Jing-He Tan

Shandong Agricultural University, Tai’an, Shandong Sheng, China

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Publications (58)175.52 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although fusion of nucleoli was observed during pronuclear development of zygotes and the behavior of nucleoli in pronuclei has been suggested as an indicator of embryonic developmental potential, the mechanism for nucleolar fusion is unclear. Although both cytoskeleton and the nucleolus are important cellular entities, there are no special reports on the relationship between the two. Role of cytoskeleton in regulating fusion of nucleoli was studied using the activated mouse oocyte model. Mouse oocytes were cultured for 6 h in activating medium (Ca(2+)-free CZB containing 10-mM SrCl2) supplemented with or without inhibitors for cytoskeleton or protein synthesis before pronuclear formation, nucleolar fusion and the activity of maturation-promoting factor (MPF) were examined. Whereas treatment with microfilament inhibitor cytochalasin D or B or intermediate filament inhibitor acrylamide suppressed nucleolar fusion efficiently, treatment with microtubule inhibitor demecolcine or nocodazole or protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide had no effect. The cytochalasin D- or acrylamide-sensitive temporal window coincided well with the reported temporal window for nucleolar fusion in activated oocytes. Whereas a continuous incubation with demecolcine prevented pronuclear formation, pronuclei formed normally when demecolcine was excluded during the first hour of activation treatment when the MPF activity dropped dramatically. The results suggest that (a) microfilaments and intermediate filaments but not microtubules support nucleolar fusion; (b) proteins required for nucleolar fusion including microfilaments and intermediate filaments are not de novo synthesized; and (c) microtubule disruption prevents pronuclear formation by activating MPF.
    Biology of Reproduction 07/2014; · 4.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We studied the role of the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) in modulating oocyte postovulatory aging by observing changes in NCX contents and activities in aging mouse and rat oocytes. Whereas the NCX activity was measured by observing oocyte activation following culture with NCX inhibitor or activator, the NCX contents were determined by immunohistochemical quantification. Although NCX was active in freshly-ovulated rat oocytes recovered 13 h post hCG injection and in aged oocytes recovered 19 h post hCG in both species, it was not active in freshly-ovulated mouse oocytes. However, NCX became active when the freshly-ovulated mouse oocytes were activated with ethanol before culture. Measurement of cytoplasmic Ca2+ revealed Ca2+ increases always before NCX activation. Whereas levels of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the activation susceptibility increased, the density of NCX member 1 (NCX1) decreased significantly with oocyte aging in both species. While culture with H2O2 decreased the density of NCX1 significantly, culture with NaCl supplementation sustained the NCX1 density in mouse oocytes. It was concluded that (a) the NCX activity was involved in the modulation of oocyte aging and spontaneous activation; (b) ROS and Na+ regulated the NCX activity in aging oocytes by altering its density as well as functioning; and (c) cytoplasmic Ca2+ elevation was essential for NCX activation in the oocyte.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(4):e93446. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to test whether aging induces oxidative stress (OS) during oocyte preservation at different temperatures and whether the oocyte competence can be extended by antioxidant supplementation. The increase in activation susceptibility was efficiently prevented when oocytes were preserved at 37°C for 9 h in HCZB medium with 10.27 mM pyruvate and 10 µM α-tocopherol, at 25°C for 30 h with 20.27 mM pyruvate, and at 15°C for 96 h and at 5°C for 48 h with 10.27 mM pyruvate. Satisfactory blastocyst development was achieved after oocyte preservation at 37°C for 9 h, at 25°C for 30 h, at 15°C for 48 h and at 5°C for 24 h using the above protocols but with cysteamine/cystine supplementation. Transfer of blastocysts obtained from the above protocols showed no difference in pregnancy outcome between newly ovulated and preserved oocytes. Because oocytes preserved at 15°C for 48 h were fertilized after a 6-h recovery culture, aging of ovulated mouse oocytes has been successfully prevented for 54 h. Assays for ROS and glutathione indicated that in vitro preservation caused marked OS in oocytes. In conclusion, marked OS was observed following in vitro preservation of mature oocytes at different temperatures. Whereas any protocol that reduced OS could inhibit activation susceptibility, only those protocols that decreased OS while increasing glutathione synthesis could sustain oocyte competence.
