[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Regeneration of mesenchymal tissues depends on a resident stem cell population, that in most cases remains elusive in terms of cellular identity and differentiation signals. We here show that primary cell cultures derived from adipose tissue or skeletal muscle differentiate into adipocytes when cultured in high glucose. High glucose induces ROS production and PKCbeta activation. These two events appear crucial steps in this differentiation process that can be directly induced by oxidizing agents and inhibited by PKCbeta siRNA silencing. The differentiated adipocytes, when implanted in vivo, form viable and vascularized adipose tissue. Overall, the data highlight a previously uncharacterized differentiation route triggered by high glucose that drives not only resident stem cells of the adipose tissue but also uncommitted precursors present in muscle cells to form adipose depots. This process may represent a feed-forward cycle between the regional increase in adiposity and insulin resistance that plays a key role in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 02/2008; 105(4):1226-31. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The endogenous cannabinoid system participates in the regulation of energy balance, and its dysregulation may be implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity. Adipose tissue endocannabinoids may produce metabolic and endocrine effects, but very few data are available in human adipose tissue and in primary human fat cells.
We measured expression of type 1 and type 2 cannabinoid receptors (CNR), enzymes of cannabinoids synthesis and degradation in human omental, sc abdominal, and gluteal adipose tissue from lean and obese subjects. Furthermore, we assessed the effect of CNR1 stimulation on glucose uptake and intracellular transduction mechanisms in primary human adipocytes. Then we assessed the reciprocal regulation between CNR1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma). Finally, we tested whether leptin and adiponectin are regulated by CNR1 in human adipocytes.
We found that most genes of the endocannabinoid system are down-regulated in gluteal fat and up-regulated in visceral and sc abdominal adipose tissue of obese patients. Treatment of adipocytes with rosiglitazone markedly down-regulated CNR1 expression, whereas Win 55,212 up-regulated PPARgamma. Win 55,212 increased (+50%) glucose uptake, the translocation of glucose transporter 4, and intracellular calcium in fat cells. All these effects were inhibited by SR141716 and wortmannin and by removing extracellular calcium. Win 55,212 and SR141716 had no effect on expression of adiponectin and leptin.
These results indicate a role for the local endocannabinoids in the regulation of glucose metabolism in human adipocytes and suggest a role in channeling excess energy fuels to adipose tissue in obese humans.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Macroautophagy is an evolutionary conserved lysosomal pathway involved in the turnover of cellular macromolecules and organelles. In spite of its essential role in tissue homeostasis, the molecular mechanisms regulating mammalian macroautophagy are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that a rise in the free cytosolic calcium ([Ca(2+)](c)) is a potent inducer of macroautophagy. Various Ca(2+) mobilizing agents (vitamin D(3) compounds, ionomycin, ATP, and thapsigargin) inhibit the activity of mammalian target of rapamycin, a negative regulator of macroautophagy, and induce massive accumulation of autophagosomes in a Beclin 1- and Atg7-dependent manner. This process is mediated by Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase-beta and AMP-activated protein kinase and inhibited by ectopic Bcl-2 located in the endoplasmatic reticulum (ER), where it lowers the [Ca(2+)](ER) and attenuates agonist-induced Ca(2+) fluxes. Thus, an increase in the [Ca(2+)](c) serves as a potent inducer of macroautophagy and as a target for the antiautophagy action of ER-located Bcl-2.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) of the outer mitochondrial membrane mediates metabolic flow, Ca(2+), and cell death signaling between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondrial networks. We demonstrate that VDAC1 is physically linked to the endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-release channel inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP(3)R) through the molecular chaperone glucose-regulated protein 75 (grp75). Functional interaction between the channels was shown by the recombinant expression of the ligand-binding domain of the IP(3)R on the ER or mitochondrial surface, which directly enhanced Ca(2+) accumulation in mitochondria. Knockdown of grp75 abolished the stimulatory effect, highlighting chaperone-mediated conformational coupling between the IP(3)R and the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake machinery. Because organelle Ca(2+) homeostasis influences fundamentally cellular functions and death signaling, the central location of grp75 may represent an important control point of cell fate and pathogenesis.
The Journal of Cell Biology 01/2007; 175(6):901-11. · 10.82 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Replication of human cytomegalovirus (CMV) requires the expression of the viral mitochondria-localized inhibitor of apoptosis (vMIA). vMIA inhibits apoptosis by recruiting Bax to mitochondria, resulting in its neutralization. We show that vMIA decreases cell size, reduces actin polymerization, and induces cell rounding. As compared with vMIA-expressing CMV, vMIA-deficient CMV, which replicates in fibroblasts expressing the adenoviral apoptosis suppressor E1B19K, induces less cytopathic effects. These vMIA effects can be separated from its cell death-inhibitory function because vMIA modulates cellular morphology in Bax-deficient cells. Expression of vMIA coincided with a reduction in the cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) level. vMIA selectively inhibited one component of the ATP synthasome, namely, the mitochondrial phosphate carrier. Exposure of cells to inhibitors of oxidative phosphorylation produced similar effects, such as an ATP level reduced by 30%, smaller cell size, and deficient actin polymerization. Similarly, knockdown of the phosphate carrier reduced cell size. Our data suggest that the cytopathic effect of CMV can be explained by vMIA effects on mitochondrial bioenergetics.
The Journal of Cell Biology 10/2006; 174(7):985-96. · 10.82 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The development of targeted probes (based on the molecular engineering of luminescent or fluorescent proteins) has allowed the specific measurement of [Ca2+] in intracellular organelles or cytoplasmic subdomains. This approach gave novel information on different aspects of cellular Ca2+ homeostasis. Regarding mitochondria, it was possible to demonstrate that, upon physiological stimulation of cells, Ca2+ is rapidly accumulated in the matrix. We will discuss the basic characteristics of this process, its role in modulating physiological and pathological events, such as the regulation of aerobic metabolism and the induction of cell death, and new insight into the regulatory mechanisms operating in vivo.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitochondria promptly respond to Ca(2+)-mediated cell stimulations with a rapid accumulation of the cation into the matrix. In this article, we review (i) the basic principles of mitochondrial Ca(2+) transport, (ii) the physiological/pathological role of mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake, (iii) the regulatory mechanisms that may operate in vivo, and (iv) the new targeted Ca(2+) probes that allowed the "rediscovery" of these organelles in calcium signalling.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 01/2005; 1742(1-3):119-31. · 4.66 Impact Factor