Susan Whittier

New York Presbyterian Hospital, New York City, New York, United States

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Publications (50)201.36 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Extremely drug-resistant gram-negative bacilli (XDR-GNB) increasingly cause health care-associated infections (HAIs) in intensive care units (ICUs). A matched case-control (1:2) study was conducted from February 2007 to January 2010 in 16 ICUs. Case and control subjects had HAIs caused by GNB susceptible to ≤ 1 antibiotic versus ≥ 2 antibiotics, respectively. Logistic and Cox proportional hazards regression assessed risk factors for HAIs and predictors of mortality, respectively. Overall, 103 case and 195 control subjects were enrolled. An immunocompromised state (odds ratio [OR], 1.55; P = .047) and exposure to amikacin (OR, 13.81; P < .001), levofloxacin (OR, 2.05; P = .005), or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (OR, 3.42; P = .009) were factors associated with XDR-GNB HAIs. Multiple factors in both case and control subjects significantly predicted increased mortality at different time intervals after HAI diagnosis. At 7 days, liver disease (hazard ratio [HR], 5.52), immunocompromised state (HR, 3.41), and bloodstream infection (HR, 2.55) predicted mortality; at 15 days, age (HR, 1.02 per year increase), liver disease (HR, 3.34), and immunocompromised state (HR, 2.03) predicted mortality; and, at 30 days, age (HR, 1.02 per 1-year increase), liver disease (HR, 3.34), immunocompromised state (HR, 2.03), and hospitalization in a medical ICU (HR, 1.85) predicted mortality. HAIs caused by XDR-GNB were associated with potentially modifiable factors. Age, liver disease, and immunocompromised state, but not XDR-GNB HAIs, were associated with mortality.
    American journal of infection control 04/2014; · 3.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Extremely drug-resistant gram-negative bacilli (XDR-GNB) increasingly cause health care-associated infections (HAIs) in intensive care units (ICUs). Methods A matched case-control (1:2) study was conducted from February 2007 to January 2010 in 16 ICUs. Case and control subjects had HAIs caused by GNB susceptible to ≤ 1 antibiotic versus ≥ 2 antibiotics, respectively. Logistic and Cox proportional hazards regression assessed risk factors for HAIs and predictors of mortality, respectively. Results Overall, 103 case and 195 control subjects were enrolled. An immunocompromised state (odds ratio [OR], 1.55; P = .047) and exposure to amikacin (OR, 13.81; P < .001), levofloxacin (OR, 2.05; P = .005), or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (OR, 3.42; P = .009) were factors associated with XDR-GNB HAIs. Multiple factors in both case and control subjects significantly predicted increased mortality at different time intervals after HAI diagnosis. At 7 days, liver disease (hazard ratio [HR], 5.52), immunocompromised state (HR, 3.41), and bloodstream infection (HR, 2.55) predicted mortality; at 15 days, age (HR, 1.02 per year increase), liver disease (HR, 3.34), and immunocompromised state (HR, 2.03) predicted mortality; and, at 30 days, age (HR, 1.02 per 1-year increase), liver disease (HR, 3.34), immunocompromised state (HR, 2.03), and hospitalization in a medical ICU (HR, 1.85) predicted mortality. Conclusion HAIs caused by XDR-GNB were associated with potentially modifiable factors. Age, liver disease, and immunocompromised state, but not XDR-GNB HAIs, were associated with mortality.