    Molecular Human Reproduction 11/2013; · 4.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Oocytes with germinal vesicles (GV) replaced with somatic nuclei exhibit meiotic abnormalities. Although this suggests an exclusive role for GV material in meiosis, mechanisms by which a lack of GV material causes meiotic defects are unknown. Knowledge on these mechanisms will help us to understand meiotic control, nuclear-cytoplasmic interactions and cellular reprogramming. This study showed that whereas oocytes with pro-metaphase I chromosomes replaced with primary spermatocyte nuclei (PSN) did not, oocytes with GV replaced with PSN (PSG oocytes) displayed meiotic defects. Among the defects, insufficient chromosome condensation with chromosome bridges was associated with spindle abnormalities. Abnormal spindle migration, cortical non-polarization and the aberrant spindle caused randomly positioning of cleavage furrows, leading to large first polar bodies (PB1) and unequal allocation of chromosomes and MAPK between oocyte and PB1. Spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) was activated but did not stop the mal-division. The unequal MAPK allocation resulted in differences in pronuclear formation and PB1 degeneration; oocytes receiving more MAPK were more capable of forming pronuclear rudiments while PB1 receiving more MAPK degenerated sooner than those that received less. Because none of the PSG oocytes or the enucleated GV oocytes injected with sperm heads showed cortical polarization in spite of chromosome localization close to the oolemma and because the PSG oocytes receiving more MAPK could form only pronuclear rudiments but not normal pronuclei, we suggest that the GV material plays essential roles in polarization and pronuclear formation on top of those played by chromosomes or MAPK. In conclusion, using PSG oocytes as models, this study has revealed the primary pathways by which a lack of GV material cause meiotic defects, laying a foundation for future research on the role of GV material in oocyte meiotic control.
    Biology of Reproduction 08/2013; · 4.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined the role of CRH-induced ovarian cell apoptosis in the restraint stress (RS)-induced impairment of oocyte competence. Oocyte percentages of apoptotic cumulus cells (CCs) did not differ between stressed and control mice before in vitro maturation (IVM) but became significantly higher in stressed mice after IVM without serum, growth factor and hormone. The level of Bcl2 mRNA decreased significantly in mural granulosa cells (MGCs) and ovarian homogenates after RS. Whereas ovarian estradiol, testosterone and IGF1 decreased, cortisol and progesterone increased significantly following RS. RS increased the level of CRH in serum, ovary and oocyte while enhancing the expression of CRHR1 in CCs, MGCs and thecal cells. RS down-regulated ovarian expression of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Furthermore, CRH supplementation to IVM medium impaired oocyte developmental potential while increasing apoptotic CCs, an effect that was completely overcome by addition of CRHR1 antagonist antalarmin. Results suggested that RS impaired oocyte competence by increasing CRH but not glucocorticoids. Increased CRH initiated a latent apoptotic program in CCs and oocytes during their intra-ovarian development, which was executed later during IVM to impair oocyte competence. Thus, elevated CRH interacted with increased CRHR1 on thecal cells and MGCs reducing the production of testosterone, estrogen and IGF1 while increasing the level of progesterone. The imbalance between estrogen and progesterone and the decreased availability of growth factors triggered apoptosis of MGCs and facilitated CCs expression of CRHR1, which interact with the oocyte-derived CRH later during IVM to induce CCs apoptosis and reduce oocyte competence.
