[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The interpretation of myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) largely relies on visual assessment by the physician of the localization and extent of a perfusion defect. The aim of this study was to introduce the concept of the perfusion vector as a new objective quantitative method for further assisting the visual interpretation and to test the concept using simulated MPS images as well as patients.
The perfusion vector is based on calculating the difference between the anatomical centroid and the perfusion center of gravity of the left ventricle. Simulated MPS images were obtained using the SIMIND Monte Carlo program together with XCAT phantom. Four different-sized anterior and four lateral defects were simulated, and perfusion vector components x-, y-, and z-axes were calculated. For the patient study, 40 normal and 80 abnormal studies were included. Perfusion vectors were compared between normal and abnormal (apical, inferior, anterior, and lateral ischemia or infarction) studies and also correlated to the defect size.
For simulated anterior defects, the stress perfusion vector component on the y-axis (anterior-inferior direction) increased in proportion to the defect size. For the simulated lateral defects, the stress perfusion vector component on the x-axis (septal-lateral direction) decreased in proportion to the defect size. When comparing normal and abnormal patients, there was a statistically significant difference for the stress perfusion vector on the x-axis for apical and lateral defects; on the y-axis for apical, inferior, and lateral defects; and on the z-axis (basal-apical direction) for apical, anterior, and lateral defects. A significant difference was shown for the difference vector magnitude (stress/rest) between normal and ischemic patients (p = 0.001) but not for patients with infarction. The correlation between the defect size and stress vector magnitude was also found to be significant (p < 0.001).
The concept of the perfusion vector introduced in this study is shown to have potential in assisting the visual interpretation in MPS studies. Further studies are needed to validate the concept in patients.
EJNMMI Research 12/2015; 5(1):121. DOI:10.1186/s13550-015-0121-3
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) is a clinically useful noninvasive imaging modality for diagnosing patients with suspected coronary artery disease. By utilizing gated MPS, the end diastolic volume (EDV) and end systolic volume (ESV) can be measured and the ejection fraction (EF) calculated, which gives incremental prognostic value compared with assessment of perfusion only. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inter-departmental variability of EF, ESV, and EDV during gated MPS in Sweden.
Seventeen departments were included in the study. The SIMIND Monte Carlo (MC) program together with the XCAT phantom was used to simulate three patient cases with different EDV, ESV, and EF. Individual simulations were performed for each department, corresponding to their specific method of performing MPS. Images were then sent to each department and were evaluated according to clinical routine. EDV, ESV, and EF were reported back.
There was a large underestimation of EDV and ESV for all three cases. Mean underestimation for EDV varied between 26% and 52% and for ESV between 15% and 60%. EF was more accurately measured, but mean bias still varied between an underestimation of 24% to an overestimation of 14%. In general, the intra-departmental variability for EDV, ESV, and EF was small, whereas inter-departmental variability was larger.
Left ventricular volumes were generally underestimated, whereas EF was more accurately estimated. There was, however, large inter-departmental variability.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: While area detector computed tomography (ADCT) is a useful tool for coronary artery disease (CAD) evaluation, myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) with single photon emission computed tomography is a well-established method of predicting functional relevance of CAD. Purpose: We assess the usefulness for decision making using both ADCT and MPI and discussed from the standpoint of cost for diagnostic work-up and contrast agent. Method: Between January, 2013 to September, 2014, 78 patients underwent both ADCT and MPI within two months were analyzed their therapeutic strategy. From ADCT, severity of stenosis was divided non-significant(less than 50%), moderate (over or equal to 50% and less than 75%) and severe (over or equal to 75%). Summed difference score of MPI was judged as ischemia positive.
Result: Table showed the result and executed treatment strategy. Patients with significant stenosis by ADCT were 40 patients (51.3%) and patients with ischemia positive were 25 patients (33.8%). Invasive revasculization was performed higher (82.3%, p<0.01) for the patients with significant stenosis and ischemia than moderate stenosis with ischemia (25%) or significant stenosis without ischemia (39.1%). Before taking invasive therapy, examination with ADCT and MPI saved 63700 yen and about 100ml of contrast agent in each case based study as it was compared with the case with ADCT and coronary angiography without MPI in spite of slightly higher radiation dose (4mSv). Conclusion: The combined use of ADCT and MPI could choose effectively treatment strategy of CAD with a reduction of cost and contrast agent.
