C E Magnoli

Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto, Río Cuarto, Córdoba, Argentina

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Publications (60)99.88 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Aimthe present study evaluated the binding capacity of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) by two Enterococcus faecium strains (MF4 and GJ40) isolated from faeces from healthy dogs.Materials and Methodsthe binding assay was performed using 50 and 100 ppb of AFB1 analyzing the effects of the viability, incubation time and pH on AFB1 binding. Binding stability was determined by washing three times the bacteria-AFB1 complexes with phosphate buffer saline.Resultsboth GJ40 and MF4 strains have the ability to remove AFB1 from aqueous solution. Viable cells were slightly more effective in AFB1 binding than nonviable ones for both strains. E. faecium GJ40 removes 24 to 27% and 17 to 24% and E. faecium MF4 removes 36 to 42% and 27 to 32% of AFB1 (50 ppb and 100 ppb, respectively) throughout a 48 h incubation period. In general, the removal of AFB1 was highest at pH 7.00 for both strains. The stability of the bacteria-AFB1 complex formed was found to be high (up to 50% of AFB1 remained bounded in bacterial cell after three washes with PBS).Conclusionthe E. faecium strains assayed are capable of removing AFB1 under different conditions in vitro.Significance and impact of studythis is the first AFB1 binding assay performed with E. faecium strains isolated from dog faeces, being an interesting strategy for aflatoxin B1 decontamination of pet food.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Applied Microbiology 12/2014; · 2.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The main objective of this study was to determine if the competitive adsorption of tryptophan (Trp) and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) could potentially affect the ability of a sodium bentonite (NaB) to prevent aflatoxicosis in monogastric animals. The adsorption of Trp and AFB1 on this adsorbent is fast and could be operating on the same time-scale making competition feasible. In vitro competitive adsorption experiments under simulated gastrointestinal conditions were performed. A high affinity of the clay for Trp and NaB was observed. The effect of an excess of KCl to mimic the ionic strength of the physiological conditions were also investigated. A six times decrease in the Trp surface excess at saturation was observed. A similar behavior was previously found for AFB1 adsorption. Taking into account the amount of Trp adsorbed by the clay and the usual adsorbent supplementation level in diets, a decrease in Trp bioavailability is not expected to occur. Tryptophan adsorption isotherms on NaB were S-shaped and were adjusted by the Frumkin-Fowler-Guggenheim model. The reversibility of the adsorption processes was investigated in order to check a potential decrease in the ability of NaB to protect birds against chronic aflatoxicoses. Adsorption processes were completely reversible for Trp, while almost irreversible for AFB1. In spite of the high affinity of the NaB for Trp, probably due to the reversible character of Trp adsorption, no changes in the AFB1 adsorption isotherm were observed when an excess of the amino acid was added to the adsorption medium. As a consequence of the preferential and irreversible AFB1 adsorption and the reversible weak binding of Trp to the NaB, no changes in the aflatoxin sorption ability of the clay are expected to occur in the gastrointestinal tract of birds.
    Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: This investigation was undertake to determine the effect of glyphosate, chlorpyrifos and atrazine on the lag phase and growth rate of nonochratoxigenic A. niger aggregate strains growing on soil extract medium at -0.70, -2.78 and -7.06 MPa. Under certain conditions, the glyphosate concentrations used significantly increased micelial growth as compared to control. An increase of about 30% was observed for strain AN 251 using 5 and 20 mg L(-1) of glyphosate at -2.78 MPa. The strains behaved differently in the presence of the insecticide chlorpyrifos. A significant decrease in growth rate, compared to control, was observed for all strains except AN 251 at -2.78 MPa with 5 mg L(-1). This strain showed a significant increase in growth rate. With regard to atrazine, significant differences were observed only under some conditions compared to control. An increase in growth rate was observed for strain AN 251 at -2.78 MPa with 5 and 10 mg L(-1) of atrazine. By comparison, a reduction of 25% in growth rate was observed at -7.06 MPa and higher atrazine concentrations. This study shows that glyphosate, chlorpyrifos and atrazine affect the growth parameters of nonochratoxigenic A. niger aggregate strains under in vitro conditions.
    Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part B Pesticides Food Contaminants and Agricultural Wastes 10/2014; 49(10):747-55. · 1.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Antecedentes En los últimos años, para controlar el crecimiento fúngico, en lugar de los fungicidas tradicionales, tanto en la industria alimentaria como en los productos agrícolas se utilizan antioxidantes como aditivos alimentarios bien tolerados y sin riesgos de efectos adversos. Objetivos En el presente estudio, en un medio de cultivo con cacahuete, se examinó el efecto de hidroxianisol butilado (BHA) y propilparabeno (PP) sobre la actividad de 2 enzimas hidrolíticas (β-d-glucosidasa y α-d-galactosidasa) producidas por especies de Aspergillus sección Nigri, en función de diferentes valores de actividad de agua del sustrato (aW; 0,98, 0,95 y 0,93) y tiempos de incubación (24, 48, 72 y 96 h). Métodos La actividad de las 2 glucosidasas (β-d-glucosidasa y α-d-galactosidasa) se evaluó usando como sustrato 4-nitrofenil-β-d-glucopiranósido y 4-nitrofenil-α-d-galactopiranósido, respectivamente. La actividad enzimática se determinó mediante el aumento de la densidad óptica a 405 nm provocado por la liberación de p-nitrofenol, resultado de la hidrólisis enzimática del sustrato. La actividad enzimática se expresó como micromoles de p-nitrofenol liberado por minuto. Resultados La mayor inhibición en la actividad de β-d-glucosidasa de Aspergillus carbonarius y Aspergillus niger se observó con 20 mmol l−1 de BHA o PP a 0,98 y 0,95 aW, respectivamente. Comparado con el control, en A. carbonarius se detectó una disminución significativa de la actividad de α-d-galactosidasa con 5–20 mmol l−1 de BHA o PP en todas las condiciones examinadas. Con respecto a A. niger, los porcentajes mas elevados de inhibición enzimática se observaron con 20 mmol l−1 de BHA o PP a 0,95 aW y un tiempo de incubación de 96 h. Conclusiones Los resultados del presente estudio proporcionan información sobre la capacidad de BHA y PP para inhibir dos de las enzimas más importantes producidas por las especies A. carbonarius y A. niger.
    Revista Iberoamericana de Micología 04/2014; 31(2):131–136. · 0.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the cultivable mycobiota from agricultural soils exposed to pesticides, the aflatoxigenic capacity of Aspergillus section Flavi strains and the effect of glyphosate on lag phase and growth rates of native non-toxigenic A. flavus under different water potential on soil based medium. Culturable mycobiota analysis from different agricultural soils was performed by the surface spread method. The effect of glyphosate (0-20mM) on the growth of A. flavus strains was evaluated on a soil extract solid medium. Mycobiota analysis of crop soils showed the presence of twenty one genera of filamentous fungi. A. flavus and A. niger aggregate strains were isolated from the three soils type. Ninety two percent of A. flavus strains were toxigenic. In vitro assays results showed that at -0.70 MPa a significant increase in growth rate in all strains was recorded at 5 and 20 mM of glyphosate. At -2.78 MPa, this parameter remained constant at all glyphosate concentrations, except in GM4 strain where an increase in growth rate was recorded with increasing pesticide concentrations. . At -7.06 MPa a significant increase in growth rate has also been observed in GM 3 strain with 5 mM and in GM 4 strain at 10 and 20 mM. This study showed that the imperfecti fungi Aspergillus spp., Penicillium spp., Trichoderma spp., Cladosporium spp. and Paecilomyces spp. are isolated as prevalent groups in agricultural soil exposed to pesticides; and the capacity of non-toxigenic A. flavus strains to tolerate different glyphosate concentrations under different water potential. This manuscript makes a contribution to the knowledge of cultivable fungal populations from agricultural soils exposed to pesticides and the glyphosate tolerance of A. flavus strains. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Applied Microbiology 01/2014; · 2.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of six glyphosate concentrations on growth rate and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) production by Aspergillus section Flavi strains under different water activity (aW) on maize-based medium was investigated. In general, the lag phase decreased as glyphosate concentration increased and all the strains showed the same behavior at the different conditions tested. The glyphosate increased significantly the growth of all Aspergillus section Flavi strains in different percentages with respect to control depending on pesticide concentration. At 5.0 and 10 mM this fact was more evident; however significant differences between both concentrations were not observed in most strains. Aflatoxin B1 production did not show noticeable differences among different pesticide concentrations assayed at all aW in both strains. This study has shown that these Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus strains are able to grow effectively and produce aflatoxins in high nutrient status media over a range of glyphosate concentrations under different water activity conditions.
    Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part B Pesticides Food Contaminants and Agricultural Wastes 12/2013; 48(12):1070-9. · 1.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the inhibitory effect by the cross-streak method of nine Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from faeces of healthy dogs and their treated and non-treated cell-free supernatant (CFS) by the well-diffusion test on the growth of potentially pathogenic bacteria isolated from clinical cases and aflatoxigenic Aspergillus section Flavi and the consequent aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) production. Results obtained from the cross-strake assay showed that E. faecium MF1, GJ18 and GJ40 presented the major inhibitory activity against all pathogenic strains assayed; E. faecium GJ40 produced the larger inhibitory zones (26-27 mm). Well-diffusion test results showed that the majority of the enterococci strains CFS had antimicrobial activity against the pathogenic microorganisms, especially on Gram negative indicators. Cell-free supernatant of E. faecium GJ40 was the one that produced the largest inhibition zones (14 to 21 mm) in the majority of the indicator microorganisms assayed. All supernatants treated with 10 N NaOH (pH6) showed no inhibitory effect on the indicator strain assayed. With respect to fungal inhibition, any of the CFS assayed significantly inhibited the Aspergillus strains growth. But, in general, all CFS reduced AFB1 production from 8 to 87%. The results demonstrate that enterococci isolated from healthy dog feaces produce substances with the capacity to inhibit some potential pathogenic bacteria growth and the capacity of inhibiting or reducing the AFB1 production in vitro.
    Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part B Pesticides Food Contaminants and Agricultural Wastes 11/2013; 48(11):983-92. · 1.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study determined the biotic interaction between 30 non-toxigenic indigenous strains of Aspergillus niger aggregate, Aspergillus flavus, Trichoderma spp., Mucor spp., Cladosporium spp., Ulocladium spp., Curvularia spp., Absidia spp., Geotrichum spp. and Acremonium spp., isolated from soil destined for maize crops, with respect to their ability to prevent ochratoxin A (OTA) production by A. carbonarius on "in vitro" assay, on liquid and solid medium. OTA production was completely inhibited when A. carbonarius was inoculated in a interactive mixed culture with all A. niger aggregate strains assayed, a 80 % of Trichoderma spp. strains, a 40 % of Cladosporium spp. strains, Acremonium spp and Geotrichum spp; only one strain of A. flavus tested was able to completely inhibit the mycotoxin accumulation. OTA production increased when A. carbonarius ACS 8 was growing on liquid interactive mixed culture with Mucor spp strains. These results demonstrated that OTA production by Aspergillua carbonarius strain was significantly influenced by the presence of different non-toxigenic fungal strains when growing together on paired cultures.
    Mycotoxin Research 10/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: A total of 120 pelleted poultry feed samples from Entre Ríos Province, Argentina, were evaluated. The aims were to investigate (1) the presence of relevant toxigenic fungi, as well as to determine the ability to produce aflatoxins (AFs) by Aspergillus section Flavi isolated strains; and (2) the natural co-occurrence of AFs, fumonisins (FBs), gliotoxin, diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS), HT-2 and T-2 toxin by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Total fungal counts were below the established value (1 × 10(4) CFU g(-1)). Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus were the only aflatoxigenic species isolated. Co-occurrence of fumonisin B1 (FB1), HT-2 and T-2 toxin was detected in 100% of the feeds, with mean levels from 4502 to 5813; 6.7 to 21.6 and 19.6 to 30.3 µg kg(-1), respectively. A large number of starter samples were co-contaminated with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), FB1, HT-2 and T-2 toxins. Gliotoxin and DAS were not found in this survey.