    Biology of Reproduction 07/2013; · 4.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Inhibiting oocyte spontaneous activation (SA) is essential for successful rat cloning by nuclear transfer (NT). This study tested the hypothesis that activities of the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX) would decrease with oocyte aging and that SA of rat oocytes could be inhibited if the intra-oocyte Ca(2+) rises were prevented by activating NCX through increasing Na(+) concentrations in the culture medium. Elevating Na(+) levels in culture medium by supplementing NaCl inhibited SA of rat oocytes while maintaining a constant level of MPF and MAPK activities. Experiments using NCX inhibitor bepridil, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase inhibitor ouabain and assay for intra-oocyte Ca(2+) concentrations showed that extracellular Na(+) inhibited rat oocyte SA by enhancing NCX activity and preventing intracellular Ca(2+) rises. Immunohistochemical quantification indicated that the density of NCX1 decreased significantly in aged oocytes that were prone to SA compared to that in freshly ovulated oocytes whose SA rates were low during in vitro culture. Cumulus cell NT showed that sham enucleation caused marked SA in freshly ovulated rat oocytes and Na+ supplementation prevented the manipulation-induced SA and improved the in vitro and in vivo development of rat somatic cell NT embryos. Taken together, the results have confirmed our hypothesis that NCX is active in rat oocytes and its activity decreased with oocyte aging and that activating NCX by increasing extracellular Na+ inhibits SA of rat oocytes and improves the development of rat somatic cell NT embryos. Data are also important for understanding mechanisms of oocyte aging.
    Biology of Reproduction 05/2013; · 4.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although oocytes from prepubertal animals are found less competent than oocytes from adults, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Using the mouse oocyte model, this paper has tested the hypothesis that the developmental potential of prepubertal oocytes is compromised due mainly to their impaired potential for glutathione synthesis. Oocytes from prepubertal and adult mice, primed with or without eCG, were matured in vitro and assessed for glutathione synthesis potential, oxidative stress, Ca reserves, fertilization and in vitro development potential. In unprimed mice, abilities for glutathione synthesis, activation, male pronuclear formation, blastocyst formation, cortical granule migration and polyspermic block were all compromised significantly in prepubertal compared to adult oocytes. Cysteamine and cystine supplementation to maturation medium significantly promoted oocyte glutathione synthesis and blastocyst development but difference due to maternal age remained. Whereas reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels increased, Ca storage decreased significantly in prepubertal oocytes. Levels of both catalytic and modifier subunits of the γ-glutamylcysteine ligase were significantly lower in prepubertal than in adult oocytes. Maternal eCG priming improved all the parameters and eliminated the age difference. Together, the results have confirmed our hypothesis by showing that prepubertal oocytes have a decreased ability to synthesize glutathione leading to an impaired potential to reduce ROS and to form male pronuclei and blastocysts. The resulting oxidative stress decreases the intracellular Ca store resulting in impaired activation at fertilization, and damages the microfilament network, which affects cortical granule redistribution leading to polyspermy.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(3):e58018. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It is known that psychological stress affects reproduction in women, but it is unknown whether the effect is by impairing implantation. Although studies suggest that long periods of auditory or restraint stress may inhibit implantation in rats and mice, the exact stage of pregnancy at which stress impairs implantation is unclear. Furthermore, whether stress impairs implantation by decreasing the heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF), estrogen and/or progesterone and whether by acting on embryos or on the uterus need further investigations. In this study, a 24-h restraint stress was initiated at 15:30 of day 3 (regimen 1) or at 07:30 (regimen 2) or 15:30 of day 4 (regimen 3) of pregnancy (vaginal plug = day 1) to observe