European heart journal cardiovascular Imaging; 05/2015
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the Bone Scan Index (BSI) for prediction of castration resistance and prostate cancer specific survival. In a retrospective material, we used a novel computer-assisted software for automated detection/quantification of bone metastases by BSI. Prostate cancer patients are M-staged by whole-body bone scintigraphy (WBS) and categorized as M0 or M1. Within the M1 group, there is a wide range of clinical outcomes. The BSI was introduced a decade ago providing quantification of bone metastases by estimating the percentage of bone involvement. Being too time consuming, it never gained widespread clinical use.
A total of 88 patients with prostate cancer awaiting initiation of androgen deprivation due to metastases were included. WBS was performed using a two-headed gamma camera. BSI was obtained using the automated platform EXINI bone (EXINI Diagnostics AB, Lund, Sweden). In Cox proportional hazard models, time to castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and prostate cancer specific survival were modelled as the dependent variables, whereas PSA, Gleason score and BSI were used as explanatory factors. For Kaplan-Meier estimates, BSI groups were dichotomously split into: BSI <1 and BSI ≥ 1. Discrimination between prognostic models was explored using the concordance index (C-index).
The mean age of the patients was 72 years (range 52-92), the median PSA level was 73 μg/L (range 4-5740), the average Gleason score was 7.7 (range 2-10), and the mean BSI was 1.0 (range 0-9.2). During a mean follow-up of 26 months (range 8-49), 48 patients became castration resistant and 15 died, the majority (13) of prostate cancer. In multivariate analysis including PSA, Gleason score and BSI, only prediction by BSI was statistically significant. This was true both in terms of time to CRPC (HR=1.45; 95%CI: 1.22-1.74; C-index increase from 0.49 to 0.69) and with regard to prostate cancer-specific survival (HR=1.34; 95%CI: 1.07-1.67; C-index increase from 0.76 to 0.95).
BSI obtained by a novel automated computer-assisted algorithm appears to be a useful predictor of outcome with regard to time to CRPC and prostate cancer specific survival in patients with hormone sensitive metastatic prostate cancer. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
BJU International 04/2015; DOI:10.1111/bju.13160 · 3.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to apply an artificial neural network (ANN) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and to characterize its diagnostic ability compared with conventional visual and quantitative methods in myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI).Methods and Results:A total of 106 patients with CAD were studied with MPI, including multiple vessel disease (49%), history of myocardial infarction (27%) and coronary intervention (30%). The ANN detected abnormal areas with a probability of stress defect and ischemia. The consensus diagnosis based on expert interpretation and coronary stenosis was used as the gold standard. The left ventricular ANN value was higher in the stress-defect group than in the no-defect group (0.92±0.11 vs. 0.25±0.32, P<0.0001) and higher in the ischemia group than in the no-ischemia group (0.70±0.40 vs. 0.004±0.032, P<0.0001). Receiver-operating characteristics curve analysis showed comparable diagnostic accuracy between ANN and the scoring methods (0.971 vs. 0.980 for stress defect, and 0.882 vs. 0.937 for ischemia, both P=NS). The relationship between the ANN and defect scores was non-linear, with the ANN rapidly increased in ranges of summed stress score of 2-7 and summed defect score of 2-4.
Although the diagnostic ability of ANN was similar to that of conventional scoring methods, the ANN could provide a different viewpoint for judging abnormality, and thus is a promising method for evaluating abnormality in MPI.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The report of an imaging procedure is a critical component of an examination, being the final and often the only communication from the interpreting physician to the referring or treating physician. Very limited evidence and few recommendations or guidelines on reporting imaging studies are available; therefore, an European position statement on how to report nuclear cardiology might be useful. The current paper combines the limited existing evidence with expert consensus, previously published recommendations as well as current clinical practices. For all the applications discussed in this paper (myocardial perfusion, viability, innervation, and function as acquired by single photon emission computed tomography and positron emission tomography or hybrid imaging), headings cover laboratory and patient demographics, clinical indication, tracer administration and image acquisition, findings, and conclusion of the report. The statement also discusses recommended terminology in nuclear cardiology, image display, and preliminary reports. It is hoped that this statement may lead to more attention to create well-written and standardized nuclear cardiology reports and eventually lead to improved clinical outcome.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bone Scan Index (BSI) is a quantitative measurement of tumour burden in the skeleton calculated from bone scan images. When analysed at the time of diagnosis, it has been shown to provide prognostic information on survival in men with metastatic prostate cancer (PCa). In this study, we evaluated the prognostic value of BSI during androgen deprivation therapy (ADT).
