[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Receptor usage by viral interleukin-6 (vIL-6), a virokine encoded by Kaposi sarcoma- associated herpesvirus, is an issue of controversy. Recently, the crystal structure of vIL-6 identified vIL-6 sites II and III as directly binding to glycoprotein (gp)130, the common signal transducer for the IL-6 family of cytokines. Site I of vIL-6, however, comprising the outward helical face of vIL-6, where human IL-6 (hIL-6) would interact with the specific alpha-chain IL-6 receptor (IL-6R), is accessible and not occupied by gp130. This study examined whether this unused vIL-6 surface is available for IL-6R binding. By enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, vIL-6 bound to soluble gp130 (sgp130) but not to soluble IL-6R (sIL-6R). Using plasmon surface resonance, vIL-6 bound to sgp130 with a dissociation constant of 2.5 microM, corresponding to 1000-fold lower affinity than that of hIL-6/sIL-6R complex for gp130. sIL-6R neither bound to vIL-6 nor affected vIL-6 binding to gp130. In bioassays, vIL-6 activity was neutralized by 4 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) recognizing a domain within vIL-6 site I, mapped to the C-terminal part of the AB-loop and the beginning of helix B. The homologous region in hIL-6 participates in site I binding to IL-6R. In addition, binding of vIL-6 to sgp130 was interfered with specifically by the 4 neutralizing anti-vIL-6 mAbs. Based on the vIL-6 crystal structure, the vIL-6 neutralizing mAbs map outside the binding interface to gp130, suggesting that they either produce allosteric changes or block necessary conformational changes in vIL-6 preceding its binding to gp130. These results document that vIL-6 does not bind IL-6R and suggest that conformational change may be critical to vIL-6 function.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cellular responsiveness to human interleukin 6 (hIL6) requires the expression of two receptor molecules: IL6-specific receptor (CD126'IL6R') and a nonspecific signal-transducing molecule (CD130'gp130'). Regulation of responsiveness to hIL6 is generally controlled by CD126'IL6R' expression. A viral homologue of hIL6 (vIL6) is encoded by human herpesvirus-8 and has biologic activity similar to hIL6 on a number of cell lines. vIL6 differs from hIL6 in its receptor utilization, requiring only CD130'gp130'. Total human B cells isolated from peripheral blood, which are predominantly CD126'IL6R'-negative, as well as sorted CD126'IL6R'-negative B cells, could be stimulated by recombinant vIL6, but not by hIL6, as indicated by induction of IL6-like signaling (STAT3 phosphorylation). This suggests that the ability of vIL6 to stimulate B cells expressing little or no CD126'IL6R' allows it to act on a larger pool of target B cells, compared to human IL6.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 (SOCS-1), also known as STAT-induced STAT inhibitor-1 (SSI-1), is a negative feedback molecule for cytokine signaling, and its in vivo deletion induces fulminant hepatitis. However, elimination of the STAT1 or STAT6 gene or deletion of NKT cells substantially prevented severe hepatitis in SOCS-1-deficient mice, while administration of IFN-gamma and IL-4 accelerated its development. SOCS-1 deficiency not only sustained IFN-gamma/IL-4 signaling but also eliminated the cross-inhibitory action of IFN-gamma on IL-4 signaling. These results suggest that SOCS-1 deficiency-induced persistent activation of STAT1 and STAT6, which would be inhibited by SOCS-1 under normal conditions, may induce abnormal activation of NKT cells, thus leading to lethal pathological changes in SOCS-1-deficient mice.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-induced STAT inhibitor 1 (SSI-1) is known to function as a negative feedback regulator of cytokine signaling, but it is unclear whether it is involved in other biological events. Here, we show that SSI-1 participates and plays an important role in the insulin signal transduction pathway. SSI-1-deficient mice showed a significantly low level of blood sugar. While the forced expression of SSI-1 reduced the phosphorylation level of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1), SSI-1 deficiency resulted in sustained phosphorylation of IRS-1 in response to insulin.Furthermore, SSI-1 achieves this inhibition both by binding directly to IRS-1 and by suppressing Janus kinases. These findings suggest that SSI-1 acts as a negative feedback factor also in the insulin signal transduction pathway through the suppression of IRS-1 phosphorylation.
