[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Components of silk including silk fibroin have long been used as anti-diabetic remedies in oriental medicine. However, detailed mechanisms underlying these antidiabetic effects remain unclear. In this study, we examined the anti-diabetic activity of silk fibroin hydrolysate (SFH) in C57BL/KsJ db/db (db/db) mice, a well-known animal model of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. When the db/db mice were administered SFH in drinking water for 6 weeks, hyperglycemia in the animals gradually disappeared and the level of glycosylated hemoglobin decreased, indicating that SFH plays important role in reducing the symptoms of diabetes. In addition, SFH-treated db/db mice exhibited improved glucose tolerance with increased plasma insulin levels. Immunohistochemical and morphological analyses showed that SFH up-regulated insulin production by increasing pancreatic β cell mass in the mice. In summary, our results suggest that SFH exerts anti-diabetic effects by increasing pancreatic β cell mass in a non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus mouse model.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High glucose levels induce cell death in many cell types, including pancreatic β-cells. Although protective agents against glucotoxicity have been searched for extensively, so far none have been found. In this report, we tested silk fibroin (SF) as a candidate material for antiglucotoxicity in the pancreatic β-cell (HIT-T15 cell) line. Approximately 50% of cells were killed after treatment with 80 mg/mL glucose. This reduction of cell number was recovered by the addition of SF at 50 mg/mL. SF treatment also decreased cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increased proliferating cellular nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunoreactivity. In addition, TUNEL assays demonstrated that SF protects against glucose-induced apoptosis of HIT-T15 cells, suggesting that SF might protect cells from cell death by lowering cellular ROS levels. SF also induced expression of the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) gene, and IGF-1 expression may be the cause of SF-induced protection against glucose toxicity. Taken together, these results suggest that SF could serve as a potential therapeutic agent to treat the hyperglycemia-induced death of pancreatic β-cells.
Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology 07/2011; 25(4):238-43. · 1.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The dried unripe fruit of Rubus coreanus, which is well-known in Korea and referred to as 'Bok-bun-ja', has been employed as a traditional medicine for centuries. This crude drug is utilized in Korea for the management of impotence, spermatorrhea, enuresis, asthma and allergic diseases. The principal objective of the present study was to conduct a comparison of the antiinflammatory effects of ethanol extracts of the unripe (URCE), half-ripened (HRCE) and ripe fruits (RCE) of Rubus coreanus. URCE and HRCE were found to reduce the production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) as well as pro-inflammatory cytokines, in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 murine macrophages. However, RCE exerted no inhibitory effects against the production of NO and IL-6. The results of the study show that the degree of fruit ripening of Rubus coreanus affects the production of inflammatory mediators such as NO, PGE2 and inflammatory cytokines.
Phytotherapy Research 02/2008; 22(1):102-7. · 2.40 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine the expression and distribution of band 3 in the collecting duct and connecting tubules of the kidney of the marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus), and to establish whether band 3 is expressed in type A intercalated cells. The intracellular localization of band 3 in the different populations of intercalated cells was determined by double-labeling immunohistochemistry. Immunohistochemical microscopy demonstrated that band 3 is located in the basolateral plasma membranes of all type A intercalated cells in the connecting tubule (CNT), cortical collecting duct (CCD), and outer medullary collecting duct (OMCD) of the marmoset. However, type B intercalated cells and non-A/non-B intercalated cells did not show band 3 labeling. Electron microscopy of the CNT, CCD and OMCD confirmed the light microscopic observation of the basolateral plasma membrane staining for band 3 in a subpopulation of interacted cells. Basolateral staining was seen on the plasma membrane and small coated vesicles in the perinuclear structure, some of which were located in the Golgi region. In addition, there was no labeling of band 3 in the mitochondria of the CNT, CCD and in OMCD cells. The intensity of the immunostaining of the basolateral membrane was less in the CNT than in the CCD and OMCD. In contrast, band 3 immunoreactivity was greater in the intracellular vesicles of the CNT. From these results, we suggest that the basolateral Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchanger in the monkey kidney is in a more active state in the collecting duct than in the CNT.