effects of restraint stress applied at different peri-implantation stages on implantation. Among the three regimens, whereas regimens 1 and 3 affected neither term pregnancy nor litter size, regimen 2 reduced both. Further observations indicated that regimen 2 of restraint stress also delayed blastocyst hatching and the attachment reaction, decreased serum concentrations of progesterone and estradiol, and down regulated the expression of HB-EGF in both the endometrium and blastocysts. Taken together, the results suggested that restraint stress inhibited mouse implantation in a temporal window-dependent manner and by impairing blastocyst activation and hatching and uterine receptivity via down-regulating HB-EGF, estrogen and progesterone. Thus, the stress applied within the implantation window impaired implantation by acting on both embryos and the uterus.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(11):e80472. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study tested our hypothesis that oocyte aging should be prevented for longer time by reducing culture temperature while supplementing more pyruvate to culture medium. Newly ovulated mouse oocytes were cultured at various temperatures for various times in HCZB medium containing various concentrations of pyruvate before examination for aging parameters and developmental potential. The increase in susceptibility to activating stimuli was efficiently prevented when oocytes were cultured in HCZB with 10.27-mM pyruvate at 37°C for 6h, 25°C for 24h, 15°C for 96h and 5°C for 48h. Satisfactory blastocyst development of both parthenotes and fertilized zygotes was achieved after oocyte culture in HCZB containing 10.27-mM pyruvate at 37°C for 6h, 25°C for 24h, 15°C for 36h and 5°C for 24h. Transfer of two-cell embryos or blastocysts showed no difference between newly ovulated control oocytes and oocytes cultured at 15°C for 36h in either term pregnancy, live young per pregnant recipient, live young/transferred embryos or birth weight of young. Oocytes with impaired developmental potential after culture at 15°C for 96h and at 5°C for 48h showed unrecoverable decreases in GSH contents, GSH/GSSG ratio and BCL2 contents, and in numbers of oocytes with normal spindles and cortical granule distribution, suggesting induction of oxidative stress, which caused oocyte apoptosis and cytoskeleton alterations by down regulating BCL2. Because oocytes cultured at 15°C for 36h were activated or fertilized after a 6-h recovery culture, aging of ovulated mouse oocytes has been successfully prevented for 42h without impairing developmental potential.
    Biology of Reproduction 09/2012; · 4.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract A systematic study was conducted on round spermatids (ROS) injection (ROSI) using the goat model. After ROSI, the oocytes were treated or not with ionomycin (ROSI+I and ROSI-I, respectively) and compared with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). After ROSI-I, most oocytes were arrested with premature chromatin condensation and few oocytes formed pronuclei. In contrast, most oocytes formed pronuclei after ROSI+I. Some ROS were observed to form asters that organized a dense microtubule network after ROSI+I, but after ROSI-I, no ROS asters were observed. Whereas most of the oocytes showed Ca(2+) rises and a significant decline in maturation-promoting factor (MPF) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activities after ROSI+I, no such changes were observed after ROSI-I. Due to the lack of Ca(2+) oscillations after ROSI-I, oocytes were injected with more ROS. Interestingly, different from the results observed in a single ROS injection, injection with four ROS effectively activated oocytes by inducing typical Ca(2+) oscillations. Whereas ROSI+I oocytes and ICSI oocytes both showed extensive microtubule networks, no such a network was observed in parthenogenetic oocytes. Together, the results suggest that goat ROS is not able to trigger intracellular Ca(2+) rises and thus to inhibit MPF and MAPK activities, but artificial activation improved fertilization and development of ROSI goat oocytes. Goat ROS can organize functional microtubular asters in activated oocytes. A ROS-derived factor(s) may be essential for organization of a functional microtubule network to unite pronuclei. Goat centrosome is of paternal origin because both ROS and sperm asters organized an extensive microtubule network after intra-oocyte injection.
    Cellular reprogramming. 08/2012; 14(5):436-47.
