Y Matsuda

The University of Tokushima, Tokusima, Tokushima, Japan

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Publications (40)115.05 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) have been implicated in the regulation of multiple stages of endochondral bone development. BMPs are synthesized as inactive precursors, and activated by removal of the propeptide. The subtilisin-like proprotein convertase (SPC) family comprises seven members [furin/SPC1, PC2/SPC2, PC1/PC3/SPC3, paired basic amino acid-cleaving enzyme 4 (PACE4)/SPC4, PC4/SPC5, PC6/PC5/SPC6, and PC8/PC7/LPC/SPC7], and activates various signaling molecules, including BMPs. In this study, we analyzed the role of this family in chondrogenic differentiation by using the mouse embryonal carcinoma-derived clonal cell line ATDC5. Both SPC-specific inhibitors, decanoyl-Arg-Val-Lys-Arg-chloromethylketone and α1-antitrypsin Portland variant, suppressed chondrogenic differentiation. RT-PCR analysis revealed that PACE4 mRNA levels increased markedly during chondrogenic differentiation, whereas furin expression remained unchanged. Knockdown of PACE4 expression significantly reduced chondrogenic differentiation. Furthermore, proBMP6, which shows an expression pattern similar to that of PACE4, was efficiently processed into its mature form by PACE4, whereas furin could not process proBMP6. These results suggest that PACE4 may regulate the rate of hypertrophic conversion of ATDC5 cells through activation of proBMP6.
    FEBS Journal 08/2012; 279(21):3997-4009. · 4.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Most growth factors stimulate myoblast proliferation and prevent differentiation, whereas insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) promote myoblast differentiation through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway. Subtilisin-like proprotein convertases (SPCs) are involved in cell growth and differentiation via activation of pro-growth factors. However, the role of SPCs in myogenesis remains poorly understood. Here we show that PACE4, a member of the SPC family, plays a critical role in myogenic differentiation of C2C12 cells. PACE4 mRNA levels increased markedly during myogenesis, whereas the expression of other member of SPC family, furin and PC6, remained unchanged. The expression pattern of pro-IGF-II, which is processed extracellularly by SPCs, was similar to that of PACE4. The expression of shRNA targeting PACE4, but not furin, suppressed the expression of the muscle-specific myosin light chain (MLC). Interestingly, reduced expression of MLC was restored following treatment with recombinant mature IGF-II. Finally, we demonstrated that the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 blocked the induction of PACE4 mRNA, a result not observed when another myogenic differentiation inhibitor, SB203580 (p38 MAP kinase inhibitor), was employed, indicating the presence of a positive feedback loop regulating PACE4 expression. These results suggest that PACE4 plays an important role in myogenic differentiation through its association with the IGF-II pathway.
    Journal of Biochemistry 07/2009; 146(3):407-15. · 3.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mutation in fibrillin-2, a major structural component of extracellular microfibrils in connective tissue, results in the autosomal dominant disease congenital contractural arachnodactyly. This genetic disease is characterized by dolichostenomelia and arachnodactyly, in addition to contractures of the large joints and abnormal pinnae formation, thus indicating the significance of fibrillin-2 in chondrogenesis. In this study, we investigated the transcriptional regulation of fibrillin-2 in chondrogenic differentiation. Although mRNA expression of fibrillin-1, a highly homologous protein to fibrillin-2, remained almost unchanged during chondrogenesis of mouse ATDC5 cells, fibrillin-2 mRNA expression varied. Fibrillin-2 was highly expressed at the early stage and declined progressively during differentiation. The 5'-flanking region of the fibrillin-2 gene contains potential binding sites for E2F, Runx, AP-2, and Sox transcription factors. The promoter activity of fibrillin-2 decreased markedly following deletion and mutagenesis of the E2F binding site between -143 and -136 bp. Overexpression of E2F1 resulted in a marked increase in its promoter activity, whereas expression of other transcription factors including AP-2alpha and Runx2 had no effect. The increase in promoter activity by E2F1 was completely suppressed by the coexpression of E2F4. E2F2 and E2F3 had positive effects on the promoter activity. Although ATDC5 cells expressed transcripts for the E2F family genes at all stages of differentiation, the expression profiles differed. E2F1 expression remained almost unchanged, whereas E2F4 expression increased markedly at the late stage of differentiation. These results indicated that coordinated expression of the E2F family is critical for the transcriptional regulation of fibrillin-2 during chondrogenesis.