    Food Additives and Contaminants: Part B Surveillance 09/2013; 6(3):168-174.
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    ABSTRACT: The purposes of this study were, to determine the distribution of total mycobiota, to determine the occurrence of Aspergillus spp., Penicillium spp. and Fusarium spp., and to detect and quantify fumonisin B1 and aflatoxin B1 in birds' feedstuffs. Sixty samples from different commercial feeds were collected. Analysis of the total mycobiota was performed and total fungal counts were expressed as CFU g(-1) . The isolation frequency (%) and relative density (%) of fungal genera and species were determined. Mycotoxins determination was done using commercial ELISA kits. The 48% of Standard, 31% of Premium and only 9% of Super Premium feed samples were found above of recommended limit (1 x 10(4) CFU g(-1) ). Aspergillus (82%), Cladosporium (50%) and Penicillium (42%) were the most frequently isolated genera. Aspergillus niger aggregate (35%), A. fumigatus (28%) and A. flavus (18%) had the highest relative densities. Contamination with fumonisins was detected in 95% of total samples with levels from 0.92 to 6.68 μg g(-1) , and the aflatoxins contamination was found in 40% of total samples with levels between 1.2 and 9.02 μg kg(-1) . Feed samples contaminated with fumonisins and aflatoxins are potentially toxic to birds. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Letters in Applied Microbiology 07/2013; · 1.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In the last years, food grade antioxidants are used safely as alternatives at traditional fungicides to control fungal growth in several food and agricultural products. AIMS: In this work, the effect of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and propyl paraben (PP) on two hydrolytic enzyme activity (β-D-glucosidase and α-D-galactosidase) by Aspergillus section Nigri species under different water activity (aW; 0.98, 0.95 and 0.93) and incubation time (24, 48, 72 and 96h) was evaluated on peanut-based medium. METHODS: The activity of two glycosidases, β-D-glucosidase and α-D-galactosidase, was assayed using as substrates 4-nitrophenyl-β-D-glucopyranosido and 4-nitrophenyl-α-D-galactopyranosido, respectively. The enzyme activity was determined by the increase in optical density at 405nm caused by the liberation of p-nitrophenol by enzymatic hydrolysis of the substrate. Enzyme activity was expressed as micromoles of p-nitrophenol released per minute. RESULTS: The major inhibition in β-D-glucosidase activity of A. carbonarius and A. niger was found with 20mmol l(-1) of BHA or PP at 0.98 and 0.95 aW, respectively. Whereas for α-D-galactosidase activity a significant decrease in enzyme activity respect to control was observed in A. carbonarius among 5 to 20mmol l(-1) of BHA or PP in all conditions assayed. Regarding A. niger, the highest percentages of enzyme inhibition activity were found with 20mmol l(-1) of BHA or PP at 0.95 aW and 96h. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this work provide information about the capacity of BHA and PP to inhibit in vitro conditions two of the most important hydrolytic enzymes produced by A. carbonarius and A. niger species.
    Revista iberoamericana de micologia. 04/2013;
  • Carla L Barberis, Ana M Dalcero, Carina E Magnoli
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    ABSTRACT: The influence of inoculum size on the colony-forming units, production of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and ochratoxin A (OTA) was determined when Aspergillus flavus and A. niger aggregate strains were cultured alone and in pairs on irradiated peanut grains at 28°C and 0.97 water activity (aW). The results showed a marked influence of inoculum factor on fungal counts, AFB1 and OTA production in single and paired cultures. Fungal counts of the A. niger aggregate strain in interacting cultures at 7, 14 and 21 days of incubation were significantly higher than those observed in the A. flavus strain, except in the mixed culture with 10(2) spores/ml of both strains. In all mixed culture assays, the AFB1 production was significantly reduced in comparison with the accumulation of mycotoxin in single cultures. A total inhibition in AFB1 production was observed in some interactions as 10(2) spores/ml of A. flavus and 10(3) spores/ml of A. niger aggregate strain at 7 and 14 days, among others. With regard to OTA production, a stimulation in the interacting cultures was observed at all inoculum sizes and incubation period. The highest levels of OTA accumulation were observed at 14 days for all interacting cultures. The maximum level was reach in the culture 10(3) spores/ml of A. niger aggregate and 10(4) spores/ml of A. flavus (p < 0.001). These results suggest that, under optimal environmental conditions in peanut grains, the interaction between A. flavus and A. niger aggregate strains could result in an inhibition of AFB1 and in a stimulation of OTA production.