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    ABSTRACT: Cyclin B1 turnover and the insensitivity of fully-grown mouse oocytes to cycloheximide (CHX) inhibition of germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) were examined by assaying GVBD and cyclin B1 levels after treatment of oocytes with various combinations of eCG and CHX. Whereas over 95% of oocytes underwent GVBD after culture for 24 h with CHX alone, only 10% did so after culture with CHX + eCG (P < 0.05). In addition, preculture with eCG alone had no effect, but preculture with eCG + CHX prevented GVBD during a second culture with CHX alone. Therefore, we inferred that eCG delayed GVBD long enough for CHX inhibition of protein synthesis to allow cyclin B1 to decrease below a threshold where GVBD became dependent upon its de novo synthesis. However, western blot revealed no cyclin B1 synthesis, but cyclin B1 degradation, as long as GVs were maintained intact with eCG. Regarding the function of CHX in preculture without protein synthesis to block subsequent GVBD, whereas eCG delayed GVBD for only 3 h, CHX had an ongoing effect that further postponed GVBD, thus allowing cyclin B1 to decrease below the threshold. When oocytes precultured with eCG + CHX were further cultured without eCG and CHX, cyclin B1 first decreased but then, because of the ongoing effects of CHX, increased to a level sufficient to induce GVBD. The content of P34Cdc2 was not altered under any of the culture conditions (P > 0.05). We concluded that insensitivity of mouse germinal vesicle (GV) oocytes to CHX was due to the presence of sufficient cyclin B1, and that cyclin B1 level in such oocytes was maintained by an equilibrium between synthesis and degradation.
    Theriogenology 03/2012; 77(9):1900-10. · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Studies suggest that oocyte cumulus expansion is regulated by both cumulus expansion-enabling factor (CEEF) and cumulus expansion-inhibiting factors (CEIF). Many reports on CEEF have appeared, but CEIF has rarely been studied. By cumulus expansion assays using mouse cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) and oocytectomized complexes, the present study demonstrated that whereas follicular fluid (FF) from medium (diameter, 2-4 mm) goat follicles contained both CEEF and CEIF activities, FF from large (diameter, 5-6 mm) abattoir or large (diameter, 5-7 mm) follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-stimulated follicles contained neither. FF from (diameter, 5-7 mm) human chorionic gonadotropin-stimulated follicles showed CEEF but not CEIF activity. Whereas medium conditioned with cumulus or mural granulosa cells from medium goat follicles contained only CEEF activity, theca cell-conditioned medium (CM) showed both CEEF and CEIF activities. Whereas 0.01 mg/ml of heparin efficiently inhibited cumulus expansion of mouse COCs in vitro, FF from large follicles that showed no CEIF activity contained much higher concentrations (0.23-0.25 mg/ml) of heparin. None of the glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) tested inhibited cumulus expansion of goat COCs. Among the follicles observed, only FF from medium goat follicles contained a linoleic acid (LA) level sufficient to inhibit cumulus expansion of both mouse and goat COCs in vitro. CM contained some amount of GAGs but no LA. Taken together, the results suggest that 1) the FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH) surges before ovulation promote cumulus expansion by down-regulating CEIF and up-regulating CEEF activity, respectively; 2) GAGs are not the CEIF in goat follicles; and 3) LA has CEIF activity but additional factors must be involved, because CM that showed high CEIF activity contained no LA.