Prostate cancer patients who were at high risk of a poor outcome and who had undergone bone scan at the time of diagnosis and during ADT were recruited from two university hospitals for a retrospective study. BSI at baseline and follow-up were calculated using an automated software package (EXINIbonebsi). Associations between BSI, other prognostic biomarkers and overall survival (OS) were evaluated using a Cox proportional hazards regression model.
One hundred forty-six PCa patients were included in the study. A total of 102 patient deaths were registered, with a median survival time after the follow-up bone scan of 2.4 years (interquartile range (IQR) =0.8 to 4.4). Both at baseline and during ADT, BSI was significantly associated with OS in univariate and multivariate analyses. When BSI was added to a prognostic base model including age, prostate-specific antigen, clinical tumour stage and Gleason score, the concordance index increased from 0.73 to 0.77 (p =0.0005) at baseline and from 0.77 to 0.82 (p <0.0001) during ADT.
Automated BSI during ADT is an independent prognostic indicator of OS in PCa patients with bone metastasis. It represents an emerging imaging biomarker that can be used in a prognostic model for risk stratification of PCa patients at the time of diagnosis and at later stages of the disease. BSI could then help physicians identify patients who could benefit from more aggressive therapies.
EJNMMI Research 10/2014; 4(1):58. DOI:10.1186/s13550-014-0058-y
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Assessment of image analysis methods and computer software used in 99mTc-MAG3 dynamic renography is important to ensure reliable study results and ultimately the best possible care for patients. In this work, we present a national multicentre study of the quantification accuracy in 99mTc-MAG3 renography, utilizing virtual dynamic scintigraphic data obtained by Monte Carlo-simulated scintillation camera imaging of digital phantoms with time-varying activity distributions. Three digital phantom studies were distributed to the participating departments, and quantitative evaluation was performed with standard clinical software according to local routines. The differential renal function (DRF) and time to maximum renal activity (Tmax) were reported by 21 of the 28 Swedish departments performing 99mTc-MAG3 studies as of 2012. The reported DRF estimates showed a significantly lower precision for the phantom with impaired renal uptake than for the phantom with normal uptake. The Tmax estimates showed a similar trend, but the difference was only significant for the right kidney. There was a significant bias in the measured DRF for all phantoms caused by different positions of the left and right kidney in the anterior–posterior direction. In conclusion, this study shows that virtual scintigraphic studies are applicable for quality assurance and that there is a considerable uncertainty associated with standard quantitative parameters in dynamic 99mTc-MAG3 renography, especially for patients with impaired renal function.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction
Drug development and clinical decision making for patients with metastatic prostate cancer (PC) have been hindered by a lack of quantitative methods of assessing changes in bony disease burden that are associated with overall survival (OS). Bone scan index (BSI), a quantitative imaging biomarker of bone tumor burden, is prognostic in men with metastatic PC. We evaluated an automated method for BSI calculation for the association between BSI over time with clinical outcomes in a randomized double-blind trial of tasquinimod (TASQ) in men with metastatic castration-resistant PC (mCRPC).
Bone scans collected during central review from the TASQ trial were analyzed retrospectively using EXINIboneBSI, an automated software package for BSI calculation. Associations between BSI and other prognostic biomarkers, progression-free survival, OS, and treatment were evaluated over time.
Of 201 men (57 TASQ and 28 placebo), 85 contributed scans at baseline and week 12 of sufficient quality. Baseline BSI correlated with prostate-specific antigen and alkaline phosphatase levels and was associated with OS in univariate (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.42, P = 0.013) and multivariate (HR = 1.64, P<0.001) analyses. BSI worsening at 12 weeks was prognostic for progression-free survival (HR = 2.14 per BSI doubling, P<0.001) and OS (HR = 1.58, P = 0.033) in multivariate analyses including baseline BSI and TASQ treatment. TASQ delayed BSI progression.
