Lars Edenbrandt

Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Skåne, Sweden

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Publications (162)312.73 Total impact

  • 12/2015; 2(1). DOI:10.1186/s40658-014-0105-9
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    European heart journal cardiovascular Imaging; 05/2015
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the Bone Scan Index (BSI) for prediction of castration resistance and prostate cancer specific survival. In a retrospective material, we used a novel computer-assisted software for automated detection/quantification of bone metastases by BSI. Prostate cancer patients are M-staged by whole-body bone scintigraphy (WBS) and categorized as M0 or M1. Within the M1 group, there is a wide range of clinical outcomes. The BSI was introduced a decade ago providing quantification of bone metastases by estimating the percentage of bone involvement. Being too time consuming, it never gained widespread clinical use. A total of 88 patients with prostate cancer awaiting initiation of androgen deprivation due to metastases were included. WBS was performed using a two-headed gamma camera. BSI was obtained using the automated platform EXINI bone (EXINI Diagnostics AB, Lund, Sweden). In Cox proportional hazard models, time to castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and prostate cancer specific survival were modelled as the dependent variables, whereas PSA, Gleason score and BSI were used as explanatory factors. For Kaplan-Meier estimates, BSI groups were dichotomously split into: BSI <1 and BSI ≥ 1. Discrimination between prognostic models was explored using the concordance index (C-index). The mean age of the patients was 72 years (range 52-92), the median PSA level was 73 μg/L (range 4-5740), the average Gleason score was 7.7 (range 2-10), and the mean BSI was 1.0 (range 0-9.2). During a mean follow-up of 26 months (range 8-49), 48 patients became castration resistant and 15 died, the majority (13) of prostate cancer. In multivariate analysis including PSA, Gleason score and BSI, only prediction by BSI was statistically significant. This was true both in terms of time to CRPC (HR=1.45; 95%CI: 1.22-1.74; C-index increase from 0.49 to 0.69) and with regard to prostate cancer-specific survival (HR=1.34; 95%CI: 1.07-1.67; C-index increase from 0.76 to 0.95). BSI obtained by a novel automated computer-assisted algorithm appears to be a useful predictor of outcome with regard to time to CRPC and prostate cancer specific survival in patients with hormone sensitive metastatic prostate cancer. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    BJU International 04/2015; DOI:10.1111/bju.13160 · 3.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to apply an artificial neural network (ANN) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and to characterize its diagnostic ability compared with conventional visual and quantitative methods in myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI).Methods and Results:A total of 106 patients with CAD were studied with MPI, including multiple vessel disease (49%), history of myocardial infarction (27%) and coronary intervention (30%). The ANN detected abnormal areas with a probability of stress defect and ischemia. The consensus diagnosis based on expert interpretation and coronary stenosis was used as the gold standard. The left ventricular ANN value was higher in the stress-defect group than in the no-defect group (0.92±0.11 vs. 0.25±0.32, P<0.0001) and higher in the ischemia group than in the no-ischemia group (0.70±0.40 vs. 0.004±0.032, P<0.0001). Receiver-operating characteristics curve analysis showed comparable diagnostic accuracy between ANN and the scoring methods (0.971 vs. 0.980 for stress defect, and 0.882 vs. 0.937 for ischemia, both P=NS). The relationship between the ANN and defect scores was non-linear, with the ANN rapidly increased in ranges of summed stress score of 2-7 and summed defect score of 2-4. Although the diagnostic ability of ANN was similar to that of conventional scoring methods, the ANN could provide a different viewpoint for judging abnormality, and thus is a promising method for evaluating abnormality in MPI.