    Biology of Reproduction 03/2012; 86(5):156, 1-9. · 4.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rat oocytes are well known to undergo spontaneous activation (SA) after leaving the oviduct, but the SA is abortive with oocytes being arrested in metaphase III (MIII) instead of forming pronuclei. This study was designed to investigate the mechanism causing SA and MIII arrest. Whereas few oocytes collected from SD rats at 13 h after hCG injection that showed 100% of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activities activated spontaneously, all oocytes recovered 19 h post hCG with MAPK decreased to below 75% underwent SA during in vitro culture. During SA, MAPK first declined to below 45% and then increased again to 80%; the maturation-promoting factor (MPF) activity fluctuated similarly but always began to change ahead of the MAPK activity. In SA oocytes with 75% of MAPK activities, microtubules were disturbed with irregularly pulled chromosomes dispersed over the spindle and the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) was activated. When MAPK decreased to 45%, the spindle disintegrated and chromosomes surrounded by microtubules were scattered in the ooplasm. SA oocytes entered MIII and formed several spindle-like structures by 6 h of culture when the MAPK activity re-increased to above 80%. While SA oocytes showed one Ca(2+) rise, Sr(2+)-activated oocytes showed several. Together, the results suggested that SA stimuli triggered SA in rat oocytes by inducing a premature MAPK inactivation, which led to disturbance of spindle microtubules. The microtubule disturbance impaired pulling of chromosomes to the spindle poles, caused spindle disintegration and activated SAC. The increased SAC activity reactivated MPF and thus MAPK, leading to MIII arrest.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(2):e32044. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although the predatory stress experimental protocol is considered more psychological than the restraint protocol, it has rarely been used to study the effect of psychological stress on reproduction. Few studies exist on the direct effect of psychological stress to a female on developmental competence of her oocytes, and the direct effect of predatory maternal stress on oocytes has not been reported. In this study, a predatory stress system was first established for mice with cats as predators. Beginning 24 h after injection of equine chorionic gonadotropin, female mice were subjected to predatory stress for 24 h. Evaluation of mouse responses showed that the predatory stress system that we established increased anxiety-like behaviors and plasma cortisol concentrations significantly and continuously while not affecting food and water intake of the mice. In vitro experiments showed that whereas oocyte maturation and Sr(2+) activation or fertilization were unaffected by maternal predatory stress, rate of blastocyst formation and number of cells per blastocyst decreased significantly in stressed mice compared to non-stressed controls. In vivo embryo development indicated that both the number of blastocysts recovered per donor mouse and the average number of young per recipient after embryo transfer of blastocysts with similar cell counts were significantly lower in stressed than in unstressed donor mice. It is concluded that the predatory stress system we established was both effective and durative to induce mouse stress responses. Furthermore, predatory stress applied during the oocyte pre-maturation stage significantly impaired oocyte developmental potential while exerting no measurable impact on nuclear maturation, suggesting that cytoplasmic maturation of mouse oocytes was more vulnerable to maternal stress than nuclear maturation.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(10):e48083. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Studies in both humans and animals suggest detrimental effects of psychological stress on reproduction. Although our recent study shows that maternal-restraint stress diminishes oocyte developmental potential, the mechanism behind this effect is unknown. This prompted us to study the potential role of maternal-restraint stress in the genesis of aneuploidy during meiosis I. At 24 h after equine chorionic gonadotropin injection, mice were subjected to restraint stress for 24 h. After the restraint, some mice were killed to recover immature oocytes for in vitro maturation, while others were injected with human chorionic gonadotropin to recover in vivo matured oocytes. Analysis on chromosome complements of both mature oocytes and parthenotes confirmed that maternal restraint increased aneuploidy in both in vivo and in vitro matured oocytes and that the percentage of aneuploid oocytes were three times higher in the earlier matured oocytes than in the later matured ones. Further observations indicated that maternal restraint 1) impaired metaphase I (MI) spindle assembly while inhibiting MAPK activities, 2) accelerated progression of anaphase I while down-regulating the expression of spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) proteins, and 3) induced intraoocyte oxidative stress. The following possible model was proposed to explain the results. Maternal-restraint stress increased oocyte aneuploidy by impairing MI spindle assembly and decreasing the SAC. Whereas abnormal spindles would affect centromere attachments, a reduction in SAC would accelerate the anaphase I progression. Failure of centromere attachment, together with the hastened anaphase, would result in nondisjunction of the unattached chromosomes. Furthermore, maternal-restraint stress might also impair spindle assembly and SAC function by inducing intraoocyte oxidative stress, which would then reduce MAPK activity, a critical regulator of microtubule assembly and the establishment and maintenance of the SAC during oocyte maturation.