    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 02/2009; 106(4):580-8. · 3.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PACE4, a member of the subtilisin-like proprotein convertase (SPC) family, is expressed at high levels in certain tumor cells and plays a role in metastatic progression through activation of matrix metalloproteinases. The mechanism leading to overexpression of PACE4 in tumor cells remains unclear. In this study, we show that the E2F1 transcription factor, which is implicated in carcinoma invasiveness, upregulates the expression of PACE4. HT1080 (highly tumorigenic and invasive) cells expressed much higher levels of PACE4 and E2F family (E2F1 and E2F2) transcripts than IMR90 (normal fibroblast) cells. Expression levels of other SPCs (furin and PC6) remained unchanged in these cells. Promoter analysis indicated that two E2F consensus binding sites (-117/-110 and -86/-79) in the 5'-flanking region of the human PACE4 gene function as positive regulatory elements. Mutation of these sites abolished PACE4 promoter response to E2F1 as well as binding of E2F1 in electrophoretic mobility-shift assays. Other E2F members, E2F2 and E2F3, also activated PACE4 expression, as in the case of E2F1. These results indicate a novel mechanism for E2F family-mediated promotion of carcinoma invasiveness through PACE4.
    Gene 12/2007; 402(1-2):103-10. · 2.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Furin and PACE4, members of the subtilisin-like proprotein convertase (SPC) family, have been implicated in the metastatic progression of certain tumors in addition to the activation of viral coat proteins and bacterial toxins, indicating that these enzymes are potential targets for therapeutic agents. Alpha1-Antitrypsin Portland is an engineered alpha1-antitrypsin designed as a furin-specific inhibitor and has been used as a tool in the functional analysis of furin. In this work, we engineered rat alpha1-antitrypsin to create a PACE4-specific inhibitor. Substituting Arg-Arg-Arg-Arg for Ala-Val-Pro-Met(352) at P4-P1 and Ala for Leu(354) at P2' created a potent PACE4- and PC6-specific inhibitor. This variant (RRRRSA) formed an SDS- and heat-stable serpin/proteinase complex with PACE4 or PC6 and inhibited both enzyme activities. The RRRRSA variant was efficiently cleaved by furin without formation of the stable complex. This is the first report of a highly selective protein-based inhibitor of PACE4 and PC6. This inhibitor will be useful in delineating the roles of PACE4 and PC6 localized in the extracellular matrix.
    Protein Engineering Design and Selection 05/2007; 20(4):163-70. · 2.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: SPCs (subtilisin-like proprotein convertases) are a family of seven structurally related serine endoproteases that are involved in the proteolytic activation of proproteins. In an effort to examine the substrate protein for PACE4 (paired basic amino-acid-cleaving enzyme-4), an SPC, a potent protein inhibitor of PACE4, an alpha1-antitrypsin RVRR (Arg-Val-Arg-Arg) variant, was expressed in GH4C1 cells. Ectopic expression of the RVRR variant caused accumulation of the 48 kDa protein in cells. Sequence analysis indicates that the 48 kDa protein is a putative Ca2+-binding protein, RCN-3 (reticulocalbin-3), which had previously been predicted by bioinformatic analysis of cDNA from the human hypothalamus. RCN-3 is a member of the CREC (Cab45/reticulocalbin/ERC45/calumenin) family of multiple EF-hand Ca2+-binding proteins localized to the secretory pathway. The most interesting feature of the RCN-3 sequence is the presence of five Arg-Xaa-Xaa-Arg motifs, which represents the target sequence of SPCs. Biosynthetic studies showed that RCN-3 is transiently associated with proPACE4, but not with mature PACE4. Inhibition of PACE4 maturation by a Ca2+ ionophore resulted in accumulation of the proPACE4-RCN-3 complex in cells. Furthermore, autoactivation and secretion of PACE4 was increased upon co-expression with RCN-3. Our findings suggest that selective and transient association of RCN-3 with the precursor of PACE4 plays an important role in the biosynthesis of PACE4.