Journal of Veterinary Science 01/2008; 8(4):329-33. · 0.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, the glucose-stimulated insulin release of isolated human islets has been shown to deteriorate progressively with advancing donor age. This decline in beta cell function with aging may contribute to the increasing development of IGT and type 2 diabetes and also to the progressive nature of the disease. This study was to see whether there is any change in expression of beta cell function-related genes in islets with aging. Islets were isolated from young (2-month old) and old (22-24-month old) LETO rats and C57BL/6N mice. The in vitro GSIR index was significantly lower in islets from old mice compared with young mice. In real-time RT-PCR, PDX-1, insulin, GLUT2 and prohormone convertase 1/3 gene expression in islets was markedly lower in old rats (33%, 13%, 20% and 34%, respectively) and old mice (56%, 42%, 28% and 22%, respectively) compared with young animals. On the other hand, genes not specifically related to beta cell-specific function, such as caspase 3, superoxide dismutase 2 and glycerol kinase were not significantly different in expression in islets according to age. In conclusion, with increasing age, insulin secretory function of islets deteriorates accompanied with a decrease in expression of beta cell-specific genes including PDX-1.
Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 10/2007; 77 Suppl 1:S150-4. · 2.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine temporal changes of EAAC1 immunoreactivity and its protein level in the spinal ventral horn after transient ischemia in the rabbit to investigate the correlation between neuronal cell death and EAAC1 in the ventral horn of spinal cord.
White rabbits weighing 2.5-3.0 kg were anesthetized with a mixture of 2.5% isoflurane in 30% oxygen and 70% nitrous oxide, and the abdominal aortic artery below the left renal artery was occluded for 15 minutes. At designated times after reperfusion, the immunohistochemical and Western blot analysis for EAAC1 was conducted using tissues of the seventh lumbar spinal segment.
EAAC1 immunoreactivity was detected in the neurons of the normal spinal cord. EAAC1 immunoreactivity and protein level reduced significantly 30 minutes after ischemia/reperfusion, but EAAC1 immunoreactivity and protein level again increased by 80% versus sham 3 hours after ischemia. At this time point, neurological defect in hindlimb was also detected. Thereafter, EAAC1 immunoreactivity and protein levels remained to be attenuated in the ventral horn of spinal cord until 48 hours after ischemia.
The significant change in EAAC1 expression and motor defects at early time after transient spinal cord ischemia relates to the acute events following ischemia/reperfusion. These results indicate that EAAC1 has an important role in the modulation of glutamate homeostasis in ischemic neurons in the spinal ventral horn.
Neurological Research 05/2007; 29(3):310-6. · 1.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, we focused on age-dependent changes in intracellular iron deposition in the gerbil hippocampus. At 1 month of age (PM 1), iron reactivity was weak in the gerbil hippocampus. At this time, cells in the polymorphic layer of the dentate gyrus showed weak iron reactivity. At PM 3, iron reactivity in cells had not changed significantly. Thereafter, iron reactivity in the CA1-3 regions and in the dentate gyrus increased with time until PM 18. At PM 24, iron reactivity in all the subfields was similar to that at PM 18. In animals aged PM 18-24, iron positive cells had various shapes, and had processes which contained iron. These results suggest that the increase of iron deposition may be associated with normal aging and that the iron deposition in the aged hippocampus is different according to hippocampal subfields.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The circling mouse (C57BL6-cir) shows deafness and circling behavior in homozygotes. The mutation is transmitted with 100% penetrance by an autosomal recessive gene on chromosome 9. In the present study, we characterized the circling mutation as a 40-kilobase deletion that includes the transmembrane inner ear (tmie) gene. The tmie gene was first identified because its mutation causes deafness and circling behavior in spinner mice. We suggest that the genomic deletion of circling mice is a different, but allelic, mutation to that of spinner mice. In addition, during general behavioral investigations for complementation tests of the 2 strains, we found that circling and spinner mice may differ in their behavioral responses to a new environment.