    Biology of Reproduction 11/2011; 86(3):83. · 4.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fusion of nucleoli or nucleolus precursor bodies (NPBs) has been observed during somatic cell interphase and pronuclear development of human zygotes; however, the underlying mechanism is unknown. NPB fusion and its regulation by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and maturation-promoting factor (MPF) were studied in activated mouse oocytes. Small NPBs appeared about 4 h after ethanol activation, and took about 1.5 h to fuse into a large NPB, which persisted for about 10 h before disappearance. Analysis of the temporal windows for kinase action indicated that a high MAPK activity during the first 2 h and a low MPF activity during the first 3-4 h after activation were essential for subsequent NPB fusion. A preactivation decline in MAPK activity was associated with decreased NPB fusion following activation of aged oocytes. While MAPK inactivation by regulator U0126 prevented NPB fusion in oocytes activated by ethanol or 5 min Sr2+ treatments, it had no effect on oocytes fertilized or activated by 6 h Sr2+ treatment. In most cases, while rates of pronuclear formation did not differ, rates of NPB fusion differed significantly between different treatments. Our results suggest that: (i) the MAPK and MPF activities at the initial stage of activation regulate NPB fusion after pronuclear formation; (ii) pronuclear assembly and NPB fusion are two separable events that might be controlled by different mechanisms; and (iii) high MAPK activity and low MPF activity at the initial stage of activation is essential for NPB fusion when only one calcium rise is induced by ethanol, while inhibition of MAPK activity does not affect NPB fusion when the repetitive intracellular Ca2+ rises are induced after fertilization.
    Zygote 05/2011; 20(3):291-303. · 1.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The removal of chromosomes from recipient oocytes is one of the key steps in nuclear transfer cloning. Although microtubule interrupters have been successfully used for oocyte enucleation, their potential side effect on oocyte developmental potential should be considered, and less harmful drugs should be explored for chemical-assisted enucleation. Based on our previous findings that any maturation promoting factor-activating agent induces ooplasmic protrusion without disrupting microtubules, we have studied the feasibility to use caffeine or MG132 for chemical-assisted enucleation. Experiments using goat oocytes showed that treatments for 30 min with 1-mM caffeine or 5-μM MG132-induced ooplasmic protrusions in about 85% of the oocytes, a percentage similar to that achieved with optimal demecolcine treatment. Rates of enucleation, cell fusion and in vitro blastulation were similar among caffeine, MG132, and demecolcine enucleation but significantly higher than blind aspiration. Furthermore, neither rates of pregnancy on days 90 and 120 nor the general rate of live births/embryos transferred differed significantly (p > 0.05) between caffeine and demecolcine enucleation. Although oocytes treated with caffeine did not retract protrusions until 2 h, many oocytes treated with MG132 withdrew protrusions as early as 0.5 h after treatment. The optimal treatment to induce ooplasmic protrusion in 75% pig oocytes was 8-mM caffeine for 60 min. Mouse oocytes responded poorly to demecolcine or caffeine with less than 40% forming inconspicuous protrusions following optimal treatments. It is concluded that caffeine can be used for enucleation of goat and pig oocytes with similar results as demecolcine, and live kids were born after caffeine-assisted enucleation.
    Cellular reprogramming. 03/2011; 13(3):225-32.