    Circulation Journal 04/2015; DOI:10.1253/circj.CJ-15-0079 · 3.69 Impact Factor
  • 02/2015; 16(3). DOI:10.1093/ehjci/jeu304
  • Elin Trägårdh, Marcus Carlsson, Lars Edenbrandt
    Journal of Nuclear Cardiology 12/2014; DOI:10.1007/s12350-014-0041-z · 2.65 Impact Factor
  • European Urology Supplements 11/2014; DOI:10.1016/S1569-9056(14)61224-0 · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Assessment of image analysis methods and computer software used in 99mTc-MAG3 dynamic renography is important to ensure reliable study results and ultimately the best possible care for patients. In this work, we present a national multicentre study of the quantification accuracy in 99mTc-MAG3 renography, utilizing virtual dynamic scintigraphic data obtained by Monte Carlo-simulated scintillation camera imaging of digital phantoms with time-varying activity distributions. Three digital phantom studies were distributed to the participating departments, and quantitative evaluation was performed with standard clinical software according to local routines. The differential renal function (DRF) and time to maximum renal activity (Tmax) were reported by 21 of the 28 Swedish departments performing 99mTc-MAG3 studies as of 2012. The reported DRF estimates showed a significantly lower precision for the phantom with impaired renal uptake than for the phantom with normal uptake. The Tmax estimates showed a similar trend, but the difference was only significant for the right kidney. There was a significant bias in the measured DRF for all phantoms caused by different positions of the left and right kidney in the anterior–posterior direction. In conclusion, this study shows that virtual scintigraphic studies are applicable for quality assurance and that there is a considerable uncertainty associated with standard quantitative parameters in dynamic 99mTc-MAG3 renography, especially for patients with impaired renal function.
    Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging 10/2014; DOI:10.1111/cpf.12208 · 1.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction Drug development and clinical decision making for patients with metastatic prostate cancer (PC) have been hindered by a lack of quantitative methods of assessing changes in bony disease burden that are associated with overall survival (OS). Bone scan index (BSI), a quantitative imaging biomarker of bone tumor burden, is prognostic in men with metastatic PC. We evaluated an automated method for BSI calculation for the association between BSI over time with clinical outcomes in a randomized double-blind trial of tasquinimod (TASQ) in men with metastatic castration-resistant PC (mCRPC). Methods Bone scans collected during central review from the TASQ trial were analyzed retrospectively using EXINIboneBSI, an automated software package for BSI calculation. Associations between BSI and other prognostic biomarkers, progression-free survival, OS, and treatment were evaluated over time. Results Of 201 men (57 TASQ and 28 placebo), 85 contributed scans at baseline and week 12 of sufficient quality. Baseline BSI correlated with prostate-specific antigen and alkaline phosphatase levels and was associated with OS in univariate (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.42, P = 0.013) and multivariate (HR = 1.64, P<0.001) analyses. BSI worsening at 12 weeks was prognostic for progression-free survival (HR = 2.14 per BSI doubling, P<0.001) and OS (HR = 1.58, P = 0.033) in multivariate analyses including baseline BSI and TASQ treatment. TASQ delayed BSI progression. Conclusions BSI and BSI changes over time were independently associated with OS in men with mCRPC. A delay in objective radiographic bone scan progression with TASQ is suggested; prospective evaluation of BSI progression and response criteria in phase 3 trials of men with mCRPC is warranted.
    Urologic Oncology 09/2014; 32(8). DOI:10.1016/j.urolonc.2014.08.006 · 3.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background A bone scan is a common method for monitoring bone metastases in patients with advanced prostate cancer. The Bone Scan Index (BSI) measures the tumor burden on the skeleton, expressed as a percentage of the total skeletal mass. Previous studies have shown that BSI is associated with survival of prostate cancer patients. The objective in this study was to investigate to what extent regional BSI measurements, as obtained by an automated method, can improve the survival analysis for advanced prostate cancer. Methods The automated method for analyzing bone scan images computed BSI values for twelve skeletal regions, in a study population consisting of 1013 patients diagnosed with prostate cancer. In the survival analysis we used the standard Cox proportional hazards model and a more advanced non-linear method based on artificial neural networks. The concordance index (C-index) was used to measure the performance of the models. Results A Cox model with age and total BSI obtained a C-index of 70.4%. The best Cox model with regional measurements from Costae, Pelvis, Scapula and the Spine, together with age, got a similar C-index (70.5%). The overall best single skeletal localisation, as measured by the C-index, was Costae. The non-linear model performed equally well as the Cox model, ruling out any significant non-linear interactions among the regional BSI measurements. Conclusion The present study showed that the localisation of bone metastases obtained from the bone scans in prostate cancer patients does not improve the performance of the survival models compared to models using the total BSI. However a ranking procedure indicated that some regions are more important than others.