    Biochemical Journal 06/2006; 396(1):51-9. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Oligopeptidase B is a serine endopeptidase found in prokaryotes, unicellular eukaryotes and higher plants. The enzyme has been shown recently to play a central role in the pathogenesis of several parasitic diseases such as African trypanosomiasis, and to be a potential therapeutic target. This study reports that protamine, a basic peptide rich in arginine, is a potent inhibitor at the nanomolar level of oligopeptidase B from E. coli and wheat. Protamines 1B, 2C, 3A and TP17 displayed similar inhibitory activities and were capable of binding strongly to oligopeptidase B without proteolytic cleavage. The concentration of protamine needed for 50% inhibition (IC50) of oligopeptidase B was 10(4)-fold lower than the IC50 of trypsin. Oligopeptidase B was highly sensitive to inhibition by protamines even in the presence of serum (IC50, 1 microM). These data indicate that protamines might provide information useful for the design of more specific synthetic oligopeptidase B inhibitors.
    Journal of Peptide Science 02/2006; 12(1):65-71. · 2.07 Impact Factor
  • Akihiko Tsuji, Keizo Yuasa, Yoshiko Matsuda
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    ABSTRACT: Proteolytic enzymes in general, and cysteine proteases in particular, play key roles in seed germination and early seedling growth. However, the precise mechanism by which the serine proteases are regulated remains unclear. Trypsin-like activity was detected in wheat germ (quiescent embryo) and this activity increased in the germinating embryo. In this work, a trypsin-like serine protease expressed in wheat germ was purified to homogeneity by chromatography through DEAE-cellulose, phenyl-Sepharose, Ultrogel AcA-34 and Blue-Sepharose. The molecular mass of the enzyme was estimated to be 81 kDa by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions. Amino acid analysis of the peptides generated following digestion of the enzyme with lysyl endopeptidase indicated that the enzyme is a plant homologue of Escherichia. coli oligopeptidase B. The subsite specificity of the enzymes differ, although both enzymes hydrolyze synthetic substrates and model peptides at the carboxyl side of basic amino acids. The wheat enzyme is more sensitive to leupeptin and antipain than the E. coli emzyme. These results provide the basis for characterizing plant oligopeptidase B and contribute to our understanding of its role in the early development of seedlings.
    Journal of Biochemistry 12/2004; 136(5):673-81. · 3.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A cDNA clone encoding a novel papain-like cysteine protease was isolated from wheat germ (Triticum aestivum). This cDNA encoded a 371-residue protein, designated WCP2, composed of signal peptide followed by a propeptide and a mature protease containing active site residues that are highly conserved among the papain family. The mature WCP2 protein (26 kDa) was detected in the quiescent embryo and its level of expression in the germinating embryo was greatly increased.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 02/2004; 1670(1):84-9. · 4.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PACE4 is a member of the mammalian subtilisin-like proprotein convertase (SPC) family, which contribute to the activation of transforming growth factor (TGF) beta family proteins. We previously reported that PACE4 is highly expressed in syncytiotrophoblasts of human placenta [Tsuji et al. (2003) BIOCHIM: Biophys. Acta 1645, 95-104]. In this study, the regulatory mechanism for PACE4 expression in placenta was analyzed using a human placental choriocarcinoma cell line, BeWo cells. Promoter analysis indicated that an E-box cluster (E4-E9) in the 5'-flanking region of the PACE4 gene acts as a negative regulatory element. The binding of human achaete-scute homologue 2 (Hash-2) to the E-box cluster was shown by gel mobility-shift assay. The overexpression of Hash-2 caused a marked decrease in PACE4 gene expression. When BeWo cells were grown under low oxygen (2%) conditions, the expression of Hash-2 decreased, while that of PACE4 increased. In both cases, other SPCs, such as furin, PC5/6, and PC7/8, were not affected. Further, PACE4 expression was found to be developmentally regulated in rat placenta. By in situ hybridization, Mash-2 (mammalian achaete-scute homologue 2) mRNA was found to be expressed in the spongiotrophoblast layer where PACE4 was not expressed. In contrast, the PACE4 mRNA was expressed mainly in the labyrinthine layer where Mash-2 was not detected. These results suggest that PACE4 expression is down-regulated by Hash-2/Mash-2 in both human and rat placenta and that many bioactive proteins might be regulated by PACE4 activity.