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    ABSTRACT: Inhibiting oocyte postovulatory aging is important both for healthy reproduction and for assisted reproduction techniques. Some studies suggest that glucose promotes oocyte meiotic resumption through glycolysis, but others indicate that it does so by means of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). Furthermore, although pyruvate was found to prevent oocyte aging, the mechanism is unclear. The present study addressed these issues by using the postovulatory aging oocyte model. The results showed that whereas the oocyte itself could utilize pyruvate or lactate to prevent aging, it could not use glucose unless in the presence of cumulus cells. Glucose metabolism in cumulus cells prevented oocyte aging by producing pyruvate and NADPH through glycolysis and PPP. Whereas PPP was still functioning after inhibition of glycolysis, the glycolysis was completely inactivated after inhibition of PPP. Addition of fructose-6-phosphate, an intermediate product from PPP, alleviated oocyte aging significantly when the PPP was totally inhibited. Lactate prevented oocyte aging through its lactate dehydrogenase-catalyzed oxidation to pyruvate, but pyruvate inhibited oocyte aging by its intramitochondrial metabolism. However, both lactate and pyruvate required mitochondrial electron transport to prevent oocyte aging. The inhibition of oocyte aging by both PPP and pyruvate involved regulation of the intracellular redox status. Together, the results suggest that glucose metabolism in cumulus cells prevented oocyte postovulatory aging by maintaining both energy supply and the intracellular redox potential and that) glycolysis in cumulus cells might be defective, with pyruvate production depending upon the PPP for intermediate products.
    Biology of Reproduction 01/2011; 84(6):1111-8. · 4.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although studies of both humans and animals suggest detrimental effects of psychological (restraint) stress on reproduction, reports concerning the direct effect of psychological (restraint) stress on the oocyte are few and conflicting. In the present study, a restraint system that allows mice free intake of feed and water while restraining their movement was established, and effects of maternal restraint on oocyte competence were examined by observing embryo development in vitro and in vivo. The results indicated that restraint stress applied to both gonadotropin-stimulated and unstimulated females during oocyte growth and maturation increased their plasma cortisol level but impaired ovulation and oocyte developmental potential. Injection of cortisol also decreased oocyte developmental potential in both stimulated and unstimulated mice. However, whereas restraint stress reduced the plasma follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) level of unstimulated mice, injection of cortisol did not. Because the stimulated mice had received very high doses of FSH and luteinizing hormone from injection with equine chorionic gonadotropin injection, the results suggested that whereas cortisol acts directly on the ovary to damage the oocyte, restraint stress impairs oocyte competence by actions on both the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axes. However, exposing the cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) to physiological levels of cortisol did not affect oocyte nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation in vitro. Thus, cortisol might have impaired ovulation and oocyte potential by an indirect effect on ovarian tissues other than the COCs.
    Biology of Reproduction 12/2010; 84(4):672-81. · 4.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although studies suggest that the low competence of oocytes from prepubertal animals is due to their insufficient cytoplasmic maturation and that FSH improves oocyte maturation possibly by retarding meiotic progression and allowing more time for cytoplasmic maturation, the mechanisms by which puberty and gonadotropins regulate meiotic progression require additional detailed studies. For the first time, we observed that while meiotic progression was significantly slower, the maturation-promoting factor (MPF) activity of oocytes was significantly higher in prepubertal than in adult mice. To resolve this contradiction, we specified the molecules regulating the MPF activity and their localization during oocyte maturation in prepubertal and adult mice primed with or without gonadotropins. Our tests using corresponding enzyme regulators suggested that while activities of protein kinase A were unaffected, the activity of adenylate cyclase (ADCY) and phosphodiesterase increased while cell division cycle 2 homolog A (CDC2A) decreased significantly after puberty. While most of the adult oocytes had CDC2A protein concentrated in the germinal vesicle (GV) region, the majority of prepubertal oocytes showed no nuclear concentration of CDC2A. Maximally priming mice with equine chorionic gonadotropin brought the above parameters of prepubertal oocytes close to those in adult oocytes. Together, the results suggest that puberty and gonadotropin control oocyte meiotic progression mainly by regulating the ADCY activity and the concentration of the activated MPF toward the GV region.
    Reproduction 04/2010; 139(6):959-69. · 3.56 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

463 Citations
175.52 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2003–2013
    • Shandong Agricultural University
      • College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine
      Tai’an, Shandong Sheng, China
  • 2004
    • Northeast Agricultural University
      Charbin, Heilongjiang Sheng, China