Journal of Experimental Medicine 02/2001; 193(2):263-9. · 13.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous experiments have shown that STAT-induced STAT inhibitor-1 (SSI-1; also named suppressors of cytokine signaling-1 (SOCS-1) or Janus kinase binding protein) is predominantly expressed in lymphoid organs and functions in vitro as a negative regulator of cytokine signaling. To determine the function of SOCS-1 in vivo, we generated SSI-1 transgenic mice using the lck proximal promoter that drives transgene expression in T cell lineage. In thymocytes expressing SSI-1 transgene, tyrosine phosphorylation of STATs in response to cytokines such as IFN-gamma, IL-6, and IL-7 was inhibited, suggesting that SSI-1 suppresses cytokine signaling in primary lymphocytes. In addition, lck-SSI-1 transgenic mice showed a reduction in the number of thymocytes as a result of the developmental blocking during triple-negative stage. They also exhibited a relative increase in the percentage of CD4+ T cells, a reduction in the number of gammadelta T cells, as well as the spontaneous activation and increased apoptosis of peripheral T cells. Thus, enforced expression of SSI-1 disturbs the development of thymocytes and the homeostasis of peripheral T cells. All these features of lck-SSI-1 transgenic mice strikingly resemble the phenotype of mice lacking common gamma-chain or Janus kinase-3, suggesting that transgene-derived SSI-1 inhibits the functions of common gamma-chain-using cytokines. Taken together, these results suggest that SSI-1 can also inhibit a wide variety of cytokines in vivo.
The Journal of Immunology 09/2000; 165(4):1799-806. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: STAT-induced STAT inhibitor-1 (SSI-1), also referred to as suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 and JAK-binding protein, is a member of a new family, the members of which are negative regulators of cytokine signals. SSI-1 is induced by various cytokines; however, the transcriptional mechanism of the SSI-1 gene is not fully understood. Here, we showed that transcription of the mouse SSI-1 gene was initiated from six adjoining sites accompanying three GC boxes and a single GC box-like element near them, but not from the TATA box or an initiator sequence. We also showed that IFN-gamma induced SSI-1 mRNA more strongly than IL-6 in NIH-3T3 fibroblasts and that this IFN-gamma effect was mediated by Stat1. To determine the signal pathway downstream of Stat1, transcriptional activities of several mutant promoters were examined. The region mediating stimulatory effect of IFN-gamma to the gene transcription was localized to the -88/-60 region containing three tandem GAAA units, named variant IFN-gamma-responsive element (VIRE), while four IFN-gamma activation site (GAS)-like elements located far upstream were not related to the IFN-gamma response. Gel-shift assays revealed that IFN-gamma induced IFN regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) binding to VIRE, but not that of IRF-2 or three components of ISGF3. Furthermore, forced expression of IRF-1 mimicked and that of IRF-2 inhibited the stimulatory effect of IFN-gamma on SSI-1 gene transcription. Finally, mouse embryonal fibroblasts lacking IRF-1 showed impaired SSI-1 mRNA induction by IFN-gamma. These results demonstrated that IRF-1, which is induced by activation of Stat1, mediated transcriptional activation of the SSI-1 gene by IFN-gamma via VIRE.
The Journal of Immunology 07/2000; 164(11):5833-43. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Upon the corresponding ligand's stimulation, the cytokine receptors activate several signal pathways: JAK-STAT pathway, Ras-MAP kinase pathway and so on. Recently, we demonstrated that one of the STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription-3) target genes could suppress the function of STAT3 and designated as SSI-1(STAT induced STAT inhibitor-1). SSI-1 is thought to play a critical role in negative feedback control of JAK-STAT signaling pathway. In the present study, we identified two novel human genes which products have homologous region in their SH2 domain and its COOH-terminal region to mouse SSI-1. Northern blotting analysis and functional studies demonstrated that SSI-2 and SSI-3 mRNA were also induced by cytokine stimulation and their forced expression in mouse myeloid leukemia cell, M1, suppressed the apoptotic effect of LIF, like SSI-1. We also demonstrated the structure of human SSI-1.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 09/1997; 237(1):79-83. · 2.41 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Leptin (OB) exerts weight-reducing effects in mice. The structure of the receptor for this factor, OB-R, is considerably similar to those of gp130, the common signal transducing receptor component for the interleukin-6 (IL-6) family of cytokines, and leukemia inhibitory factor receptor (LIFR). Since the IL-6 family of cytokines signal through gp130 homodimer or gp130/LIFR heterodimer, we have examined in this study the possible involvement of gp130 and LIFR in leptin signaling through OB-R. Leptin stimulation induces tyrosine phosphorylation of neither gp130 nor LIFR, while LIF stimulation does both. As examined by using two differently epitope-tagged OB-R molecules, the spontaneous homo-oligomerization of OB-R has been elucidated. Ba/F3 cells, which do not express gp130, are non-responsive to leptin and exhibit increased DNA synthesis in response to leptin after transfection of OB-R cDNA alone. OB-R appears to transduce the signal via its homo-oligomerization without interaction with gp130 or LIFR.