    Journal of Biochemistry 10/2003; 134(3):433-40. · 3.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PACE4, PC6 and furin are potent subtilisin-like proprotein convertases (SPCs) which are responsible for the activation of transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta)-related factors such as bone morphogenetic proteins. Heparan sulfate proteoglycan within the extracellular matrix (ECM) is known to regulate the biological activity of various differentiation factors including TGFbeta-related molecules. PACE4 binds tightly to heparin and its heparin-binding region was found to be a cationic stretch of amino acids between residues 743 and 760. Furthermore, PACE4 was detected in the extracellular material fraction of the HEK293 cells, defined as the material remaining on the culture plate following the removal of the cells from the plate. PACE4 bound to the extracellular fraction was selectively dislodged by heparin into the culture medium. Heparin has no inhibitory activity against PACE4. Similarly, PC6A is also able to bind to heparin, whereas soluble furin does not. In human placenta, PACE4 is mainly present in syncytiotrophoblasts and can be released by heparin. These results suggest that PACE4 and PC6 are unique SPC family proteases that anchor heparan sulfate proteoglycans at the ECM. The interaction between PACE4 and heparan sulfate proteoglycans might play an important role in the delicate spatiotemporal regulation of TGFbeta-related factors' biological activity.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 02/2003; 1645(1):95-104. · 4.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PACE4, PC6 and furin are potent subtilisin-like proprotein convertases (SPCs) which are responsible for the activation of transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ)-related factors such as bone morphogenetic proteins. Heparan sulfate proteoglycan within the extracellular matrix (ECM) is known to regulate the biological activity of various differentiation factors including TGFβ-related molecules. PACE4 binds tightly to heparin and its heparin-binding region was found to be a cationic stretch of amino acids between residues 743 and 760. Furthermore, PACE4 was detected in the extracellular material fraction of the HEK293 cells, defined as the material remaining on the culture plate following the removal of the cells from the plate. PACE4 bound to the extracellular fraction was selectively dislodged by heparin into the culture medium. Heparin has no inhibitory activity against PACE4. Similarly, PC6A is also able to bind to heparin, whereas soluble furin does not. In human placenta, PACE4 is mainly present in syncytiotrophoblasts and can be released by heparin. These results suggest that PACE4 and PC6 are unique SPC family proteases that anchor heparan sulfate proteoglycans at the ECM. The interaction between PACE4 and heparan sulfate proteoglycans might play an important role in the delicate spatiotemporal regulation of TGFβ-related factors' biological activity.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Proteins & Proteomics 01/2003; 1645(1):95-104. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The differentiation of megakaryocytes into platelets is highly regulated by many cytokines and growth factors. PACE4 and furin are Ca(2+)-dependent serine endoproteases belonging to the subtilisin-like proprotein convertase (SPC) family. These enzymes are involved in the proteolytic activation of proteins that play essential roles in cell growth and differentiation. In this study, we examined the expression of PACE4 and furin during the differentiation of megakaryoblastic cell lines, Dami and HEL cells, induced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). PMA stimulates not only the expression of platelet-derived growth factor-B (PDGF-B) mRNA, but also PACE4 mRNA in these cell lines. The expression of PACE4 transcripts (both the PACE4A and PACE4C/CS isoforms) was upregulated more than 4-fold by PMA. Moreover, direct treatment with PDGF-BB also resulted in an increase in the level of PACE4 mRNA. Further, the effect of PDGF-BB on PACE4 expression was confirmed by promoter assay of the PACE4 gene. Although the furin mRNA level was increased by TGF-beta1 in Dami cells, it was not affected by PDGF-BB. These results indicate for the first time that PACE4 expression is specifically upregulated by PDGF-BB in differentiated megakaryoblasts, suggesting a unique role for PACE4 in platelet production.
    Journal of Biochemistry 08/2002; 132(1):127-34. · 3.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PACE4, furin and PC6 are Ca2+-dependent serine endoproteases that belong to the subtilisin-like proprotein convertase (SPC) family. Recent reports have supported the involvement of these enzymes in processing of growth/differentiation factors, viral replication, activation of bacterial toxins and tumorigenesis, indicating that these enzymes are a fascinating target for therapeutic agents. In this work, we evaluated the sensitivity and selectivity of three rat alpha1-antitrypsin variants which contained RVPR352, AVRR352 and RVRR352, respectively, within their reactive site loop using both inhibition of enzyme activity toward a fluorogenic substrate in vitro and formation of a SDS-stable protease/inhibitor complex ex vivo. The RVPR variant showed relatively broad selectivity, whereas the AVRR and RVRR variants were more selective than the RVPR variant. The AVRR variant inhibited furin and PC6 but not PACE4. This selectivity was further confirmed by complex formation and inhibition of pro-complement C3 processing. On the other hand, although the RVRR variant inhibited both PACE4 and furin effectively, it needed a 600-fold higher concentration than the RVPR variant to inhibit PC6 in vitro. These inhibitors will be useful tools in helping us to understand the roles of PACE4, furin and PC6.