    Mycotoxin Research 08/2012; 28(3):149-56.
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    ABSTRACT: The aims of the present work were: (1) to determine both mycobiota in raw materials and finisher poultry feed, as well as the ability to produce aflatoxin B1 by A. flavus strains, and (2) to evaluate the natural co-occurrence of aflatoxins (AFs), fumonisins (FBs), gliotoxin, diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS), HT-2 toxin, and T-2 toxin in poultry feed by LC-MS/MS. Nineteen percent of raw materials and 79% of finisher poultry feed samples exceeded the maximum allowed total fungal count (1 × 10(4) CFU g(-1)) to ensure hygienic quality. Aspergillus flavus was the only species belonging to section Flavi which was isolated while Fusarium verticilliodes was the prevalent species. Forty-seven percent of A. flavus strains were aflatoxin B1 producers and the highest frequency of aflatoxigenic strains was isolated from finisher poultry feeds. Principal component analysis showed that corn grains are closely related with total fungal and Fusarium counts. This positive relationship suggests that total fungal and Fusarium spp. counts in poultry feed might come mainly from corn grains. Regarding poultry feeds, in ground finisher type, Aspergillus spp. counts increased as water activity (aw) diminished. A positive relationship among aw, total fungal and Fusarium spp. counts was observed in both ground finisher and ground starter feed. Several mycotoxins were monitored in feeds by applying the LC MS/MS technique. One hundred percent of poultry samples were contaminated with FB1, and the highest levels were detected in pelleted finisher poultry. AFB1, gliotoxin, DAS, HT-2 toxin, and T-2 toxin were not detected in any poultry feed. The scarcity of available mycotoxicological studies from Argentinean poultry feed using a multitoxin analysis technique enhances the contribution of the findings of this report.
    Mycotoxin Research 05/2012; 28(2):111-22.
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    ABSTRACT: Animal feed may be contaminated with different mycotoxins, with aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) being a very common and toxic compound. Considering that birds normally have to cope with different stressful situations at the same time, the present study aims to evaluate the effects of feed contamination with AFB(1) in combination with corticosterone treatment in drinking water (a model to induce physiological stress in birds) on selected performance indices: BW, feed conversion, egg production, and macroscopic and microscopic liver alterations. At 5 wk of age, quails were randomly assigned to 1 of 6 dietary treatment groups that resulted from the combination of the presence or absence of corticosterone in drinking water (5 mg/L) with the presence or absence of AFB(1) contamination (0, 100, or 500 μg/kg). The animals remained in these treatments from 5 to 11 wk of age. There were 6 replicates per treatment, each containing 2 males and 2 females. Contamination with 100 μg of AFB(1) per kilogram of feed induced no changes in BW, feed conversion, and egg production parameters. Quail fed with 500 μg of AFB(1) per kilogram of feed showed significant decreases in BW and feed consumption compared with their control counterparts. Corticosterone in combination with 500 μg of AFB(1) per kilogram of feed intensified the negative effects observed on BW and feed consumption and also had negative effects on feed conversion rate and egg production parameters, suggesting that the adverse effects of contamination with AFB(1) are intensified in situations of chronic stress. Quail treated with 500 µg of AFB(1) per kilogram showed hepatocytes with degree 1 and 2 lesions, and all quail treated with 500 µg of AFB(1) per kilogram of feed in combination with corticosterone showed degree 2 liver lesions (i.e., hepatocytes with fatty macro and microvacuoles and necrosis). This result is also consistent with the hypothesis that chronic stress exacerbates the effect of AFB(1) contamination. In conclusion, this study suggests that the negative effects of AFB(1) contamination are increased when overlapped with chronic stressful stimulation.