BSI and BSI changes over time were independently associated with OS in men with mCRPC. A delay in objective radiographic bone scan progression with TASQ is suggested; prospective evaluation of BSI progression and response criteria in phase 3 trials of men with mCRPC is warranted.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
A bone scan is a common method for monitoring bone metastases in patients with advanced prostate cancer. The Bone Scan Index (BSI) measures the tumor burden on the skeleton, expressed as a percentage of the total skeletal mass. Previous studies have shown that BSI is associated with survival of prostate cancer patients. The objective in this study was to investigate to what extent regional BSI measurements, as obtained by an automated method, can improve the survival analysis for advanced prostate cancer.
The automated method for analyzing bone scan images computed BSI values for twelve skeletal regions, in a study population consisting of 1013 patients diagnosed with prostate cancer. In the survival analysis we used the standard Cox proportional hazards model and a more advanced non-linear method based on artificial neural networks. The concordance index (C-index) was used to measure the performance of the models.
A Cox model with age and total BSI obtained a C-index of 70.4%. The best Cox model with regional measurements from Costae, Pelvis, Scapula and the Spine, together with age, got a similar C-index (70.5%). The overall best single skeletal localisation, as measured by the C-index, was Costae. The non-linear model performed equally well as the Cox model, ruling out any significant non-linear interactions among the regional BSI measurements.
The present study showed that the localisation of bone metastases obtained from the bone scans in prostate cancer patients does not improve the performance of the survival models compared to models using the total BSI. However a ranking procedure indicated that some regions are more important than others.
BMC Medical Imaging 07/2014; 14(1):24. DOI:10.1186/1471-2342-14-24 · 0.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic ability of a completely automated computer-assisted diagnosis (CAD) system to detect metastases in bone scans by two patterns: one was per region, and the other was per patient.
This study included 406 patients with suspected metastatic bone tumors who underwent whole-body bone scans that were analyzed by the automated CAD system. The patients were divided into four groups: a group with prostatic cancer (N = 71), breast cancer (N = 109), males with other cancers (N = 153), and females with other cancers (N = 73). We investigated the bone scan index and artificial neural network (ANN), which are parameters that can be used to classify bone scans to determine whether there are metastases. The sensitivities, specificities, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracies for the four groups were compared. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses of region-based ANN were performed to compare the diagnostic performance of the automated CAD system.
There were no significant differences in the sensitivity, specificity, or NPV between the four groups. The PPVs of the group with prostatic cancer (51.0 %) were significantly higher than those of the other groups (P < 0.01). The accuracy of the group with prostatic cancer (81.5 %) was significantly higher than that of the group with breast cancer (68.6 %) and the females with other cancers (65.9 %) (P < 0.01). For the evaluation of the ROC analysis of region-based ANN, the highest Az values for the groups with prostatic cancer, breast cancer, males with other cancers, and females with other cancers were 0.82 (ANN = 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, and 0.8), 0.83 (ANN = 0.7), 0.81 (ANN = 0.5), and 0.81 (ANN = 0.6), respectively.
The special CAD system "BONENAVI" trained with a Japanese database appears to have significant potential in assisting physicians in their clinical routine. However, an improved CAD system depending on the primary lesion of the cancer is required to decrease the proportion of false-positive findings.
Annals of Nuclear Medicine 02/2014; 28(4). DOI:10.1007/s12149-014-0819-8 · 1.51 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The European Society of Cardiology recommends that patients with >10% area of ischemia should receive revascularization. We investigated inter-observer variability for the extent of ischemic defects reported by different physicians and by different software tools, and if inter-observer variability was reduced when the physicians were provided with a computerized suggestion of the defects.
Twenty-five myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) patients who were regarded as ischemic according to the final report were included. Eleven physicians in nuclear medicine delineated the extent of the ischemic defects. After at least two weeks, they delineated the defects again, and were this time provided a suggestion of the defect delineation by EXINI HeartTM (EXINI). Summed difference scores and ischemic extent values were obtained from four software programs.
The median extent values obtained from the 11 physicians varied between 8% and 34%, and between 9% and 16% for the software programs. For all 25 patients, mean extent obtained from EXINI was 17.0% (+/- standard deviation (SD) 14.6%). Mean extent for physicians was 22.6% (+/- 15.6%) for the first delineation and 19.1% (+/- 14.9%) for the evaluation where they were provided computerized suggestion. Intra-class correlation (ICC) increased from 0.56 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.41-0.72) to 0.81 (95% CI 0.71-0.90) between the first and the second delineation, and SD between physicians were 7.8 (first) and 5.9 (second delineation).
There was large variability in the estimated ischemic defect size obtained both from different physicians and from different software packages. When the physicians were provided with a suggested delineation, the inter-observer variability decreased significantly.
BMC Medical Imaging 01/2014; 14(1):5. DOI:10.1186/1471-2342-14-5 · 0.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) study was to compare the diagnostic performance of two computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems, EXINI Heart(TM) (EXINI), and PERFEX(TM) (PERFEX) Emory Cardiac Toolbox (ECT), and the summed stress score (SSS) values from both software packages.
We studied 1,052 consecutive patients who underwent 2-day stress/rest (99m)Tc-sestamibi MPI studies. The reference standard classifications for the MPI studies were obtained from three experienced physicians who separately classified all cases regarding the presence or absence of ischemia and/or infarction. Automatic processing was carried out using EXINI and PERFEX to obtain CAD results and SSS values based on the 17-segment model.
The three experts' classifications showed ischemia in 257 patients and abnormal studies, i.e., either ischemia or infarction or both, in 318 patients. Accuracy was significantly higher in EXINI than in PERFEX, regarding both the detection of ischemia (87.4 vs 77.6%; P < 0.0001) and the detection of abnormal studies (91.6 vs 67.9%; P < 0.0001). EXINI's CAD system showed a higher specificity than its SSS values (86.8 vs 73.6%; P < 0.0001) at the same level of sensitivity.
EXINI demonstrated greater diagnostic accuracy for detection of ischemia and abnormal studies than did PERFEX. EXINI CAD also outperformed its SSS analysis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Artificial neural network (ANN)-based bone scan index (BSI), a marker of the amount of bone metastasis, has been shown to enhance diagnostic accuracy and reproducibility but is potentially affected by training databases. The aims of this study were to revise the software using a large number of Japanese databases and to validate its diagnostic accuracy compared with the original Swedish training database.
The BSI was calculated with EXINIbone (EB; EXINI Diagnostics) using the Swedish training database (n = 789). The software using Japanese training databases from a single institution (BONENAVI version 1, BN1, n = 904) and the revised version from nine institutions (version 2, BN2, n = 1,532) were compared. The diagnostic accuracy was validated with another 503 multi-center bone scans including patients with prostate (n = 207), breast (n = 166), and other cancer types. The ANN value (probability of abnormality) and BSI were calculated. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and net reclassification improvement (NRI) analyses were performed.
The ROC analysis based on the ANN value showed significant improvement from EB to BN1 and BN2. In men (n = 296), the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.877 for EB, 0.912 for BN1 (p = not significant (ns) vs. EB) and 0.934 for BN2 (p = 0.007 vs. EB). In women (n = 207), the AUC was 0.831 for EB, 0.910 for BN1 (p = 0.016 vs. EB), and 0.932 for BN2 (p < 0.0001 vs. EB). The optimum sensitivity and specificity based on BN2 was 90% and 84% for men and 93% and 85% for women. In patients with prostate cancer, the AUC was equally high with EB, BN1, and BN2 (0.939, 0.949, and 0.957, p = ns). In patients with breast cancer, the AUC was improved from EB (0.847) to BN1 (0.910, p = ns) and BN2 (0.924, p = 0.039). The NRI using ANN between EB and BN1 was 17.7% (p = 0.0042), and that between EB and BN2 was 29.6% (p < 0.0001). With respect to BSI, the NRI analysis showed downward reclassification with total NRI of 31.9% (p < 0.0001).
In the software for calculating BSI, the multi-institutional database significantly improved identification of bone metastasis compared with the original database, indicating the importance of a sufficient number of training databases including various types of cancers.
EJNMMI Research 12/2013; 3(1):83. DOI:10.1186/2191-219X-3-83
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was firstly to develop and evaluate an automated method for the detection of new lesions and changes in bone scan index (BSI) in serial bone scans and secondly to evaluate the prognostic value of the method in a group of patients receiving chemotherapy.
The automated method for detection of new lesions was evaluated in a group of 266 patients using the classifications by three experienced bone scan readers as a gold standard. The prognostic value of the method was assessed in a group of 31 metastatic hormone-refractory prostate cancer patients who were receiving docetaxel. Cox proportional hazards were used to investigate the association between percentage change in BSI, number of new lesions and overall survival. Kaplan-Meier estimates of the survival function were used to indicate a significant difference between patients with an increase/decrease in BSI or those with two or more new lesions or less than two new lesions.