Comparative medicine 01/2007; 56(6):476-81. · 1.12 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Foods of plant origin, especially fruits and vegetables, draw increased attention because of their potential benefits to human health. The aim of the present study was to determine in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of four different extracts obtained from the fruits of Rubus coreanus (aqueous and ethanol extracts of unripe and ripe fruits). Among the four extracts, the ethanol extract of unripe fruits of R. coreanus (URCE) suppressed nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 murine macrophages. We also demonstrated that URCE by itself is a potent inducer of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Inhibition of HO-1 activity by tin protoporphyrin, a specific HO-1 inhibitor, suppressed the URCE-induced reductions in the production of NO and PGE(2) as well as the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2). Our data suggest that URCE exerts anti-inflammatory effects in macrophages via activation of the HO-1 pathway and helps to elucidate the mechanism underlying the potential therapeutic value of R. coreanus extracts.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 01/2007; 351(1):146-52. · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Licorice, the roots of Glycyrrhiza inflata, is used by practitioners of alternative medicine to treat individuals with gastric or duodenal ulcers, bronchitis, cough, arthritis, adrenal insufficiency, and allergies. We investigated the anti-inflammatory properties of 4 licorice extracts: extracts of roasted licorice obtained by ethanol (rLE) or water extraction (rLW) and extracts of raw licorice obtained by ethanol (LE) or water extraction (LW). rLE demonstrated strong anti-inflammatory activity through its ability to reduce nitric oxide and prostaglandin E(2) production in the LPS-stimulated mouse macrophage cell, RAW264.7. It also inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and CD14 expression on the LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Further study indicated that LPS-induced degradation and phosphorylation of Ikappa-Balpha, along with DNA-binding of NF-kappaB, was significantly inhibited by rLE exposure in RAW264.7 cells. In the murine model, we found that in vivo exposure to rLE-induced an increase in the survival rate, reduced plasma levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6, and increased IL-10 production in LPS-treated mice. Collectively, these data suggest that the use of rLE may be a useful therapeutic approach to various inflammatory diseases.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 08/2006; 345(3):1215-23. · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The changes of calretinin (CR)-immunoreactive periglomerular cells in the glomerular layer of the main olfactory bulb (MOB) were investigated in rats differing ages from postnatal month 1 (PM 1) to PM 24. The number of cresyl violet-positive periglomerular cells was similar between PM 1 and PM 12, but they decreased slightly in the PM 24 group. The size of CR-immunoreactive periglomerular cells in the glomerular layer increased with age, while their numbers did not change significantly in the PM 6-PM 24 groups. In the PM 24 group, numbers of CR-positive periglomerular cell bodies and their processes decreased, while the size of CR-positive cell bodies in the glomeruli was larger than that of the previous groups. These results suggest that CR-immunoreactive periglomerular cells in the rat MOB are well-developed in the PM 6 group, and that periglomerular cells in the PM 24 group show poor CR-immunoreactivity compared to those in the PM 6 group.
Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 06/2006; 68(5):465-9. · 0.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A novel autosomal recessive mutant was produced using N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenesis. The characteristics of the mutant mice included progressive irreversible hair loss within a month of birth, wrinkled skin, and long curved nails. Linkage analysis revealed that the causative gene is linked to D14Mit193 on chromosome 14. Sequence analysis of the complete cDNA of the candidate gene, hairless (Hr), identified a homozygous G-to-T transition at nucleotide 3572, leading to the substitution of glycine by tryptophan, designated Gly960Trp. This missense mutation occurs in the vicinity of repression domain 3 of the hairless protein (HR). This allele was named Hr(m1Enu). The relative amounts of Hr mRNA and HR protein determined by real-time PCR and Western blot analyses, respectively, were slightly elevated in the mutant mice. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed the increased expression of Kc1 and Vdr in the mutant mice, whereas the expression of Nrs1 and Krtap16-6 was decreased. These results suggest that the Gly960Trp substitution in HR protein in Hr(m1Enu) mice may alter the function of HR as a transcriptional corepressor.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present study, to elucidate the effect of altered P(2)X receptor transmission on GABA(A) receptor expression and its transmission, we studied the morphological and electrophysiological responses of GABA(A) receptor in the gerbil hippocampus following P(2)X receptor antagonist/agonist treatment. Suramin or pyridoxal phosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulfonic acid (PPADS) treatment did not affect GABA(A) receptor immunoreactivities and paired-pulse responses in the gerbil hippocampus. In addition, ATP treatment did not significantly affect population spike amplitude ratios and EPSP slope ratios in the gerbil dentate gyrus. Co-application, but not pretreatment, of PPADS or suramin enhanced the effect of muscimol on paired-pulse inhibition in the dentate gyrus. In contrast, co-application of ATP reduced the effect of muscimol in the dentate gyrus. These findings indicate that the blockade of P(2)X receptor did not affect GABA(A) receptor immunoreactivities, and P(2)X receptor may modulate GABA(A) receptor-mediated inhibition when in co-activation with GABA(A) receptor. Therefore, our findings suggest that the relationship between GABA(A) receptor and P(2)X receptor may not be reciprocal, although GABA(A) receptor activity affects P(2)X receptor functionality and its expression.