    Poultry Science 02/2012; 91(2):354-61. · 1.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of Enterococcus faecium and Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis isolated from faeces of healthy dogs on (i) lag phase, (ii) growth rate, and (iii) aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus section Flavi on in vitro assays. Thirteen lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolates were used as antagonist microorganisms. Antagonistic activity was assayed against four potentially aflatoxigenic Aspergillus section Flavi isolates: A. flavus (AF210 and AF281), A. parasiticus (AP245) and A. parasiticus (NRRL 2999). In general, the longest lag phases of Aspergillus isolates were obtained with E. faecium GJ40. Respecting the growth rate, no significant reduction was found in this parameter in the interaction assays with A. flavus and antagonist isolates respecting the control. While in A. parasiticus a significant reduction in growth rate was only observed in the interaction among reference strain and E. faecium MF5 isolate (p < 0.05). In general, AFB1 production was reduced by most of the LAB isolates assayed, except for E. faecium GJ18, GJ20, MF3 and MF4. This study provides the first data about the antiaflatoxigenic activity of autochthonous LAB isolated from dog faeces.
    Mycotoxin Research 11/2011; 27(4):273-80.
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    ABSTRACT: Clay feed additives have been increasingly incorporated into animal diets to prevent aflatoxicosis. Due to the nonselective nature of the binding interaction, many important components of the diets could also be made unavailable because of these feed additives. The anticoccidial monensin (MON) could also be sequestered by these clays. The use of sodium bentonite (Na-B) from a mine in the province of Mendoza, Argentina, was investigated as a sequestering agent to prevent the effects of 100 µg/kg of dietary aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)). In vitro studies demonstrated that the above Na-B was a good candidate to prevent aflatoxicosis. They also showed that MON competes with AFB(1) for the adsorption sites on the clay surface and effectively displaces the toxin when it is in low concentration. Even though the levels of MON in diets, approximately 55 mg/kg, are high enough to not be significantly changed as a consequence of the adsorption, they can further affect the ability of the clays to bind low levels of AFB(1). An in vivo experiment carried out with poultry showed that 100 µg/kg of AFB(1) does not significantly change productive or biochemical parameters. However, liver histopathology not only confirmed the ability of this particular Na-B to prevent aflatoxicosis but also the decrease of this capacity in the presence of 55 mg/kg of MON. This is the first report stressing this fact and further research should be performed to check if this behavior is a characteristic of the assayed Na-B or of this type of clay. On the other hand, the presence of MON should also be taken into account when assaying the potential AFB(1) binding ability of a given bentonite.
    Poultry Science 02/2011; 90(2):352-7. · 1.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aflatoxins (AF) are a major problem in broiler production and are significant economic and public health burdens worldwide. A commercial sodium bentonite (Na-B) adsorbent was used to prevent the effect of AF [50 µg of aflatoxin B₁ (AFB₁)/kg of feed] in broiler productivity, biochemical parameters, macroscopic and microscopic liver changes, and AFB₁ liver residues. The influence of Na-B (0.3%) and monensin (MON, 100 mg/kg), alone or in combination, was investigated in depth. The dietary treatments were as follows: treatment (T) 1: basal diet (B); T2: B + MON; T3: B + Na-B; T4: B + Na-B + MON; T5: B + AFB₁; T6: B + AFB₁ + Na-B + MON; T7: B + AFB₁ + MON; T8: B + AFB₁ + Na-B. Birds were fed dietary treatments for 28 d (d 18 to 46). No significant differences (P < 0.05) were observed among treatments with respect to broiler performance, biochemical parameters, or relative liver weights. With the exception of T8, all livers showed histopathological alterations, with accumulation of fat vacuoles. The normal appearance of livers from T8 showed the protective effect of Na-B against aflatoxicosis. The residual AFB₁ levels in livers from T5 to T8 ranged from 0.2 to 1.0 ng/g and were higher in livers from T6 (P < 0.05). Results of this study indicate a competition between AFB₁ and MON for adsorption sites on Na-B when feed contains low levels of the toxin, indicating a nonselective adsorption capacity of this particular Na-B. In addition, significant levels of AFB₁ in livers indicate that this determination is an important technique not only for diagnosis of aflatoxicosis in broilers, but also for quality control of avian products.