    American Journal of Infection Control. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Infections with antibiotic resistant organisms (AROs) are an important source of morbidity and mortality among infants hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). To identify potential reservoirs of AROs in the NICU, active surveillance strategies have been adopted by many NICUs to detect infants colonized with AROs. However, the yield, risks, benefits, and costs of different strategies have not been fully evaluated. We conducted a retrospective study in two level III NICUs from 2004-2010 to investigate the yield of surveillance cultures obtained from infants transferred to the NICU from other hospitals. Cultures were processed for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), and antibiotic resistant gram negative rods (AR-GNR). Risk factors, selected outcomes, and laboratory costs associated with ARO-colonization were assessed. Among 1751 infants studied, the rate of colonization for MRSA, VRE, and AR-GNR was 3%, 1.7%, and 1% respectively. Age at transfer was the strongest predictor of ARO colonization; infants transferred at ≥ 7 days of life had 5.8 increased odds of ARO colonization compared with infants < 7 days of age. Transferred infants who were colonized had similar rates of mortality, ARO infection, and duration of hospitalization compared to those who were not colonized. The laboratory cost of surveillance cultures during the study period was $58,425. The rate of colonization with AROs at transfer was low particularly in infants < 7 days old. Future studies should examine the safety of targeted surveillance strategies focused on older infants.
    The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 06/2013; · 3.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Carbapenems are increasingly needed to treat infections caused by drug-resistant gram-negative bacilli (GNB), but carbapenem resistance is increasing. We evaluated the activity of doripenem by broth microdilution against 96 extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Acinetobacter baumannii and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from patients with hospital-associated infections. All isolates were non-susceptible to doripenem, but ≥1 doripenem combination demonstrated synergy (fractional inhibitory concentration index: ≤0.5 for 2 agents, ≤0.75 for 3 agents) against 7 (15%) A. baumannii and 23 (48%) K. pneumoniae isolates; doripenem with rifampin and/or polymyxin B were most active. As doripenem has unique potential for use in prolonged infusions, suggested pharmacodynamic (PD) breakpoints range from 2-8 μg/mL; synergistic activity was found for higher proportions of XDR-GNB at higher PD breakpoints with doripenem with amikacin or with rifampin. The clinical utility of these observations requires further study, as treatment options for XDR-GNB infections are limited.
    Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease 04/2013; · 2.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bordetella holmesii is an emerging opportunistic pathogen that causes respiratory disease in healthy individuals and invasive infections among patients lacking splenic function. We used 16S rRNA gene analysis to confirm B. holmesii as the cause of bacteremia in a child with sickle cell disease. Semiconductor-based draft genome sequencing provided insight into B. holmesii phylogeny and potential virulence mechanisms and also identified a toluene-4-monoxygenase locus unique among bordetellae.
    Pathogens and disease. 03/2013; 67(2):132-5.
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    ABSTRACT: While much is known about the geographic distribution of different clonal types of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), few studies have assessed the molecular epidemiology of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), despite its continued clinical importance. In each US Census region, reference laboratories collected successive MSSA isolates from patients with invasive or superficial staphylococcal infections for use in the Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial. All isolates from 2004-5 and 2009-10 underwent antimicrobial susceptibility testing and characterization of their staphylococcal protein A (spa) type. Of the 708 isolates analyzed, 274 spa types were identified and divided into 15 genetic clusters. The most common clones were spa t002 (n=63, 8.9%) and t008 (n=56, 7.9%). While the distribution of predominant spa types was not different by US Census region or time period, spa t008 was nearly twice as common in community skin and soft tissue infections compared with nosocomial bloodstream infections (11.1% v. 5.6%, respectively, p=.008). Despite such differences, both community and nosocomial settings had diverse staphylococcal clonal types representing all major spa clusters. In contrast to MRSA, MSSA infectious isolates show wide genetic diversity without clear geographical or temporal clustering. Notably, the prevalent MSSA strains (spa t002 and spa t008) are analogous to the predominant MRSA clones, further demonstrating the importance of these lineages.
    Journal of clinical microbiology 01/2013; · 4.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Streptococcus intermedius is a human pathogen with a propensity for abscess formation. We report a high-quality draft genome sequence of S. intermedius strain BA1, an isolate from a human epidural abscess. This sequence provides insight into the biology of S. intermedius and will aid investigations of pathogenicity.
    Genome announcements. 01/2013; 1(1).
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    ABSTRACT: Background Multiple studies have been done on adult men who have sex with men (MSM), but no studies have shown the rates of extragenital site sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among HIV positive young men who have sex with men (YMSM). The objective of this study was to document the rates of extragenital Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection among HIV positive YMSM while conducting a validity study for the use of nucleic acid amplified tests (NAATs), to detect extragenital GC and CT.Methods Behaviorally infected HIV positive YMSM were enrolled in this study from one urban adolescent HIV clinic, and were screened for urine and extragenital site GC and CT over a 2 year period. Samples from these sites (pharyngeal and rectal) were tested for GC and CT using both traditional culture media and NAAT technology. Urine was tested using only NAAT.ResultsOf 67 screenings, 36% (n = 24) yielded at least one positive, and 69% of participants (18/26) had at least one positive GC or CT test result during the study period. Of those with at least one positive result, 89% (16/18) had at least one extragenital site infection. Urine testing was positive in 11% (2/18) of those with a corresponding extragenital site infection. None of the extragenital CT infections detected by NAATs were detected by culture, and only 38% (5/13) of the extragenital GC infections detected by NAATs were detected by culture.Conclusions Use of NAATs for extragenital STI screening yielded more confirmed positive results than did traditional cultures. By use of NAATs, the majority of routinely screened HIV positive YMSM in this sample was found to have an STI at an extragenital site.
    American journal of men's health 06/2012; 9(2):89–93. · 1.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing Enterobacteriaceae are endemic in New York City hospitals and have been associated with serious infections globally. A real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay was developed to detect carbapenem resistance attributable to KPC from blood culture bottles positive for gram-negative bacilli. Culture confirmation of carbapenemase production included automated imipenem and meropenem susceptibility testing and ertapenem susceptibility testing by disk-diffusion. A total of 323 Enterobacteriaceae isolates were tested, of which 8.7% (n = 28) demonstrated carbapenem-resistance by automated and manual susceptibility testing methods or by RT-PCR. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the RT-PCR assay when compared with the automated method were 92.9%, 99.3%, 92.9%, and 99.3%, respectively, and 96.4%, 99.7%, 96.4%, and 99.7%, respectively, when compared with the ertapenem disk-diffusion method. RT-PCR is a rapid and reliable means of detecting carbapenem resistance due to KPC-plasmids in Enterobacteriaceae directly from blood culture bottles.
    American Journal of Clinical Pathology 04/2012; 137(4):627-32. · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Staphylococcus aureus infections are increasing among pregnant and postpartum women and neonates, but risk factors for S. aureus colonization in pregnancy and the association between maternal colonization and infant infections are not well defined. We sought to identify risk factors for maternal S. aureus rectovaginal colonization and assess colonization as a risk factor for infections among mothers and infants. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of pregnant women and their infants. Demographic and clinical data, including S. aureus infections that occurred in mothers from 3 months before to 3 months after delivery and in infants during the first 3 months of life, were extracted from electronic medical records. Predictors for maternal S. aureus rectovaginal colonization were assessed through multivariable logistic regression analysis. The cohort included 2702 women and 2789 infants. The prevalence of maternal rectovaginal colonization with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was 13% and 0.7%. Independent predictors of colonization included multigravidity, human immunodeficiency virus seropositivity, and group B Streptococcus colonization. S. aureus colonization was associated with an increased risk of infection in mothers (odds ratio [OR], 3.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-8.8) but not in their infants (OR, 1.9; 95% CI, .6-5.6). The frequency of S. aureus infections was 0.8% in mothers and 0.7% in infants. S. aureus rectovaginal colonization was associated with an increased risk of infections in women but not in their infants. The frequency of MRSA infections was low. These data suggest that routine MRSA screening of pregnant women may not be indicated.
    Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society. 03/2012; 1(1):7-15.
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    ABSTRACT: Transmission dynamics modeling provides a practical method for virtual evaluation of the impact of public health interventions in response to prospective influenza pandemics and also may help determine the relative contribution of different modes of transmission to overall infection rates. Accurate estimates of longevity for all forms of viral particles are needed for such models to be useful. We conducted a time course study to determine the viability and longevity of H1N1 virus on naturally contaminated hands and household surfaces of 20 individuals with laboratory-confirmed infection. Participants coughed or sneezed into their hands, which were sampled immediately and again after 5, 10, and 30 minutes. Samples also were obtained from household surfaces handled by the participants immediately after coughing/sneezing. Clinically obtained H1N1 isolates were used to assess the viability and longevity of the virus on various artificially inoculated common household surfaces and human hands in a controlled laboratory setting. Viral detection was achieved by culture and real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The results suggest that H1N1 does not survive long on naturally contaminated skin and fomites, and that secretions deposited on hands by coughing or sneezing have a concentration of <2.15 × 10 to 2.94 × 10 TCID(50)/mL. These data can be used to estimate the relative contribution of direct and indirect contact transmission on overall infection rates.
    American journal of infection control 01/2012; 40(7):590-4. · 3.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Capsular contracture is one of the most common complications associated with breast implants. While the cause of this process has not yet been elucidated, subclinical infection is a likely culprit. The authors assess the hypothesis that a probable source of contamination is endogenous breast bacteria, likely originating in the ducts themselves and most concentrated near the nipple. Twenty-five healthy patients presenting for routine reduction mammaplasty were recruited as study participants. Tissue samples were taken intraoperatively from the periareolar, inframammary, and axillary regions of each sampled breast. Specimens were then processed in the microbiology laboratory, and quantitative bacterial counts were obtained. Of the 50 breasts sampled, 19 yielded positive culture results, for a rate of 38%. There was a significant difference in the positive culture rate among all three sites, with increasing quantitative bacterial counts in the axillary, inframammary, and periareolar regions, respectively. The most commonly-identified organisms in this study included various species of Staphylococcus and Propionibacterium acnes, with S. epidermidis being the most common. The breast harbors significant endogenous bacteria that can become the source of spontaneous or postoperative infection. Positive intraoperative cultures with high quantitative counts suggest that breast tissue harbors more bacteria than normal skin flora. Routine perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis may be suboptimal for the prevention of foreign body seeding in this setting. Furthermore, bacterial concentrations are highest in areas with the most ductal tissue, namely the periareolar region. These findings may be helpful when considering which incision site to select for augmentation mammaplasty.
    Aesthetic surgery journal / the American Society for Aesthetic Plastic surgery 09/2011; 31(7):802-6.
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    ABSTRACT: Studies on rotavirus vaccine shedding and its potential transmission within households including immunocompromised individuals are needed to better define the potential risks and benefits of vaccination. We examined fecal shedding of pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5) for 9 days following the first dose of vaccine in infants between 6 and 12 weeks of age. Rotavirus antigen was detected by enzyme immunoassay (EIA), and vaccine-type rotavirus was identified by nucleotide sequencing based on genetic relatedness to the RV5 VP6 gene. Stool from 22 (21.4%) of 103 children contained rotavirus antigen-positive specimens on ≥ 1 post-vaccination days. Rotavirus antigen was detected as early as post-vaccination day 3 and as late as day 9, with peak numbers of shedding on post-vaccination days 6 through 8. Vaccine-type rotavirus was detected in all 50 antigen-positive specimens and 8 of 8 antigen-negative specimens. Nine (75%) of 12 EIA-positive and 1 EIA-negative samples tested culture-positive for vaccine-type rotavirus. Fecal shedding of rotavirus vaccine virus after the first dose of RV5 occurred over a wide range of post-vaccination days not previously studied. These findings will help better define the potential for horizontal transmission of vaccine virus among immunocompromised household contacts of vaccinated infants for future studies.
    Vaccine 05/2011; 29(24):4151-5. · 3.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report MIC agreement and error rates between broth microdilution (BMD), Vitek 2, and Etest against 48 clinical KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates for polymyxin B, tigecycline, cefepime, and meropenem. Both commercial testing methods were useful for tigecycline testing; Etest provided a conservative estimate of polymyxin B susceptibility. We suggest that laboratories consider the supplemental use of reference BMD or Etest for cefepime and meropenem for susceptibility testing of KPC-producing K. pneumoniae, as Vitek 2 did not provide reliable results.
    Journal of clinical microbiology 03/2011; 49(5):1795-8. · 4.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In 2005, the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) anovaginal colonization in pregnant women at our center (Columbia University Medical Center) was 0.5%, and MRSA-colonized women were less likely to carry group B streptococcus (GBS). In this study, our objectives were to identify changing trends in the prevalence of MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) anovaginal colonization in pregnant women, to assess the association between MRSA and GBS colonization, and to characterize the MRSA strains. From February to July 2009, Lim broths from GBS surveillance samples were cultured for S. aureus. MRSA strains were identified by resistance to cefoxitin and characterized by MicroScan, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), spa typing, and Panton-Valentine leukocidin PCR. A total of 2,921 specimens from different patients were analyzed. The prevalences of MSSA, MRSA, and GBS colonization were 11.8%, 0.6% and 23.3%, respectively. GBS colonization was associated with S. aureus colonization (odds ratio [OR], 1.9; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.5 to 2.4). The frequencies of GBS colonization were similar in MRSA-positive (34.2%) versus MRSA-negative patients (21.8%) (P = 0.4). All MRSA isolates from 2009 and 13/14 isolates from 2005 were SCCmec type IV or V, consistent with community-associated MRSA; 12/18 (2009) and 0/14 (2005) isolates were the USA300 clone. Levofloxacin resistance increased from 14.3% (2005) to 55.6% (2009) (P = 0.028). In conclusion, the prevalence of MRSA anovaginal colonization in pregnant women in New York City, NY, remained stable from 2005 to 2009, and USA300 emerged as the predominant clone with a significant increase in levofloxacin-resistant isolates.
    Journal of clinical microbiology 10/2010; 48(10):3675-80. · 4.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine whether culturable bacterial strains are present in human atheromatous tissue and to investigate their properties using culture, quantitative PCR, metagenomic screening, genomic and biochemical methods. We analyzed femoral atherosclerotic plaque and five pairs of diseased and healthy arterial tissue for the presence of culturable bacteria using cell cultures and genomic analysis. Gram negative aerobic bacilli were cultivated from the plaque tissue. Ribosomal 16S DNA amplification and sequencing identified the isolates as Enterobacter hormaechei. The isolate was resistant to ampicillin, cefazolin, and erythromycin. A circular 10 kb plasmid was isolated from the strain. Antibiotic protection assays of the isolate demonstrated invasive ability in a human monocytic cell line. To extend the study, five matched pairs of diseased and healthy aortic tissue were analyzed via quantitative PCR. Eubacterial 16S rDNA was detected in all specimens, however, E. hormaechei DNA was detected in surprisingly high numbers in two of the diseased tissues only. While it is well documented that inflammation is an important risk factor for vascular pathophysiology, the association of bacteria with atherosclerosis has not been clearly established, in large part due to the inability to isolate live bacteria from atheromatous tissue. This is the first study providing direct evidence of Enterobacter spp. associated with atheromatous tissues. The data suggest that chronic infection with bacteria may be an under-reported etiologic factor in vascular pathogenesis. Importantly, characterization of the clinical isolate supports a model of atherogenesis where systemic dissemination of bacteria to atherosclerotic sites may occur via internalization in phagocytic cells.
    Journal of atherosclerosis and thrombosis 10/2010; 18(1):72-81. · 2.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Spectra MRSA agar (Remel, Lenexa, KS), a novel chromogenic medium originally developed to detect methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from nasal swabs, was evaluated in this multicenter study for the detection of MRSA from positive blood cultures exhibiting Gram-positive cocci upon initial Gram staining.
    Journal of clinical microbiology 06/2010; 48(6):2265-7. · 4.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rapid and accurate identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae is a critical component in the optimal management of infected patients. The performance of the BD Phoenix Automated Microbiology System (BD Diagnostic Systems, Sparks, Md.) was evaluated for identification of S. pneumoniae (n = 311) and was compared to the Vitek 2 (bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France). Strains with discordant identification between methods were resolved with 16S rRNA gene sequencing as the gold standard. The Phoenix and the Vitek 2 correctly identified 96.8% (n = 301) and 95.2% (n = 296) of S. pneumoniae strains, respectively. Overall, there was no statistically significant difference in the performance of the 2 automated systems for the identification of S. pneumoniae in this study. The Vitek 2 mean time-to-results for all streptococcal identification was 1.5 h faster than that for the Phoenix. We conclude that the automated Phoenix and the Vitek 2 systems are comparable in their ability to identify S. pneumoniae and are preferable to the use of routine biochemical assays, which have delayed time-to-results and are not dependably accurate.
    Canadian Journal of Microbiology 04/2010; 56(4):326-32. · 1.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although red blood cell (RBC) transfusions can be lifesaving, they are not without risk. In critically ill patients, RBC transfusions are associated with increased morbidity and mortality, which may increase with prolonged RBC storage before transfusion. The mechanisms responsible remain unknown. We hypothesized that acute clearance of a subset of damaged, stored RBCs delivers large amounts of iron to the monocyte/macrophage system, inducing inflammation. To test this in a well-controlled setting, we used a murine RBC storage and transfusion model to show that the transfusion of stored RBCs, or washed stored RBCs, increases plasma nontransferrin bound iron (NTBI), produces acute tissue iron deposition, and initiates inflammation. In contrast, the transfusion of fresh RBCs, or the infusion of stored RBC-derived supernatant, ghosts, or stroma-free lysate, does not produce these effects. Furthermore, the insult induced by transfusion of stored RBC synergizes with subclinical endotoxinemia producing clinically overt signs and symptoms. The increased plasma NTBI also enhances bacterial growth in vitro. Taken together, these results suggest that, in a mouse model, the cellular component of leukoreduced, stored RBC units contributes to the harmful effects of RBC transfusion that occur after prolonged storage. Nonetheless, these findings must be confirmed by prospective human studies.
    Blood 03/2010; 115(21):4284-92. · 9.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A novel chromogenic medium, Spectra MRSA (Remel, Lenexa, KS), was designed to detect methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) rapidly and more efficiently than traditional media (i.e., tryptic soy agar with 5% sheep blood [SBA] and mannitol salt agar [MSA]). A multicenter study (including four clinical trial sites and the Medical College of Wisconsin [MCW] Milwaukee, WI) compared the performance characteristics of Spectra MRSA to those of the traditional media for the detection of MRSA. For this study, 767 nasal swab specimens from the multicenter study (traditional medium used, SBA) and 667 nasal swab specimens from MCW (traditional medium used, MSA) were plated on each test medium and examined after 24 and 48 h of incubation. At 24 h, the sensitivity and the specificity of each medium were as follows: in the multicenter study, 95.4% and 99.7%, respectively, for Spectra MRSA and 93.6% and 100%, respectively, for SBA; at MCW, 95.2% and 99.5%, respectively, for Spectra MRSA and 88.7% and 94.0%, respectively, for MSA. The positive predictive values of each medium at 24 h were as follows: in the multicenter study, 98.1% for Spectra MRSA and 100% for SBA; at MCW, 95.2% for Spectra MRSA and 60.4% for MSA. In our evaluation, we found that Spectra MRSA was able to rapidly identify and differentiate methicillin-resistant S. aureus from methicillin-susceptible S. aureus on the basis of the utilization of chromogens that result in denim blue colonies, thus eliminating the need for biochemical analysis and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Extending the incubation beyond 24 h did not significantly improve the recovery of MRSA and resulted in decreased specificity.
    Journal of clinical microbiology 11/2009; 48(1):215-9. · 4.16 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

852 Citations
201.36 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1995–2012
    • New York Presbyterian Hospital
      • • Department of Pathology
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2011
    • CUNY Graduate Center
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2010
    • Summa Health System
      Akron, Ohio, United States
  • 1998–2009
    • Columbia University
      • • College of Physicians and Surgeons
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      • • Division of Infectious Diseases
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 1999–2001
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Seattle, WA, United States
  • 1993–1994
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      North Carolina, United States