Brain Research 01/2006; 1065(1-2):125-31. · 2.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new electrophoretic migration type of alkaline phosphatase 1 (Akp1) was found on the cellulose acetate electrophoresis for kidney and liver homogenates of KWHM mouse, a newly established inbred strain derived from the Korean wild mouse (Mus musculus molossinus). This new type of alkaline phosphatase 1 was distinguished from previously reported AKP1A and AKP1B types in the mouse, and tentatively named AKP1C. In genetic analysis by mating experiments between KWHM and C57BL/6J (AKP1A) or BALB/cA (AKP1B), the phenotypic segregation ratios of AKP1A : AKP1AC : AKP1C or AKP1B : AKP1BC : AKP1C were 1 : 2 : 1 in both groups of F2 generations. It was therefore concluded that AKP1C type is controlled by Akp1c allele which is codominant with Akp1a and Akp1b alleles.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abnormal corticosteroid hormone levels during stress and resultant mineralocorticoid receptor (MR)/glucocorticoid receptor (GR) imbalance enhance the vulnerability of specific hippocampal neurons. In the present study, we investigated the distribution of MR and GR in seizure resistant (SR) and seizure sensitive (SS) gerbils, and observed the seizure-induced changes of MR and GR in the hippocampus of SS gerbils using immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. MR and GR immunoreactivities were higher in the SS pre-seizure gerbils than that in SR gerbils. In the SR gerbils, the immunodensity of GR was high compared to that of MR. The changes of MR and GR immunoreactivities were significant in the stratum pyramidale of the hippocampal CA1 region and the infrablade of the dentate gyrus after seizure on-set. MR immunoreactivity in the CA1 region was significantly increased at 12h after seizure on-set, thereafter MR immunoreactivity was decreased. MR immunoreactivity in the dentate gyrus was decreased time-dependently after seizure on-set. GR immunoreactivity was decreased in the CA1 region and dentate gyrus time-dependently after seizure on-set. At 12h after seizure on-set, differences in MR and GR immunodensity diminished in the CA1 region and dentate gyrus. This imbalance of MR and GR immunoreactivity in these regions may be associated with seizure generation in the Mongolian gerbil, which is a hereditary seizure model.
Neuroscience Research 10/2005; 53(1):14-24. · 2.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In 183 male progeny derived from a backcross between the FGS/Kist strain, a new mouse model for focal glomerulosclerosis (FGS) in humans, and the standard normal strain, C57BL/6J, we performed a genome-wide scan for quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting the glomerulosclerosis index (GSI) based on histological observation as well as kidney and body weights. Two QTLs for GSI (Gsi1-2) located on chromosomes (Chrs) 8 and 10, a kidney weight QTL (Kdw1) on Chr 19, and a body weight QTL (Bdw1) on Chr 13 were detected at the genome-wide 5% or less level. The allele derived from FGS/Kist increased GSI at Gsi1, but decreased it at Gsi2. The mice homozygous for the FGS/Kist allele decreased body and kidney weights. The identified QTLs accounted for 5-8% of the phenotypic variance.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The FGS/Kist strain of mice, a new animal model for focal glomerulosclerosis (FGS) in humans, was previously established by recurrent selection for high proteinuria, which is a principal marker of FGS, from descendants of CBA/Nga and RFM/Nga strains. We performed a genome-wide scan for quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting proteinuria in a population of 356 backcross progeny derived from a cross between FGS/Kist and the standard normal strain, C57BL/6J. Five proteinuria QTLs (Ptnu1-5) were detected at the genome-wide 5% or less level. Ptnu1 and Ptnu2, located on Chromosomes (Chrs) 8 and 17, respectively, had main effects on proteinuria and also interacted epistatically with each other. However, Ptnu3 on Chr 9 and Ptnu4 and Ptnu5 both on Chr 15 had epistatic interaction effects only. Except for the epistatic interaction effect of Ptnu4 and Ptnu5, all alleles derived from FGS/Kist were responsible for the high proteinuria. These results indicated that the genetic control of proteinuria is complex and the identified QTLs may provide new insights into the pathogenesis of FGS in mice as well as in humans.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In present study, we investigated voltage-gated Ca2+ channel (VGCC) expressions in the hippocampus of the Mongolian gerbil and its association with different sequelae of spontaneous seizures, in an effort to identify the epileptogenesis in this animal. In the hippocampus of pre-seizure seizure sensitive (SS) gerbils, VGCC subunit expressions were significantly elevated, as compared with seizure-resistant (SR) gerbils. In 3 h postictal group, the alteration of VGCC expressions showed regional- and neuronal-specific manners; VGCC immunoreactivities in principal neurons were markedly decreased; however, their immunoreactivities in interneurons were significantly elevated. These results are the first comprehensive description of the distribution of VGCC immunoreactivities in the normal and epileptic hippocampus of gerbils, and suggest that these alterations in the hippocampus of the SS gerbil may be related with tissue excitability and have a role in modulating recurrent excitation following seizures.