    Protein engineering 03/2002; 15(2):123-30.
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    ABSTRACT: PACE4A is a member of the mammalian subtilisin-like proprotein convertase family which is responsible for the proteolytic activation of precursors into their biologically active forms. Previously we reported that the maturation of proPACE4A occurs via a intramolecular autoactivation and cleavage of the propeptide is a rate-limiting step for the secretion of PACE4A (Nagahama et al., FEBS Lett. (1998) 434, 155-159). Although PACE4A is a putative secretory enzyme, it matures and is secreted much slower than general secretory proteins. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism underlying this slow maturation. The deletion of 25 amino acids at the carboxy terminus is sufficient for a marked acceleration in both the maturation and secretion of PACE4A. The carboxyl-truncated proPACE4A existed only as a monomer-sized form in the endoplasmic reticulum, whereas the wild type of proPACE4A existed in larger forms. Further, the fusion construct of yellow fluorescent protein and the carboxy-terminal sequence of PACE4A associated with the proPACE4A moiety and inhibited maturation. Thus the carboxy terminus of PACE4A functions as a potent autoinhibitor of its activation, resulting in the retention of proPACE4A in the endoplasmic reticulum. These findings indicate that PACE4A activity is highly controlled by a unique system at post-translational level.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 02/2002; 290(2):878-84. · 2.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Expressions of mRNAs for four subtilisin-like proprotein convertases (SPCs: furin, PACE4, PC6, and PC8) and bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) in the rat molar tooth during development were analyzed by Northern blotting, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and in situ hybridization to explore the possible involvement of SPCs in the processing of proBMPs. We found a temporospacial expression of PACE4, but not one of the other SPCs, in this tissue; i.e., RT-PCR analysis revealed that the level of PACE4 mRNA, but not that of the other SPC mRNAs became high around the second postnatal day. This increase was in good accordance with the increase in BMP4 mRNA, indicating an apparent association of these molecules with the differentiation and establishment of functional ameloblasts and odontoblasts. During dentinogenesis, PACE4 mRNA was localized in the ameloblasts and odontoblasts. These observations suggest that PACE4 plays a crucial role in dentinogenesis, especially via the activation of BMPs.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 07/2000; 272(2):410-5. · 2.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The temporospatial expression of PACE4, a member of the mammalian subtilisin-like proprotein convertase family, in the developing rat molar tooth was determined by in situ hybridization. At the initiation stage of tooth development, PACE4 mRNA was weakly expressed in the dental lamina, whereas the mesenchymal cells intensely expressed the PACE4 transcript. At the bud stage, high-level expression of PACE4 mRNA was found in the dental epithelium and condensed dental mesenchyme. Its expression became more localized in the differentiating ameloblasts during cap and early bell stages. In the newborn rats, PACE4 mRNA was localized in the ameloblasts and odontoblasts, but its expression became weaker with advancing development, showing apparent association with the differentiation and establishment of functional ameloblasts and odontoblasts. These expression patterns of PACE4 were very similar to those of several bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) reported previously. Because BMPs, which are primarily involved in the morphogenesis in tooth formation, are synthesized as inactive precursors and activated by limited proteolysis at the consensus Arg-X-X-Arg maturation site, the present observations suggest that PACE4 is possibly a candidate proBMP convertase that acts during tooth formation.
    Developmental Dynamics 01/2000; 216(4-5):481-8. · 2.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PACE4 (SPC4) is a member of the mammalian subtilisin-like proprotein convertase (SPC) family, which participates in maturation of precursor proteins. PACE4 is expressed at high levels in the anterior pituitary, central nervous system, the developing olfactory bulb, heart, and liver. Recently, we determined the gene structure of human PACE4. [Tsuji et al. (1997) J. Biochem. 122, 438-452]. The 5'-flanking region of PACE4 gene contains 12 E-boxes (E1 to E12) within 1 kb upstream of the transcription initiation site. To examine the function of these E-box elements in the regulation of PACE4 expression, deletion and mutation constructs of the 5'-flanking region were ligated to the luciferase gene and analyzed for promoter activity in HepG2 and GH4C1 cells, which express PACE4 at high level. Some differences were observed in the activity of each promoter construct between HepG2 and GH4C1 cells, although the overall profiles of activity for the promoter fragment series were similar regardless of cell type. We showed that the basal promoter activity of the PACE4 gene is first determined by sequences lying between -315 and -1 bp and further regulated by positive and negative elements in the upstream region. Site-directed mutagenesis of E-boxes in these regulatory elements showed that the E10 E-box act as positive regulator, whereas an E-box cluster (E4-E9) acts as a negative regulator in both cells. E2 E-box acts as a positive regulator only in HepG2 cells. Other E-boxes (E1, E3, and E12) had no effect on the promoter activity. These results indicate that E-box elements play a critical role in controlling PACE4 expression in HepG2 and GH4C1 cells and that PACE4 expression is regulated by a mechanism distinct from that of other SPC family proteases.