    BMC Medical Imaging 07/2014; 14(1):24. DOI:10.1186/1471-2342-14-24 · 0.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic ability of a completely automated computer-assisted diagnosis (CAD) system to detect metastases in bone scans by two patterns: one was per region, and the other was per patient. This study included 406 patients with suspected metastatic bone tumors who underwent whole-body bone scans that were analyzed by the automated CAD system. The patients were divided into four groups: a group with prostatic cancer (N = 71), breast cancer (N = 109), males with other cancers (N = 153), and females with other cancers (N = 73). We investigated the bone scan index and artificial neural network (ANN), which are parameters that can be used to classify bone scans to determine whether there are metastases. The sensitivities, specificities, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracies for the four groups were compared. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses of region-based ANN were performed to compare the diagnostic performance of the automated CAD system. There were no significant differences in the sensitivity, specificity, or NPV between the four groups. The PPVs of the group with prostatic cancer (51.0 %) were significantly higher than those of the other groups (P < 0.01). The accuracy of the group with prostatic cancer (81.5 %) was significantly higher than that of the group with breast cancer (68.6 %) and the females with other cancers (65.9 %) (P < 0.01). For the evaluation of the ROC analysis of region-based ANN, the highest Az values for the groups with prostatic cancer, breast cancer, males with other cancers, and females with other cancers were 0.82 (ANN = 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, and 0.8), 0.83 (ANN = 0.7), 0.81 (ANN = 0.5), and 0.81 (ANN = 0.6), respectively. The special CAD system "BONENAVI" trained with a Japanese database appears to have significant potential in assisting physicians in their clinical routine. However, an improved CAD system depending on the primary lesion of the cancer is required to decrease the proportion of false-positive findings.
    Annals of Nuclear Medicine 02/2014; DOI:10.1007/s12149-014-0819-8 · 1.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The European Society of Cardiology recommends that patients with >10% area of ischemia should receive revascularization. We investigated inter-observer variability for the extent of ischemic defects reported by different physicians and by different software tools, and if inter-observer variability was reduced when the physicians were provided with a computerized suggestion of the defects. Twenty-five myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) patients who were regarded as ischemic according to the final report were included. Eleven physicians in nuclear medicine delineated the extent of the ischemic defects. After at least two weeks, they delineated the defects again, and were this time provided a suggestion of the defect delineation by EXINI HeartTM (EXINI). Summed difference scores and ischemic extent values were obtained from four software programs. The median extent values obtained from the 11 physicians varied between 8% and 34%, and between 9% and 16% for the software programs. For all 25 patients, mean extent obtained from EXINI was 17.0% (+/- standard deviation (SD) 14.6%). Mean extent for physicians was 22.6% (+/- 15.6%) for the first delineation and 19.1% (+/- 14.9%) for the evaluation where they were provided computerized suggestion. Intra-class correlation (ICC) increased from 0.56 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.41-0.72) to 0.81 (95% CI 0.71-0.90) between the first and the second delineation, and SD between physicians were 7.8 (first) and 5.9 (second delineation). There was large variability in the estimated ischemic defect size obtained both from different physicians and from different software packages. When the physicians were provided with a suggested delineation, the inter-observer variability decreased significantly.
    BMC Medical Imaging 01/2014; 14(1):5. DOI:10.1186/1471-2342-14-5 · 0.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) study was to compare the diagnostic performance of two computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems, EXINI Heart(TM) (EXINI), and PERFEX(TM) (PERFEX) Emory Cardiac Toolbox (ECT), and the summed stress score (SSS) values from both software packages. We studied 1,052 consecutive patients who underwent 2-day stress/rest (99m)Tc-sestamibi MPI studies. The reference standard classifications for the MPI studies were obtained from three experienced physicians who separately classified all cases regarding the presence or absence of ischemia and/or infarction. Automatic processing was carried out using EXINI and PERFEX to obtain CAD results and SSS values based on the 17-segment model. The three experts' classifications showed ischemia in 257 patients and abnormal studies, i.e., either ischemia or infarction or both, in 318 patients. Accuracy was significantly higher in EXINI than in PERFEX, regarding both the detection of ischemia (87.4 vs 77.6%; P < 0.0001) and the detection of abnormal studies (91.6 vs 67.9%; P < 0.0001). EXINI's CAD system showed a higher specificity than its SSS values (86.8 vs 73.6%; P < 0.0001) at the same level of sensitivity. EXINI demonstrated greater diagnostic accuracy for detection of ischemia and abnormal studies than did PERFEX. EXINI CAD also outperformed its SSS analysis.
    Journal of Nuclear Cardiology 01/2014; 21(3). DOI:10.1007/s12350-013-9815-y · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bone Scan Index (BSI) is a quantitative measurement of tumour burden in the skeleton calculated from bone scan images. When analysed at the time of diagnosis, it has been shown to provide prognostic information on survival in men with metastatic prostate cancer (PCa). In this study, we evaluated the prognostic value of BSI during androgen deprivation therapy (ADT).
    01/2014; 4:58. DOI:10.1186/s13550-014-0058-y
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    ABSTRACT: Artificial neural network (ANN)-based bone scan index (BSI), a marker of the amount of bone metastasis, has been shown to enhance diagnostic accuracy and reproducibility but is potentially affected by training databases. The aims of this study were to revise the software using a large number of Japanese databases and to validate its diagnostic accuracy compared with the original Swedish training database. The BSI was calculated with EXINIbone (EB; EXINI Diagnostics) using the Swedish training database (n = 789). The software using Japanese training databases from a single institution (BONENAVI version 1, BN1, n = 904) and the revised version from nine institutions (version 2, BN2, n = 1,532) were compared. The diagnostic accuracy was validated with another 503 multi-center bone scans including patients with prostate (n = 207), breast (n = 166), and other cancer types. The ANN value (probability of abnormality) and BSI were calculated. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and net reclassification improvement (NRI) analyses were performed. The ROC analysis based on the ANN value showed significant improvement from EB to BN1 and BN2. In men (n = 296), the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.877 for EB, 0.912 for BN1 (p = not significant (ns) vs. EB) and 0.934 for BN2 (p = 0.007 vs. EB). In women (n = 207), the AUC was 0.831 for EB, 0.910 for BN1 (p = 0.016 vs. EB), and 0.932 for BN2 (p < 0.0001 vs. EB). The optimum sensitivity and specificity based on BN2 was 90% and 84% for men and 93% and 85% for women. In patients with prostate cancer, the AUC was equally high with EB, BN1, and BN2 (0.939, 0.949, and 0.957, p = ns). In patients with breast cancer, the AUC was improved from EB (0.847) to BN1 (0.910, p = ns) and BN2 (0.924, p = 0.039). The NRI using ANN between EB and BN1 was 17.7% (p = 0.0042), and that between EB and BN2 was 29.6% (p < 0.0001). With respect to BSI, the NRI analysis showed downward reclassification with total NRI of 31.9% (p < 0.0001). In the software for calculating BSI, the multi-institutional database significantly improved identification of bone metastasis compared with the original database, indicating the importance of a sufficient number of training databases including various types of cancers.
    12/2013; 3(1):83. DOI:10.1186/2191-219X-3-83
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was firstly to develop and evaluate an automated method for the detection of new lesions and changes in bone scan index (BSI) in serial bone scans and secondly to evaluate the prognostic value of the method in a group of patients receiving chemotherapy. The automated method for detection of new lesions was evaluated in a group of 266 patients using the classifications by three experienced bone scan readers as a gold standard. The prognostic value of the method was assessed in a group of 31 metastatic hormone-refractory prostate cancer patients who were receiving docetaxel. Cox proportional hazards were used to investigate the association between percentage change in BSI, number of new lesions and overall survival. Kaplan-Meier estimates of the survival function were used to indicate a significant difference between patients with an increase/decrease in BSI or those with two or more new lesions or less than two new lesions. The automated method detected progression defined as two or more new lesions with a sensitivity of 93% and a specificity of 87%. In the treatment group, both BSI changes and the number of new metastases were significantly associated with survival. Two-year survival for patients with increasing and decreasing BSI from baseline to follow-up scans were 18% and 57% (p = 0.03), respectively. Two-year survival for patients fulfilling and not fulfilling the criterion of two or more new lesions was 35% and 38% (n.s.), respectively. An automated method can be used to calculate the number of new lesions and changes in BSI in serial bone scans. These imaging biomarkers contained prognostic information in a small group of patients with prostate cancer receiving chemotherapy.