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vav is a hematopoietic cell-specific proto-oncogene. We show that interleukin-6 (IL-6) induces transient tyrosine phosphorylation of Vav in a human myeloma cell line, U266. A membrane-distal part of the cytoplasmic region of gp130 is critical for association between Vav and gp130, and the IL-6-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Vav. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) (p42MAPK or extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (Erk2)) is coprecipitated with Vav. MAPK activity in the anti-Vav immunoprecipitates is upregulated by IL-6 stimulation. Furthermore Vav is associated with Grb2 which is known as an adapter protein leading to Ras activation. The results imply that Vav may link gp130 activation to downstream MAPK activation in hematopoietic cells.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The structure of leptin receptor (OB-R) is highly homologous to that of gp130, the common signal transducing receptor component for the interleukin-6 family of cytokines. Based on this structural similarity, we examined signaling processes initiated by OB-R in comparison with those by gp130. Stimulation of either a long form of OB-R or gp130 led to tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT3, whereas stimulation of the truncated form of OB-R that is predominantly expressed in dbldb mice failed to do so. Stimulation of the long form OB-R did not induce tyrosine phosphorylation of a Src homology domain 2 containing protein tyrosine phosphatase, SHP-2, while stimulation of gp130 did. In contrast, activation of p42ERK2 is mediated by either the long form OB-R or gp130. Two closely related molecules, OB-R and gp130, thus appear to mediate overlapping but distinct signaling procedures.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1) was recently isolated by expression cloning based on its ability to induce an increase in cell size in neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes. Sequence similarity data suggested that CT-1 is a novel member of a family of structurally related cytokines sharing the receptor component gp130. The present study documents that gp130 is required for CT-1 signaling in cardiomyocytes, by demonstrating that a monoclonal anti-gp130 antibody completely inhibits c-fos induction by CT-1. Similarly, a leukemia inhibitory factor receptor subunit beta (LIFRbeta) antagonist effectively blocks the CT-1 induction of c-fos, indicating a requirement for LIFRbeta in the hypertrophic response, as well. Upon stimulation with CT-1, both gpl30 and the LIFRbeta are tyrosine-phosphorylated, providing further evidence that CT-1 signals through the gp130/LIFRbeta heterodimer in cardiomyocytes. CT-1 induces a hypertrophic response in cardiomyocytes that is distinct from the phenotype seen after alpha-adrenergic stimulation, both with regard to cell morphology and gene expression pattern. Stimulation with CT-1 results in an increase in cardiac cell size that is characterized by an increase in cell length but no significant change in cell width. Confocal laser microscopy of CT-1 stimulated cells reveals the assembly of sarcomeric units in series rather than in parallel, as seen after alpha-adrenergic stimulation. CT-1 induces a distinct pattern of immediate early genes, and up-regulates the atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) gene, but does not affect skeletal alpha-actin or myosin light chain-2v expression. As evidenced by nuclear run-on transcription assays, both CT-1 and alpha-adrenergic stimulation lead to an increase in ANF gene transcription. Transient transfection analyses document that, in contrast to alpha-adrenergic stimulation, the CT-1 responsive cis-regulatory elements are located outside of the proximal 3 kilobase pairs of the ANF 5'-flanking region. These studies indicate that CT-1 can activate a distinct form of myocardial cell hypertrophy, characterized by the promotion of sarcomere assembly in series, via gpl30/LIFRbeta-dependent signaling pathways.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/1996; 271(16):9535-45. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The interleukin 6 receptor-associated signal transducer, gp130, is shared by receptor complexes for leukemia inhibitory factor, oncostatin M, ciliary neurotrophic factor, and interleukin 11. We show here that JAK2 kinase is rapidly tyrosine phosphorylated in mouse embryonic stem cells whose pluripotentiality is maintained only by gp130-sharing cytokines after stimulation that is known to induce gp130 homodimerization. JAK1 is also tyrosine phosphorylated, but to a lesser extent, under the same conditions. Comparable results are obtained with hemopoietic lineage cells such as myeloid leukemic M1 cells and pro-B-cell line-derived transfectants expressing gp130, the former of which differentiate into macrophages after stimulation of gp130 and the latter of which initiate DNA synthesis. gp130-dimerizing stimulus upregulates kinase activity of JAK2 as revealed by immunocomplex kinase assay. Deletion or point mutation in the membrane-proximal cytoplasmic motifs in gp130 that are conserved in the hemopoietic cytokine receptor family results in the loss of tyrosine phosphorylation of JAK2, which coincides with the lack of signal transducing capability of gp130 mutants.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 04/1994; 91(6):2285-9. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The interleukin-6 (IL-6) signal is transduced through membrane-anchored gp130, which is associated with IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) in the presence of IL-6. Soluble forms of gp130 (sgp130) with molecular weights of 90 and 110 Kd were found in human serum. In the presence of recombinant IL-6 (rIL-6), serum sgp130 were capable of associating with serum sIL-6R. By the sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, healthy human sera was shown to contain 390 +/- 72 ng/mL of sgp130. A mouse pro-B-cell line-derived transfectant, BAF-130, expressing human gp130 was used to examine the function of serum sgp130. When supplemented with rIL-6, human serum induced DNA synthesis in BAF-130 cells, whereas the serum deprived of sIL-6R did not. In contrast, the DNA synthesis induced in BAF-130 cells by rIL-6-supplemented serum was increased when the serum was deprived of sgp130. These results indicated that serum sgp130 could negatively regulate the IL-6 signal. Recently, gp130 has been shown to be involved in the signaling processes of oncostatin M, leukemia inhibitory factor, and ciliary neurotropic factor, in addition to those of IL-6. Recombinant sgp130 showed inhibitory effect on the biologic function of such cytokines. This work implies physiologic roles of naturally produced serum sgp130 in modulating signals through gp130.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Functional pleiotropy and redundancy are characteristic features of cytokines. To understand the signaling mechanisms of such cytokines, we have proposed a two-chain interleukin (IL) 6 receptor model: IL-6 triggers the association of a ligand-binding chain (IL-6 receptor) and a nonbinding signal transducer (gp130) to form a high-affinity receptor complex, resulting in transmission of the signal by the cytoplasmic portion of gp130. This model would explain the functional redundancy of cytokines if we were to assume that gp130 interacts with several different receptor chains. Here we present data indicating that gp130 functions as a common signal transducer for IL-6, oncostatin M, leukemia inhibitory factor, and ciliary neurotrophic factor. We show that anti-gp130 monoclonal antibodies completely block the biological responses induced by all of these factors. Since leukemia inhibitory factor functions as a cholinergic differentiation factor in nerve cells, as does ciliary neurotrophic factor, these results suggest that gp130 may also play a role in the nervous system.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 12/1992; 89(22):10998-1001. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: IL-6 mediates its pleiotropic functions through two membrane proteins, a ligand-binding molecule (IL-6 receptor, IL-6R) and a non-ligand-binding signal transducer (gp130). Starting with a previously isolated cDNA clone encoding human gp130, recombinant soluble gp130 (sgp130) lacking the transmembrane and cytoplasmic regions was expressed in COS7 cells or CHO cells. sgp130 could associate with a complex of IL-6 and soluble IL-6R (sIL-6R), also lacking transmembrane and cytoplasmic regions. This indicated that extracellular region of gp130 was responsible for the association with IL-6R which was occupied by IL-6. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the quantitation of sgp130 was established, which was based on the interaction of sgp130 with the complex of IL-6 and sIL-6R and could detect sgp130 as low as 1 ng/ml.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Functional pleiotropy and redundancy are characteristic features of cytokines. Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is a typical example: IL-6 induces cellular differentiation or expression of tissue-specific genes; it is involved in processes such as antibody production in B cells, acute-phase protein synthesis in hepatocytes, megakaryocyte maturation, cytotoxic T cell differentiation, and neural differentiation of PC12 (pheochromocytoma) cells. It promotes growth of myeloma/plasmacytoma cells, T cells, keratinocytes and renal mesangial cells, and it inhibits growth of myeloid leukaemic cell lines and certain carcinoma cell lines. The IL-6 receptor consists of two polypeptide chains, a ligand-binding chain (IL-6R) and a non-ligand-binding, signal-transducing chain (gp130). Interaction of IL-6 with IL-6R triggers the association of gp130 and IL-6R, and the signal can be transduced through gp130. Association of gp130 with IL-6R is involved in the formation of high affinity binding sites. This two-chain model has been shown to be applicable to receptor systems for several other cytokines, such as granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), IL-3, IL-5 and nerve growth factor (NGF). The pleiotropy and redundancy of cytokines may be explained on the basis of this unique receptor system.
Ciba Foundation symposium 02/1992; 167:5-16; discussion 16-23.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interleukin 6 (IL-6) signal is transduced through gp130 that associates with a complex of IL-6 and IL-6 receptor. Truncations or amino acid substitutions offe introduced in the cytoplasmic region of human gp130, and the mutant cDNAs were transfected into murine interleukin 3-dependent cells to determine amino acid residues critical for generating the IL-6-mediated growth signal. In the 277-amino acid cytoplasmic region of gp130, a 61-amino acid region proximal to the transmembrane domain was sufficient for generating the growth signal. In this region, two short segments were significantly homologous with other cytokine-receptor family members. One segment is conserved in almost all members of the family, and the other is found especially in granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor, interleukin 2 receptor beta chain, erythropoietin receptor, KH97 (a granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor-associated molecule), and interleukin 3 receptor. gp130 molecules with mutations in either of these two segments could not transduce growth signal. Loss of signal-transducing ability of gp130 with such a mutation coincided with disappearance of IL-6-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of gp130.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 01/1992; 88(24):11349-53. · 9.74 Impact Factor