    Journal of Biochemistry 10/1999; 126(3):494-502. · 3.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PACE4 (SPC4), a member of the subtilisin-like proprotein convertase (SPC) family of proteases that cleave at paired basic amino acids, exhibits a dynamic expression pattern during embryogenesis and colocalizes with bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). Recently Cui et al. reported that the ectopic expression of alpha1-antitrypsin variant Portland (alpha1-PDX), an engineered serpin that contains the minimal SPC consensus motif in its reactive loop, blocks the proteolytic activation of BMP4, leading to abnormal embryogenic development [Cui, Y. et al. (1998) EMBO J. 17, 4735-4743]. TGFbeta-related factors such as BMPs are synthesized as inactive precursors and activated by limited proteolysis at multibasic amino acids. Therefore, an alpha1-PDX-inhibitable protease is thought to participate in BMP activation. However, conflicting properties, including sensitivity to alpha1-PDX, have been reported for PACE4. In this study, we examined whether alpha1-PDX is responsible for the inhibition of PACE4 by measuring the protease/inhibitor complex directly. Here we show that alpha1-PDX has the ability to form an SDS-stable acyl-intermediate (180 kDa) with PACE4 in vivo and in vitro. Further, we characterized the PACE4 secreted into the culture medium from Cos-1 cells by a specific immunological assay. An alpha1-PDX-insensitive and decanoyl-RVKR-chloromethylketone-sensitive 60-kDa protease(s) is greatly activated in conditioned medium by PACE4 overexpression, suggesting that the activation of an unknown protease(s) other than PACE4 is the cause of the variation in the properties of PACE4. PACE4 is a Ca(2+)-dependent protease with an optimal Ca(2+) requirement of 2 mM, and shows its highest activity at weakly basic pH. PACE4 activity is completely inhibited by EDTA and EGTA, but not by leupeptin. These results show that PACE4 activity can be inhibited by alpha1-PDX as well as furin (SPC1) and suggest that the inhibition of PACE4-mediated activation of factors such as BMPs by alpha1-PDX causes abnormal embryogenic development.
    Journal of Biochemistry 10/1999; 126(3):591-603. · 3.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Serum albumin is synthesized as a larger precursor form, proalbumin, which undergoes proteolytic processing at a dibasic site by a hepatic proprotein convertase within the secretory pathway to generate the mature form. Although furin, a member of the subtilisin-like proprotein convertase (SPC) family, was thought to be the only candidate hepatic convertase for proalbumin, SPC family members other than furin were recently suggested to also be involved in proalbumin processing. This study was designed to identify the endogenous proprotein convertases involved in proalbumin processing. Since human hepatoma HepG2 cells are highly differentiated and produce major plasma proteins, this cell line was used as a model for hepatocytes. Northern blot analysis revealed that PACE4, furin and PC8 of the SPC family were expressed in HepG2 cells as well as in the liver. Ribonuclease protection assay showed that PACE4A-II mRNA is the major transcript in HepG2 cells among the PACE4 isoforms. The coexpression studies showed that furin, PACE4A-II and PC8 were all able to convert proalbumin to albumin correctly. To elucidate the roles of these endogenous SPC family members in proalbumin processing, the antisense RNA for PACE4, furin and PC8 was stably expressed in HepG2 cells, respectively. The expression of each antisense RNA resulted in approximately 30% inhibition of endogenous proalbumin processing. We therefore concluded that PACE4 and PC8, as well as furin, are involved in the processing of proalbumin in HepG2 cells, and that these SPC family members are functionally redundant in this processing.
    Journal of Biochemistry 04/1999; 125(3):627-33. · 3.07 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

346 Citations
115.05 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1994–2012
    • The University of Tokushima
      • • Department of Biological Science and Technology (Grad)
      • • Department of Biological Science and Technology
      Tokusima, Tokushima, Japan
  • 1991
    • Shinshu University
      Shonai, Nagano, Japan