    08/2013; 3(1):64. DOI:10.1186/2191-219X-3-64
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    Lars Edenbrandt, Mattias Ohlsson, Elin Trägårdh
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    ABSTRACT: Stress myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) is widely regarded as a useful imaging modality for diagnosing patients with suspected ischemic heart disease. Current European guidelines recommend stress study to be performed first since rest study can be omitted if stress study is interpreted as normal. Thus, a rest study should only be performed in patients with equivocal or abnormal studies. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prognosis of a normal stress-only MPS compared to a normal stress-rest MPS in a retrospective manner and also with regard to normal/abnormal left ventricular function data. All 4,820 patients who underwent 99mTc MPS at Skane University Hospital in Malmo, Sweden, in 2004 to 2007, for suspected or management of known ischemic heart disease were considered. The physician in clinical charge of the investigation decided whether a rest study was necessary or not. Based on the final report according to clinical routine, only patients with a normal perfusion study (no infarction or inducible ischemia) were included. The endpoints were non-fatal acute coronary syndrome or death from ischemic cardiac origin. A total of 3,426 patients with a normal perfusion study were included. Of these, 2,215 patients had a stress-only study and 1,211 patients had both stress and rest studies. Mean follow-up was 6.2 years. The lowest event rate was found in the normal stress-only group (0.56% for normal stress-only patients vs. 1.42% for normal stress-rest patients; p < 0.0001). When dividing patients according to sex and stress type, the best prognosis was also found in the normal stress-only group (p < 0.0001 for all comparisons). Regarding left ventricular function data, we did not find any significant difference in event rate between normal vs. abnormal ejection fraction (EF), normal vs. abnormal end-diastolic volume (EDV) or normal EF, and EDV vs. abnormal EF or EDV for either the normal stress-only patients or the normal stress-rest patients. Patients with a normal stress-only study had an excellent prognosis over a mean follow-up time of 6 years. Thus, omitting the rest study if the stress study is normal is a safe procedure.
    07/2013; 3(1):58. DOI:10.1186/2191-219X-3-58
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    ABSTRACT: The need for age-adjusted and/or sex-adjusted reference values in dopamine transporter (DAT) and dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) imaging with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in a longitudinal study of parkinsonian diseases was investigated. We used two different image evaluation tools with a cross-sectional and longitudinal statistical approach. Baseline DAT and/or D2R SPECT were performed in 51 healthy controls (HC), age-matched to patients in an ongoing prospective study on idiopathic parkinsonism. Twenty-four HC were re-examined after 3 years and 21 HC were examined again after 5 years. SPECT was performed with I-FP-Cit and I-IBZM on a two-headed hybrid gamma camera. Regions of interest and volumes of interest (VOIs) were used for image evaluation. A cross-sectional and longitudinal statistical analysis was carried out. Fewer sex-based differences and less age dependency were seen in DAT SPECT uptake ratios compared with D2R SPECT uptake ratios and when comparing uptake ratios obtained with regions of interest against those with VOIs. In the cross-sectional analysis, a significant age-dependent decline was seen in women in both DAT and D2R uptakes with the VOI method but not in men with either evaluation method. In the longitudinal dataset, both a slight decline and increase over time were seen in DAT uptake; however, a general pattern of decrease was seen in both men and women in D2R uptake. The choice of the image evaluation method can influence the pattern of sex-based and age-related differences. The results speak for the use of age-stratified reference values for women, in particular when using a VOI method.
