Esther Tamayo

Universidad de Cantabria, Santander, Cantabria, Spain

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Publications (7)35.38 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE.: Despite the importance of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the maintenance of immunological tolerance, the mechanisms that control their generation and activity are unknown. Since the cell cycle inhibitor p27(kip1) (p27) was involved in T-cell anergy, we explored here its role in both Treg processes. METHODS.: The development of collagen type II-induced arthritis (CIA) and lupus-like abnormalities was compared between transgenic (Tg) mice overexpressing human BCL2 in T cells (BCL2-TgT mice) and non-Tg mice that were deficient or not in p27. The contribution of Tregs in disease evolution was also explored. Finally, the in vitro activity of Tregs and their differentiation from naïve CD4 cells was compared between these strains of mice. RESULTS.: We demonstrated here that BCL2-TgT mice were protected against CIA by a Treg-dependent mechanism. In association with this protection, the overexpression of BCL2 in T cells enhanced the differentiation and activity of Tregs. Both BCL2 effects were independent of its anti-apoptotic activity but dependent on its capacity to induce the expression of p27 that augmented the strength of TGFβ-signalling in T cells. Accordingly, down-modulation of p27 expression in BCL2-TgT mice promoted CIA. In addition, p27 deficiency in aged B6 mice reduced the number and activity of Tregs and induced the development of mild lupus-like abnormalities. CONCLUSIONS.: Our results pointed to p27 as a critical regulator of Treg differentiation and function through the positive modulation of TGFβ-signalling strength in T cells. © 2012 American College of Rheumatology.
    Arthritis & Rheumatology 11/2012; · 7.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) possesses a powerful mucosal and systemic adjuvant effect. However, little is known about the cellular and molecular basis of the immunostimulatory activity of LT at the mucosal level, and even less information is available on the mechanisms underlying its systemic adjuvant activity. In this study, we show that distinct mechanisms are responsible for the parenteral and mucosal adjuvanticity of LT. Indeed, the systemic administration of LT upregulates the expression of glucocorticoid-induced TNFR-related protein (GITR), but not other activation markers, in naive T cells. Using WT and GITR-deficient mice and LT and its enzymatically inactive mutant LTK63 as adjuvants, we show that the induction of GITR expression in T cells accounts for the systemic immunostimulatory capacity of LT, which requires an intact enzymatic activity. In contrast, the mucosal administration of LT does not induce GITR expression on Peyer's patche T cells and accordingly no differences are observed in the mucosal adjuvanticity of LT between WT and GITR-deficient mice. Altogether, our results demonstrate the distinct effect of LT after parenteral administration when compared with the mucosal delivery, and describe a new mechanism of LT adjuvanticity related to its ability to induce the expression of GITR in CD4(+) T cells.
    European Journal of Immunology 12/2009; 40(3):754-63. · 4.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) exhibits a broad range of immunomodulatory activities, including the induction of lymphocyte-programmed cell death. In previous studies, we have demonstrated that in vivo LT promotes apoptosis of immature T and B cells through the stimulation of endogenous glucocorticoids. In the present study, we show that the extrinsic cell-death pathway as well as the apoptosis-inducing factor do not participate in the LT-induced elimination of thymocytes. In contrast to developing lymphocytes, LT promotes the death of mature lymphocytes by both glucocorticoid- and Fas death receptor/Fas ligand-dependent mechanisms. However, the dependency of these mechanisms in the LT-induced cell-death activity seems to be different among CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. Altogether, our study shows that the same bacterial toxin can induce apoptosis of lymphoid cells through several mechanisms depending on the status of differentiation of these cells.
    European Journal of Immunology 02/2009; 39(2):439-46. · 4.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Regulation of lymphocyte survival is essential for the maintenance of lymphoid homeostasis preventing the development of autoimmune diseases. Recently, we described a systemic lupus erythematosus associated with an IgA nephropathy in autoimmune-prone (NZW x C57BL/6)F(1) overexpressing human Bcl-2 (hBcl-2) in B cells (transgenic (Tg) 1). In the present study, we analyze in detail a second line of hBcl-2 Tg mice overexpressing the transgene in all B cells and in a fraction of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells (Tg2). We demonstrate here that the overexpression of hBcl-2 in T cells observed in Tg2 mice is associated with a resistance to the development of lupus disease and collagen type II-induced arthritis in both (NZW x C57BL/6)F(1) and (DBA/1 x C57BL/6)F(1) Tg2 mice, respectively. The disease-protective effect observed in autoimmune-prone Tg2 mice is accompanied by an increase of peripheral CD4(+)CD25(+) hBcl-2(+) regulatory T cells (T(regs)), expressing glucocorticoid-induced TNFR, CTLA-4, and FoxP3. Furthermore, the in vivo depletion of CD4(+)CD25(+) T(regs) in (DBA/1 x C57BL/6)F(1) Tg2 mice promotes the development of a severe collagen type II-induced arthritis. Taken together, our results indicate that the overexpression of hBcl-2 in CD4(+) T cells alters the homeostatic mechanisms controlling the number of CD4(+)CD25(+) T(regs) resulting in the inhibition of autoimmune diseases.
    The Journal of Immunology 04/2007; 178(5):2778-86. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) exhibits a broad range of immunomodulatory activities, including the induction of lymphocyte-programmed cell death. However, the nature of the lymphoid populations sensitive to LT-induced apoptosis and the mechanisms used by this toxin to promote such activity are still unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that LT induces in mice a rapid increase in the levels of circulating corticosterone, resulting in a dramatic induction of cell death of immature CD4+CD8+, B220+IgM- and IgM+IgD- T and B cell progenitors, respectively. Apoptosis of these cell populations is similar to that reported after experimental treatment with corticosteroids, it is inhibited by mifepristone, a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, and does not occur in adrenalectomized animals. These results clearly indicate that endogenous glucocorticoids are the mediators of the LT-induced cell death, which involves Bcl-2-dependent apoptotic pathways. The LT-mediated programmed cell death requires systemic exposure and the enzymatic activity of LT, since a mutant devoid of any enzymatic activity have no pro-apoptotic effect at any dose tested.
    European Journal of Immunology 01/2006; 35(12):3505-15. · 4.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Protein deimination, a process to modify arginine residues to citrulline by the addition of a neutral oxygen group, is associated with apoptosis. The presence of autoantibodies recognizing citrullinated peptides is highly specific to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and is therefore a useful marker for the early diagnosis of RA. In this study, we explored whether anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) autoantibodies are produced in several experimental models of autoimmune diseases in mice. The levels of anti-CCP autoantibodies were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in several lupus-prone strains of mice, in animals with type II collagen (CII)-induced arthritis, and after induction of neonatal tolerance to alloantigens. We observed the production of these autoantibodies in 2 different lupus-prone mice, MRL-lpr/lpr and (NZW x B6)F(1)-hbcl-2 transgenic mice, characterized by the presence of abnormalities in the regulation of B cell apoptosis. Other genetic defects, determining autoimmune susceptibility, present in MRL and NZW mice were additionally required for anti-CCP autoantibody production. The induction of autoantibodies in normal BALB/c mice injected at birth with semiallogeneic spleen cells from (BALB/c x B6)F(1)-hbcl-2 transgenic mice suggested that these additional autoimmune defects may be related, at least in part, to the establishment of abnormal interactions between T cells and B cells. In addition, anti-CCP autoantibodies were not produced in the course of CII-induced arthritis, an experimental model of RA in mice. Our study provides evidence for the association between defects in the regulatory cell death machinery of B lymphocytes and the production of certain autoantibody specificities.
    Arthritis & Rheumatology 09/2003; 48(8):2353-61. · 7.48 Impact Factor