The automated method detected progression defined as two or more new lesions with a sensitivity of 93% and a specificity of 87%. In the treatment group, both BSI changes and the number of new metastases were significantly associated with survival. Two-year survival for patients with increasing and decreasing BSI from baseline to follow-up scans were 18% and 57% (p = 0.03), respectively. Two-year survival for patients fulfilling and not fulfilling the criterion of two or more new lesions was 35% and 38% (n.s.), respectively.
An automated method can be used to calculate the number of new lesions and changes in BSI in serial bone scans. These imaging biomarkers contained prognostic information in a small group of patients with prostate cancer receiving chemotherapy.
EJNMMI Research 08/2013; 3(1):64. DOI:10.1186/2191-219X-3-64
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Stress myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) is widely regarded as a useful imaging modality for diagnosing patients with suspected ischemic heart disease. Current European guidelines recommend stress study to be performed first since rest study can be omitted if stress study is interpreted as normal. Thus, a rest study should only be performed in patients with equivocal or abnormal studies. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prognosis of a normal stress-only MPS compared to a normal stress-rest MPS in a retrospective manner and also with regard to normal/abnormal left ventricular function data.
All 4,820 patients who underwent 99mTc MPS at Skane University Hospital in Malmo, Sweden, in 2004 to 2007, for suspected or management of known ischemic heart disease were considered. The physician in clinical charge of the investigation decided whether a rest study was necessary or not. Based on the final report according to clinical routine, only patients with a normal perfusion study (no infarction or inducible ischemia) were included. The endpoints were non-fatal acute coronary syndrome or death from ischemic cardiac origin.
A total of 3,426 patients with a normal perfusion study were included. Of these, 2,215 patients had a stress-only study and 1,211 patients had both stress and rest studies. Mean follow-up was 6.2 years. The lowest event rate was found in the normal stress-only group (0.56% for normal stress-only patients vs. 1.42% for normal stress-rest patients; p < 0.0001). When dividing patients according to sex and stress type, the best prognosis was also found in the normal stress-only group (p < 0.0001 for all comparisons). Regarding left ventricular function data, we did not find any significant difference in event rate between normal vs. abnormal ejection fraction (EF), normal vs. abnormal end-diastolic volume (EDV) or normal EF, and EDV vs. abnormal EF or EDV for either the normal stress-only patients or the normal stress-rest patients.
Patients with a normal stress-only study had an excellent prognosis over a mean follow-up time of 6 years. Thus, omitting the rest study if the stress study is normal is a safe procedure.
EJNMMI Research 07/2013; 3(1):58. DOI:10.1186/2191-219X-3-58
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The need for age-adjusted and/or sex-adjusted reference values in dopamine transporter (DAT) and dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) imaging with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in a longitudinal study of parkinsonian diseases was investigated. We used two different image evaluation tools with a cross-sectional and longitudinal statistical approach.
Baseline DAT and/or D2R SPECT were performed in 51 healthy controls (HC), age-matched to patients in an ongoing prospective study on idiopathic parkinsonism. Twenty-four HC were re-examined after 3 years and 21 HC were examined again after 5 years. SPECT was performed with I-FP-Cit and I-IBZM on a two-headed hybrid gamma camera. Regions of interest and volumes of interest (VOIs) were used for image evaluation. A cross-sectional and longitudinal statistical analysis was carried out.
Fewer sex-based differences and less age dependency were seen in DAT SPECT uptake ratios compared with D2R SPECT uptake ratios and when comparing uptake ratios obtained with regions of interest against those with VOIs. In the cross-sectional analysis, a significant age-dependent decline was seen in women in both DAT and D2R uptakes with the VOI method but not in men with either evaluation method. In the longitudinal dataset, both a slight decline and increase over time were seen in DAT uptake; however, a general pattern of decrease was seen in both men and women in D2R uptake.
The choice of the image evaluation method can influence the pattern of sex-based and age-related differences. The results speak for the use of age-stratified reference values for women, in particular when using a VOI method.
Nuclear Medicine Communications 07/2013; 34(10). DOI:10.1097/MNM.0b013e328364aa2e · 1.37 Impact Factor