    Nuclear Medicine Communications 07/2013; 34(10). DOI:10.1097/MNM.0b013e328364aa2e · 1.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: In patients with a small heart, defined as an end-systolic volume (ESV) of ≤20 mL calculated using the Quantitative Gated SPECT (QGS) program, underestimation of ESV and overestimation of ejection fraction (EF) using gated myocardial perfusion imaging are considered errors caused by inappropriate delineation of the left ventricle (LV). The aim of this study was to develop a new method for delineation of the LV and to evaluate it in studies using a digital phantom, normal subjects and patients. METHODS: The active shape-based method for LV delineation, EXINI heart (ExH), was adjusted to more accurately process small hearts. In small hearts, due to the partial volume effect and the short distance to the opposite ventricular wall, the endocardial and the epicardial surfaces are shifted in the epicardial direction depending on the midventricular volume. The adjusted method was evaluated using digital XCAT phantoms with Monte Carlo simulation (8 virtual patients), a Japanese multicentre normal database (69 patients) and consecutive Japanese patients (116 patients). The LV volumes, EF and diastolic parameters derived from ExH and QGS were compared. RESULTS: The digital phantom studies showed a mean ESV of 87 % ± 9 % of the true volume calculated using ExH and 22 % ± 18 % calculated using QGS. In the normal database, QGS gave higher EFs in women than in men (71.4 ± 6.0 % vs. 67.2 ± 6.0 %, p = 0.0058), but ExH gave comparable EFs (70.7 ± 4.9 % and 71.4 ± 5 % in men and women, respectively, p = ns). QGS gave higher EFs in subjects with a small heart than in those with a normal-sized heart (74.5 ± 5.1 % vs. 66.1 ± 4.9 %), but ExH gave comparable values (70.0 ± 5.9 % vs. 71.6 ± 4.2 %, respectively, p = ns). In consecutive patients, the average EFs with QGS in patients with ESV >20 mL, 11-20 mL and ≤10 mL were 57.9 %, 71.9 % and 83.2 %, but with ExH the differences among these groups were smaller (65.2 %, 67.8 % and 71.5 %, respectively). CONCLUSION: The volume-dependent edge correction algorithm was able to effectively reduce the effects on ESV and EF of a small heart. The uniform normal values might be applicable to both men and women and to both small and normal-sized hearts.
    European Journal of Nuclear Medicine 04/2013; 40(8). DOI:10.1007/s00259-013-2431-x · 4.53 Impact Factor
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    Elin Trägårdh, Sven Valind, Lars Edenbrandt
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The American Society of Nuclear Cardiology and the Society of Nuclear Medicine conclude that incorporation of attenuation corrected (AC) images in myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) will improve diagnostic accuracy. The aim was to investigate the value of adding AC stress-only images for the decision whether a rest study is necessary or not. METHODS: 1,261 patients admitted to 99mTc MPS were studied. The stress studies were interpreted by two physicians who judged each study as "no rest study necessary" or "rest study necessary", by evaluating NC stress-only and NC + AC stress-only images. When there was disagreement between the two physicians, a third physician evaluated the studies. Thus, agreement between 2 out of 3 physicians was evaluated. RESULTS: The physicians assessed 214 more NC + AC images than NC images as "no rest study necessary" (17% of the study population). The number of no-rest-study-required was significantly higher for NC + AC studies compared to NC studies (859 vs 645 cases (p < 0.0001). In the final report according to clinical routine, ischemia or infarction was reported in 23 patients, assessed as "no rest study necessary" (22 NC + AC cases; 8 NC cases), (no statistically significant difference). In 11 of these, the final report stated "suspected/possible ischemia or infarction in a small area". CONCLUSIONS: Adding AC stress-only images to NC stress-only images reduce the number of unnecessary rest studies substantially.
    BMC Medical Imaging 04/2013; 13(1):14. DOI:10.1186/1471-2342-13-14 · 0.98 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
312.73 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2011–2014
    • Skåne University Hospital
      Malmö, Skåne, Sweden
  • 2005–2014
    • Sahlgrenska University Hospital
      • Department of Cardiology
      Goeteborg, Västra Götaland, Sweden
  • 2001–2014
    • University of Gothenburg
      • Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine
      Goeteborg, Västra Götaland, Sweden
  • 1988–2014
    • Lund University
      • • Department of Clinical Sciences, Malmö
      • • Department of Clinical Physiology
      • • Department of Medical Radiation Physics
      Lund, Skåne, Sweden
  • 2012
    • Kanazawa University
      • School of Health Sciences
      Kanazawa, Ishikawa, Japan
  • 2003–2008
    • Malmö University
      Malmö, Skåne, Sweden
  • 1992–1994
    • University of Glasgow
      Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom