[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The adaptor protein-1 (AP-1) complex is involved in membrane transport between the Golgi apparatus and endosomes. In the protozoan parasite Leishmania mexicana mexicana, the AP-1 mu1 and sigma1 subunits are not required for growth at 27 degrees C but are essential for infectivity in the mammalian host. In this study, we have investigated the function of these AP-1 subunits in order to understand the molecular basis for this loss of virulence. The mu1 and sigma1 subunits were localized to late Golgi and endosome membranes of the major parasite stages. Parasite mutants lacking either AP-1 subunit lacked obvious defects in Golgi structure, endocytosis, or exocytic transport. However, these mutants displayed reduced rates of endosome-to-lysosome transport and accumulated fragmented, sterol-rich lysosomes. Defects in flagellum biogenesis were also evident in nondividing promastigote stages, and this phenotype was exacerbated by inhibitors of sterol and sphingolipid biosynthesis. Furthermore, both AP-1 mutants were hypersensitive to elevated temperature and perturbations in membrane lipid composition. The pleiotropic requirements for AP-1 in membrane trafficking and temperature stress responses explain the loss of virulence of these mutants in the mammalian host.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Retrograde transport pathways from early/recycling endosomes to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) are poorly defined. We have investigated the role of TGN golgins in retrograde trafficking. Of the four TGN golgins, p230/golgin-245, golgin-97, GCC185, and GCC88, we show that GCC88 defines a retrograde transport pathway from early endosomes to the TGN. Depletion of GCC88 in HeLa cells by interference RNA resulted in a block in plasma membrane-TGN recycling of two cargo proteins, TGN38 and a CD8 mannose-6-phosphate receptor cytoplasmic tail fusion protein. In GCC88-depleted cells, cargo recycling was blocked in the early endosome. Depletion of GCC88 dramatically altered the TGN localization of the t-SNARE syntaxin 6, a syntaxin required for endosome to TGN transport. Furthermore, the transport block in GCC88-depleted cells was rescued by syntaxin 6 overexpression. Internalized Shiga toxin was efficiently transported from endosomes to the Golgi of GCC88-depleted cells, indicating that Shiga toxin and TGN38 are internalized by distinct retrograde transport pathways. These findings have identified an essential role for GCC88 in the localization of TGN fusion machinery for transport from early endosomes to the TGN, and they have allowed the identification of a retrograde pathway which differentially selects TGN38 and mannose-6-phosphate receptor from Shiga toxin.
Molecular Biology of the Cell 01/2008; 18(12):4979-91. · 4.60 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Four mammalian golgins are specifically targeted to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) membranes via their C-terminal GRIP domains. The TGN golgins, p230/golgin-245 and golgin-97, are recruited via the GTPase Arl1, whereas the TGN golgin GCC185 is recruited independently of Arl1. Here we show that GCC185 is localized to a region of the TGN distinct from Arl1 and plays an essential role in maintaining the organization of the Golgi apparatus. Using both small interfering RNA (siRNA) and microRNA (miRNA), we show that depletion of GCC185 in HeLa cells frequently resulted in fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus. Golgi apparatus fragments were dispersed throughout the cytoplasm and contained both cis and trans markers. Trafficking of anterograde and retrograde cargo was analysed over an extended period following GCC185 depletion. Early effects of GCC185 depletion included a perturbation in the distribution of the mannose-6-phosphate receptor and a block in shiga toxin trafficking to the Golgi apparatus, which occurred in parallel with the fragmentation of the Golgi ribbon. Internalized shiga toxin accumulated in Rab11-positive endosomes, indicating GCC185 is essential for transport between the recycling endosome and the TGN. In contrast, the plasma membrane-TGN recycling protein TGN38 was efficiently transported into GCC185-depleted Golgi apparatus fragments throughout a 96-h period, and anterograde transport of E-cadherin was functional until a late stage of GCC185 depletion. This study demonstrated (i) a more effective long-term depletion of GCC185 using miRNA than siRNA and (ii) a dual role for the GCC185 golgin in the regulation of endosome-to-TGN membrane transport and in the organization of the Golgi apparatus.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Protein transport in the secretory and endocytic pathways is a multistep process involving the generation of transport carriers loaded with defined sets of cargo, the shipment of the cargo-loaded transport carriers between compartments, and the specific fusion of these transport carriers with a target membrane. The regulation of these membrane-mediated processes involves a complex array of protein and lipid interactions. As the machinery and regulatory processes of membrane trafficking have been defined, it is increasingly apparent that membrane transport is intimately connected with a number of other cellular processes, such as quality control in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), cytoskeletal dynamics, receptor signaling, and mitosis. The fidelity of membrane trafficking relies on the correct assembly of components on organelles. Recruitment of peripheral proteins plays a critical role in defining organelle identity and the establishment of membrane subdomains, essential for the regulation of vesicle transport. The molecular mechanisms for the biogenesis of membrane subdomains are also central to understanding how cargo is sorted and segregated and how different populations of transport carriers are generated. In this review we will focus on the emerging themes of organelle identity, membrane subdomains, regulation of Golgi trafficking, and advances in dissecting pathways in physiological systems.
International Review of Cytology 02/2007; 261:47-116. · 6.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The four mammalian golgins, p230/golgin-245, golgin-97, GCC88 and GCC185 are targeted to trans-Golgi network (TGN) membranes by their C-terminal GRIP domain in a G-protein-dependent process. The Arf-like GTPase, Arl1, has been shown to mediate TGN recruitment of p230/golgin245 and golgin-97 by interaction with their GRIP domains; however, it is not known whether all the TGN golgins bind to Arl1 and whether they are all recruited to the same or different TGN domains. Here we demonstrate differences in membrane binding properties and TGN domain recruitment of the mammalian GRIP domain proteins. Overexpression of full-length GCC185 resulted in the appearance of small punctate structures dispersed in the cytoplasm of transfected cells that were identified as membrane tubular structures by immunoelectron microscopy. The cytoplasmic GCC185-labelled structures were enriched for membrane binding determinants of GCC185 GRIP, whereas the three other mammalian GRIP family members did not colocalize with the GCC185-labelled structures. These GCC185-labelled structures included the TGN resident protein alpha2,6 sialyltransferase and excluded the recycling TGN protein, TGN46. The Golgi stack was unaffected by overexpression of GCC185. Overexpression of both full-length GCC185 and GCC88 showed distinct and nonoverlapping structures. We also show that the GRIP domains of GCC185 and GCC88 differ in membrane binding properties from each other and, in contrast to p230/golgin-245 and golgin-97, do not interact with Arl1 in vivo. Collectively these results show that GCC88, GCC185 and p230/golgin245 are recruited to functionally distinct domains of the TGN and are likely to be important for the maintenance of TGN subdomain structure, a critical feature for mediating protein sorting and membrane transport.