Brain Research 01/2005; 1029(2):168-78. · 2.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present study, we investigated chronological changes of galanin (GAL), well known as the potassium channel opener, immunoreactivity and GAL protein level in the hippocampus of the gerbil at the various times after 5 min transient forebrain ischemia. In the sham-operated group, weak GAL immunoreactivity was found in non-pyramidal cells. At 12 h after ischemia-reperfusion, the number of GAL-immunoreactive neurons and GAL immunoreactivity were significantly increased in the hippocampus compared to 3 h after ischemic insult, especially in the hippocampal CA1 region. Thereafter the number of GAL-immunoreactive neurons and GAL immunoreactivity decrease time-dependently in the hippocampus. Four days after transient ischemia, GAL immunoreactivity was low as compared with the sham-operated group. At this time point after ischemic insult, GAL immunoreactivity was shown in microglia in the CA1 region because delayed neuronal death happened in the CA1 pyramidal cells. The result of Western blot showed the pattern of GAL expression similar to that of immunohistochemical data. These results suggest that the early increase of GAL in the CA1 pyramidal cells may be associated with the reduction of the excitotoxic damage, that long-lasting enhanced expression of endogenous GAL at 12 h-2 days after ischemia may be associated with efflux of potassium ion into the extracellular space, and that GAL expression in microglia 4 days after ischemia may be associated with reduction of ischemic damage.
Brain Research 11/2004; 1023(2):193-9. · 2.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, we observed the chronological alterations of neurofilament 150 (NF-150) immunoreactivity in the gerbil hippocampus and dentate gyrus after 5 min transient forebrain ischemia. NF-150 immunoreactivity in the sham-operated group was mainly detected in mossy fibers and in the hilar region of the dentate gyrus. NF-150 immunoreactivity and protein contents of NF-150 and RT 97 (polyphosphorylation epitopes of neurofilament) were significantly decreased at 15 min after ischemic insult. Between 30 min and 12 h after ischemic insult, NF-150 immunoreactivity and protein content were significantly increased as compared with the sham-operated group. Thereafter, NF-150 immunoreactivity and protein content started to decrease. At 12 h after ischemic insult, unlike dentate gyrus, NF-150 immunoreactivity increased in pyramidal cells of the CA1 region. Thereafter, NF-150 immunoreactivity in the CA1 region started to decrease, and 4 days after ischemic insult, NF-150 immunoreactivity nearly was similar to that of the sham-operated group. These biphasic patterns of NF-150 immunoreactivity in the hippocampus and dentate gyrus are reverse correlated with that of the intracellular calcium influx. For calcium detection in the CA1 region, we also conducted alizarin red staining. Alizarin red positive neurons were detected in some neurons at 15-30 min after ischemic insult. At 12 h after ischemia, alizarin red positive neurons were decreased. Thereafter, alizarin red positive neurons started to decrease, but alizarin positive neurons were significantly increased in dying neurons 4 days after ischemia. These results suggest that ischemia-related changes of NF-150 expression may be caused by the calcium following transient forebrain ischemia.
Brain Research 08/2004; 1016(1):119-28. · 2.88 Impact Factor