module works on normalized data to generate transcriptionally active regions (TARs). The feature extraction and annotation module then maps TARs to existing genome annotation. This module further categorizes the transcription profile into potential novel non-coding RNA, antisense RNA, gene expression and operon structures. The implemented workflow is microarray platform independent and is presented as a web-based service. The web interface is freely available for academic use at http://lims.lsbi.mafes.msstate.edu/TAAPP-HTML/.
    Genomics Proteomics & Bioinformatics 04/2011; 9(1-2):56-62.
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    ABSTRACT: Oligotropha carboxidovorans OM5 T. (DSM 1227, ATCC 49405) is a chemolithoautotrophic bacterium able to utilize CO and H(2) to derive energy for fixation of CO(2). Thus, it is capable of growth using syngas, which is a mixture of varying amounts of CO and H(2) generated by organic waste gasification. O. carboxidovorans is capable also of heterotrophic growth in standard bacteriologic media. Here we characterize how the O. carboxidovorans proteome adapts to different lifestyles of chemolithoautotrophy and heterotrophy. Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis of O. carboxidovorans grown with acetate or with syngas showed that the bacterium changes membrane fatty acid composition. Quantitative shotgun proteomic analysis of O. carboxidovorans grown in the presence of acetate and syngas showed production of proteins encoded on the megaplasmid for assimilating CO and H(2) as well as proteins encoded on the chromosome that might have contributed to fatty acid and acetate metabolism. We found that adaptation to chemolithoautotrophic growth involved adaptations in cell envelope, oxidative homeostasis, and metabolic pathways such as glyoxylate shunt and amino acid/cofactor biosynthetic enzymes.
    PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(2):e17111. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: High-throughput mass spectrometry (MS) proteomics data is increasingly being used to complement traditional structural genome annotation methods. To keep pace with the high speed of experimental data generation and to aid in structural genome annotation, experimentally observed peptides need to be mapped back to their source genome location quickly and exactly. Previously, the tools to do this have been limited to custom scripts designed by individual research groups to analyze their own data, are generally not widely available, and do not scale well with large eukaryotic genomes. The Proteogenomic Mapping Tool includes a Java implementation of the Aho-Corasick string searching algorithm which takes as input standardized file types and rapidly searches experimentally observed peptides against a given genome translated in all 6 reading frames for exact matches. The Java implementation allows the application to scale well with larger eukaryotic genomes while providing cross-platform functionality. The Proteogenomic Mapping Tool provides a standalone application for mapping peptides back to their source genome on a number of operating system platforms with standard desktop computer hardware and executes very rapidly for a variety of datasets. Allowing the selection of different genetic codes for different organisms allows researchers to easily customize the tool to their own research interests and is recommended for anyone working to structurally annotate genomes using MS derived proteomics data.
    BMC Bioinformatics 01/2011; 12:115. · 3.02 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

467 Citations
131.15 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013
    • University of Mississippi Medical Center
      Jackson, Mississippi, United States
  • 2006–2012
    • Mississippi State University
      • • College of Veterinary Medicine
      • • Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
      • • Department of Basic Sciences
      Mississippi, United States
  • 2008
    • Mississippi University for Women
      Mississippi, United States