[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lamellar Ichthyosis (LI) is a form of congenital ichthyosis that is caused by mutations in the TGM1 gene that encodes for the transglutaminase 1 (TG1) enzyme. Functional inactivation of TG1 could be due to mutations, deletion or insertions. In this study, we have screened 16 patients affected by LI and found six new mutations: two transition/transversion (R37G, V112A), two nonsense mutations and two putative splice site both leading to a premature stop codon. The mutations are localized in exons 2 (N-terminal domain), 5, 11 (central catalytic domain), and none is located in the two beta-barrel C-terminal domains. In conclusion, this study expands the current knowledge on TGM1 mutation spectrum, increasing the characterization of mutations would provide more accurate prenatal genetic counselling for parents at-risk individuals.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The autosomic dominant KID Syndrome (MIM 148210), due to mutations in GJB2 (connexin 26, Cx26), is an ectodermal dysplasia with erythematous scaly skin lesions, keratitis and severe bilateral sensorineural deafness. The Cx26 protein is a component of gap junction channels in epithelia, including the cochlea, which coordinates the exchange of molecules and ions. Here, we demonstrate that different Cx26 mutants (Cx26D50N and Cx26G11E) cause cell death in vitro by the alteration of intra-cellular calcium concentrations. These results help to explain the pathogenesis of both the hearing and skin phenotypes, since calcium is also a potent regulator of the epidermal differentiation process.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 03/2010; 394(4):909-14. DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2010.03.073 · 2.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: KID syndrome (MIM 148210) is an ectodermal dysplasia characterized by the occurrence of localized erythematous scaly skin lesions, keratitis and severe bilateral sensorineural deafness. KID syndrome is inherited as an autosomic dominant disease, due to mutations in the gene encoding gap junction protein GJB2 (connexin 26, Cx26). Cx26 is a component of gap junction channels in the epidermis and in the stria vascularis of the cochlea. These channels play a role in the coordinated exchange of molecules and ions occurring in a wide spectrum of cellular activities. In this paper we describe two patients with Cx26 mutations cause cell death by the alteration of protein trafficking, membrane localization and probably interfering with intracellular ion concentrations. We discuss the pathogenesis of both the hearing and skin phenotypes.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 03/2010; 395(1):25-30. DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2010.03.098 · 2.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epidermolytic PalmoPlantar keratoderma (EPPK) Vörner-type is an autosomal dominantly inherited skin disease, characterized by severe thickening of the palms and soles, caused by mutations in the keratin K9 (KRT9) gene. To date, a number of KRT9 mutations have been detected, most of which affect the highly conserved 1A region of the central alpha-helical domain, important for keratin heterodimerization. The most common mutation is the substitution of the arginine in position 163 with a tryptophan (R163W), which has been reported in North American, European, and Japanese populations. In a small number of cases, EPPK is associated with knuckle pad keratosis, but no correlation between this additional phenotype and a specific mutation has been found. Moreover, K9 is not normally expressed in knuckle skin, raising the question of the pathogenic mechanism leading to this additional phenotype. Here we show that in a family affected by EPPK and knuckle pad keratosis, carrying the R163W substitution, wild type (wt) and mutated K9 are strongly expressed in knuckle pads. These results suggest that the knuckle pad phenotype is due to ectopical expression of K9.
European journal of dermatology: EJD 03/2009; 19(2):114-8. DOI:10.1684/ejd.2008.0575 · 1.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ethiopathogenesis of rotator cuff disease remains poorly understood. Many studies advocate the importance of extra cellular matrix for the homeostasis of connective tissue. Transglutaminase enzymes family has been studied in the context of connective tissue formation and stabilisation. Here, we investigated transglutaminases expression pattern in biopsies of normal and injured supraspinatus tendons of human shoulders and in the Achilles tendons of transglutaminase 2 knock-out and wild-type mice. Our results show that different transglutaminase family members are differentially expressed in human and mouse tendons, and that transglutaminase 2 is down-regulated at mRNA and protein levels upon human supraspinatus tendon ruptures.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 02/2009; 379(4):887-91. DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2008.12.188 · 2.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: p63, a member of the p53 family, is transcribed from two different promoters giving rise to two different proteins: TAp63 that contains the N-terminal transactivation domain and DeltaN that lacks this domain. In this article we describe a new target gene Scotin induced by TAp63 during epithelial differentiation. This gene was previously isolated as a p53-inducible proapoptotic gene and the protein is located in the endoplasmic reticulum and in the nuclear membrane. Scotin expression is induced in response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in a p53 dependent or independent manner. We detected Scotin upregulation in primary keratinocyte cell lines committed to differentiate. In this paper we also show that Scotin is expressed in the supra basal layer of the epidermis in parallel with TAp63, but not DeltaNp63 expression. We conclude that Scotin is a new p63 target gene induced during epithelial differentiation, a complex process that also involves ER stress induction.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 04/2008; 367(2):271-6. DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2007.12.115 · 2.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sjögren-Larsson syndrome (SLS; MIM#270200) is an autosomal recessive neurocutaneous disease caused by mutations in the ALDH3A2 gene for fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase (FALDH), a microsomal enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of medium- and long- chain aliphatic aldehydes fatty acids. We studied two unrelated Italian SLS patients with ichthyosis, developmental delay, spastic diplegia and brain white matter disease. One patient was homozygous for a novel ALDH3A2 insertion mutation (c.767insA) in exon 5. The other SLS patient was a compound heterozygote for two previously reported mutations: a slice site mutation (c.1094C > T; S365L) in exon 7. Analysis of fibroblast RNA by RT-PCR indicated that the spice-site mutation caused skipping of exons 2 and 3. The c.1094C > T mutation, previously associated with two ALDH3A2 haplotypes, was found on a third distinct haplotype in our patient, which indicates that arose independently in this kindred. These results add to understanding of the genetic basis of SLS and will be useful for DNA diagnosis of this disease.
Journal of Human Genetics 02/2007; 52(10):865-70. DOI:10.1007/s10038-007-0180-z · 2.46 Impact Factor