    Poultry Science 01/2011; 90(1):48-58. · 1.54 Impact Factor
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    Andrea L Astoreca, Carina E Magnoli, Ana M Dalcero
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    ABSTRACT: After aflatoxins, ochratoxin A (OTA) is the most studied mycotoxin due to the toxicological significance in human and animal diets. OTA presence has been extensively reported worldwide in the last decade in several agricultural products. The main OTA producer in tropical and temperate climates is Aspergillus carbonarius followed by species belonging to A. niger aggregate. Currently, many scientists worldwide have studied the influence of water activity and temperature for growth and biosynthesis of OTA by these species on synthetic media. This article reviews ecophysiological studies of Aspergillus section Nigri strains on synthetic media and natural substrates. The results of these investigations suggest that significant amounts of OTA can be produced in only five days and that the use of different storage practices, such as a(W) and temperature levels below 0.930 and 15 °C, respectively, allow controlling fungal contamination and minimizing the OTA production in several products as peanuts, corn, dried grapes and derived products for human consumption.
    Toxins 11/2010; 2(11):2593-605. · 2.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Each year, a significant portion of the peanuts produced cannot be marketed because of fungal disease at the postharvest stage and mycotoxin contamination. Antioxidants could be used as an alternative to fungicides to control ochratoxigenic fungi in peanuts during storage. This study was carried out to determine the effect of the antioxidant butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and the antimicrobial propyl paraben (PP) on the lag phase before growth, growth rate, and ochratoxin A (OTA) production by Aspergillus section Nigri strains in peanut kernels under different conditions of water activity (aw) and temperature. At 20 mM/g BHA, 18 degrees C, and 0.93 aw, complete inhibition of growth occurred. For PP, there was no growth at 20 mM/g, 18 degrees C, and 0.93, 0.95, and 0.98 aw. BHA at 20 mM/g inhibited OTA production in peanuts by Aspergillus carbonarius and Aspergillus niger aggregate strains at 0.93 aw and 18 degrees C. PP at 20 mM/g completely inhibited OTA production at 18 degrees C. The results of this work suggest that PP is more appropriate than BHA for controlling growth and OTA production by Aspergillus section Nigri species in peanut kernels.
    Journal of food protection 08/2010; 73(8):1493-501. · 1.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of mixtures of antioxidants butylated hydroxyanisol (BHA) and propyl paraben (PP) on lag phase, growth rate and ochratoxin A (OTA) production by four Aspergillus section Nigri strains was evaluated on peanut meal extract agar (PMEA) under different water activities (a(w)). The antioxidant mixtures used were: BHA + PP (mM), M1 (0.5 + 0.5), M2 (1.0 + 0.5), M3 (2.5 + 0.5), M4 (0.5 + 1.0), M5 (1.0 + 1.0), M6 (2.5 + 1.0), M7 (5.0 + 2.5) and M8 (10 + 2.5). The mixture M8 completely suppressed mycelial growth for all strains. A significant stimulation in OTA production was observed with mixtures M1 to M5 mainly at the highest a(w); whereas M6, M7 and M8 completely inhibited OTA production in all strains assayed; except M6 in A. carbonarius strain (RCP G). These results could enable a future intervention strategy to minimize OTA contamination.
    Toxins 06/2010; 2(6):1399-413. · 2.48 Impact Factor

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99.88 Total Impact Points


  • 1998–2014
    • Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto
      • • Department of Microbiology and Immunology
      • • Department of Chemistry
      • • Department of Animal Production
      Río Cuarto, Córdoba, Argentina
  • 2001–2002
    • Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro
      • Departamento de Microbiologia e Imunologia Veterinária (DMIV)
      Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil