Han Joo Baek

Gachon University, Sŏngnam, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea

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Publications (38)99.46 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The object of this study was to evaluate the seasonality of gout in Korea. We retrospectively examined data from 330 patients seen at nine rheumatology clinics, treated with urate lowering therapy (ULT) more than one year after stopping prophylactic medication. Demographic data, clinical and laboratory features, and seasonality of gout onset and flares were collected. Season was classified in three-month intervals. The mean age was 52.2 yr and mean disease duration was 26.8 months. The male to female count was 318:12. The onset of acute gouty attacks was obtained in 256 patients. Gout developed most commonly in summer season (36.7%) (P<0.001) and in June (15.6%, P=0.002). During ULT, there were 147 (male 97.3%) gout flares. Although there was no statistically significant difference, gout flares were more common in summer (30.6%). Aggravating factors were identified in 57 flares: alcohol (72.0%) was most common. In the patients who attained target serum uric acid (<6 mg/dL) at the end of prophylaxis, gout flares were high in fall (35.8%) and September (17.0%). In Korea, the summer is most common season of gout onset and there is a tendency for gout flares to increase during ULT in summer/fall season. Graphical Abstract
    Journal of Korean Medical Science 03/2015; 30(3):240-4. DOI:10.3346/jkms.2015.30.3.240 · 1.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAR) is an orphan disease showing poor prognosis. The purpose of study was to evaluate clinical factors influencing outcomes in PAR. Materials and Methods: Patients who were diagnosed with PAR at a single center were reviewed retrospectively. Forty patients (34.9 +/- 14.5 years, 80% of female) were enrolled. Results: Causes were congenital heart disease in 24 (60%), connective tissue disease in 8 (20%) and idiopathic PAR in 6 (15%). Sixteen patients (40%) were WHO functional class ifi or IV at the time of diagnosis. Twenty seven patients (67.5%) received molecular targeted therapy. During follow-up (53.6 +/- 45.5 months), 10 patients (25%) died and 1-, 2-, and 8 year survival rates were 91.3%, 78.7%, and 66.8%, respectively. As expected, median survival of patients with functional class I or If were significantly longer than patients with DT or IV (p=0.041). Interestingly, patients with molecular targeted therapy showed longer survival than conventional therapy (p=0.021). Conclusion: WHO functional class at the time of diagnosis was the strong predictor of survival, and molecular targeted therapy could significantly improve the survival. Therefore, early screening and intensive management would be crucial to improve the prognosis in the patient with PAH.
    Yonsei Medical Journal 11/2014; 55(6):1526-32. DOI:10.3349/ymj.2014.55.6.1526 · 1.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The diagnosis of spondyloarthritis (SpA) has a lengthy delay; we investigated the outcomes and factors associated with the delayed diagnosis of SpA. This was a cross-sectional study on patients with SpA who visited a rheumatology clinic at a single tertiary centre. The data were collected from face-to-face interviews, physician assessments of disease status and reviews of medical records. In total, 105 patients with SpA were consecutively enrolled. Of the included patients, 94 had axial SpA and 11 had peripheral SpA. The median diagnostic delay was 8 years (interquartile range, 3-14) for axial SpA. Comparisons between the early and late diagnosis groups were performed to identify the factors related to delayed diagnosis in axial SpA. A definite diagnosis of SpA led to proper management and clinical improvements. The patients with delayed diagnosis showed worse outcomes in disease activity, function, spinal mobility and/or radiographic damage. These patients also demonstrated a less favourable treatment response according to the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index and the rate of radiographic progression. Multivariate analysis indicated that a prior diagnosis of mechanical back pain was an independent factor associated with diagnostic delay. The diagnosis of SpA is often delayed. Delayed diagnosis is associated with worse outcomes and poor treatment responses in SpA patients. Physician and patient awareness of inflammatory back pain are essential for the early diagnosis of SpA, and a referral guideline for patients with suspected SpA is needed.
    Clinical Rheumatology 09/2014; DOI:10.1007/s10067-014-2768-y · 1.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recurrent oral ulcer (ROU) is a common condition that significantly impacts quality of life. It is often related to systemic diseases, such as Behçet’s disease (BD), Crohn’s disease, and ulcerative colitis. Treatment of ROU depends on its severity: from topical agents for mild cases to systemic agents, such as corticosteroids, azathioprine, or other immunosuppressants for severe cases. Recently, good results have been reported with infliximab in refractory ROU. However, the optimal dosage and treatment duration have not been determined and the cost and potential side effects should be considered. We report on four patients who received a single-dose infliximab for refractory ROU. Two patients had refractory ROU with no underlying disease; one of them had soft palate perforation accompanied by severe oral ulcers. The two other patients had ROU of BD without major organ involvement. All patients received a single infusion of infliximab and an additional infusion was given on demand in one patient. Infliximab showed a rapid, good response in three patients and was also effective in improving the acute inflammation in the perforation of the soft palate, which had been resistant to conventional therapies. These effects diminished over a few weeks, but the ROU were tolerable and it was not necessary to increase steroids or add another medicine for about 1 year. We suggest that a single infusion of infliximab can be considered for refractory ROU.
    American Journal of Otolaryngology 09/2014; 35(5). DOI:10.1016/j.amjoto.2014.04.014 · 1.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: AimTo evaluate treatment patterns and clinical factors affecting gout flare in South Korea.Methods We retrospectively examined data from 401 patients seen at nine rheumatology multicenter clinics, under urate lowering therapy (ULT) more than 6 months after stopping prophylactic medication. Demographic data, clinical and laboratory features were collected at the initiation of ULT, upon stopping prophylaxis, and 6 months after.ResultsThe mean age was 52.2 years and mean disease duration was 25.0 months. The male-to-female count was 387 : 14. The most common ULT starting agent was allopurinol 83.8%. Colchicine (62.3%) was the most commonly prescribed prophylactic agent. During ULT, 134 of the 401 patients (33.4%) experienced at least one gouty attack in the period from stopping prophylaxis to 6 months later. The duration of prophylaxis was different between those with serum uric acid levels below 6 mg/dL and those over 6 mg/dL (P = 0.001). Of the 179 patients (44.6%) who attained target serum uric acid (SUA) levels (6 mg/dL) at the end of prophylaxis, those taking < 6 months of prophylaxis suffered more frequent flares than those taking it ≥ 6 months (42.9% vs. 26.3%, P = 0.041). The time interval to the first attack after stopping prophylaxis was shorter in the < 6 months group than the ≥ 6 months group (13.5 weeks vs. 22.5 weeks, P = 0.007).Conclusions Prophylaxis more than 6 months from initiation of ULT, and achieving target SUA (< 6 mg/dL) at the time of stopping prophylaxis is associated with fewer gout flares during ULT.
    International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases 08/2014; DOI:10.1111/1756-185X.12422 · 1.77 Impact Factor
  • Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 06/2014; 73(Suppl 2):610-611. DOI:10.1136/annrheumdis-2014-eular.5095 · 9.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the causes of cor pulmonale. Cor pulmonale patients with pulmonary hypertension have a significant lower survival rate than patients without. However, there is no conclusive treatment options in cor pulmonale and pulmonary hypertension associated with COPD until now. We report a patient with cor pulmonale and pulmonary hypertension associated with severe form of COPD and tuberculous destroyed lung who achieved marked clinical, functional and echocardiographic hemodynamic improvements with inhaled iloprost for six months.
    Journal of cardiovascular ultrasound 06/2014; 22(2):95-7. DOI:10.4250/jcu.2014.22.2.95
  • Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 01/2014; 71(Suppl 3):670-670. DOI:10.1136/annrheumdis-2012-eular.562 · 9.27 Impact Factor
  • Han Joo Baek
    01/2014; 21(6):279. DOI:10.4078/jrd.2014.21.6.279
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    ABSTRACT: Vasculitis that involves the gastrointestinal (GI) tract often occurs as part of a systemic inflammatory process. It is a well-recognized manifestation of the small and medium sized vessel vasculitides. Vasculitis of the GI tract may occur in isolation; although it can progress to a systemic illness. It usually involves the arterioles, venules, and capillaries; however, it is very rare for only the venules to be affected. Enterocolic lymphocytic phlebitis is a localized vasculitis, typically affecting the small and medium-sized intramural and mesenteric veins of the intestines. We report a case of enterocolic lymphocytic phlebitis of the colon. A 38-year-old woman was presented with hematochezia and severe abdominal pain on the day of admission. She had no history of intestinal disease or systemic disease. Computed tomography showed an extremely thickened wall of the colon, along with several air bubbles in the colon with diffuse subcutaneous emphysema in the abdominal wall. An emergency exploration laparotomy and extended right hemicolectomy was performed. The patient recovered completely after surgery and remains well without further therapy.
    01/2014; 21(2):101. DOI:10.4078/jrd.2014.21.2.101
  • Mi Ryoung Seo, Han Joo Baek
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    ABSTRACT: The spondyloarthritis (SpA) is a group of chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases in association with HLA-B27. They share the clinical features including sacroiliitis, spondylitis, oligoarthritis, enthesitis and extra-articular involvement. Recently ASAS proposed new classification criteria sets of axial and peripheral SpA. They were designed to include non-radiographic SpA, thus can guide the early diagnosis of disease before the structural damage occurs. SpA has a strong genetic predisposition. Non-MHC genes, such as IL23R and ERAP1, as well as HLA-B27 were confirmed as susceptibility genes through several GWAS. Major pathology in SpA is entheseal inflammation and new bone formation. Intrinsic ability of HLA-B27 to trigger innate immune response and several proinflammtory cytokines may contribute to the inflammation in SpA. New bone formation could be explained by a mechanism, partly or completely independent of the inflammatory process.
    01/2013; 85(3):229. DOI:10.3904/kjm.2013.85.3.229
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: To identify non-major histocompatibility complex susceptible genes that might contribute to Behçet's disease (BD). METHODS: We performed a genome-wide association study using DNA samples from a Korean population consisting of 379 BD patients and 800 controls. A replication study was performed in a Japanese population (363 BD patients and 272 controls). To evaluate the functional implication of the target single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), gene expression levels in peripheral T cells, allele-specific modulation of promoter activity and biological effect of mRNA knockdown were investigated. RESULTS: We found a novel association of BD to the GIMAP locus, mapped to chromosome 7q36.1 (rs1608157, p=6.01×10(-8) in a minor allele dominant model; rs11769828, allele based p=1.60×10(-6)). A fine mapping study identified an association with four additional SNP: rs1522596 (OR=1.45, p=7.70×10(-6)) in GIMAP4; rs10266069 (OR=1.32, p=2.67×10(-4)) and rs10256482 (OR=1.27, p=5.27×10(-4)) in GIMAP2; and rs2286900 (OR=1.61, p=3.53×10(-5)) in GIMAP1 areas. Replication study using DNA samples from the Japanese population validated the significant association between BD and the GIMAP locus. The GIMAP4 promoter construct plasmid with the minor allele of rs1608157 displayed significantly lower activity than one with the major allele. Moreover, CD4 T cells from BD patients showed a lower level of GIMAP4 mRNA, and GIMAP4 knockdown was protective against Fas-mediated apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that a GIMAP cluster is a novel susceptibility locus for BD, which is involved in T-cell survival, and T-cell aberration can contribute to the development of BD.
    Annals of the rheumatic diseases 10/2012; DOI:10.1136/annrheumdis-2011-200288 · 9.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 expression is reported to be upregulated in several primary vasculitides. The -1562C>T and -91 [CA](n) repeat polymorphisms can affect MMP-9 promoter activity. We investigated the distributions of these functional polymorphisms in 122 patients with Behçet's disease (BD) and in 122 gender- and age-matched healthy controls. Plasma levels of MMP-9 were analyzed. The frequency of "L" alleles with [CA](n) <21 was significantly lower in all BD patients (vs controls, odds ratio (OR) = 0.371 [95% confidence interval 0.152-0.905]) and male patients (vs male controls, OR = 0.117 [0.019-0.737]). Furthermore, the frequency of "H/H" homozygote with [CA](n) > or = 21 was significantly higher in BD patients than controls (OR = 2.677 [1.065-6.729]). Moreover, the frequency of CL haplotype with lower promoter activity was significantly lower in BD patients (vs controls, OR = 0.374 [0.149-0.939]) and in BD patients with visceral involvement (OR = 0.202 [0.044-0.916]). Although plasma MMP-9 levels were not different between controls and BD patients, concentrations of this substance were significantly higher in male patients (vs male controls, p = 0.044) or patients with visceral involvements (vs patients without visceral involvement, p = 0.027). These results suggest that MMP-9 is a novel susceptibility gene and its promoter polymorphisms can affect the development of visceral involvement in BD.
    Human immunology 04/2010; 71(7):717-22. DOI:10.1016/j.humimm.2010.03.009 · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to investigate clinical and radiographic features and gender differences in Korean patients with adult-onset ankylosing spondylitis. Multicenter cross-sectional studies were conducted in the rheumatology clinics of 13 Korean tertiary referral hospitals. All patients had a confirmed diagnosis of ankylosing spondylitis according to the modified New York criteria. Clinical, laboratory, and radiographic features were evaluated and disease activities were assessed using the Bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity index. Five hundred and five patients were recruited. The male to female ratio was 6.1:1. Average age at symptom onset was 25.4+/-8.9 yr and average disease duration was 9.6+/-6.8 yr. Males manifested symptoms at a significantly earlier age. HLA-B27 was more frequently positive in males. Hips were more commonly affected in males, and knees in females. When spinal mobility was measured using tragus-to-wall distance and the modified Schober's test, females had significantly better results. Radiographic spinal changes, including bamboo spine and syndesmophytes, were more common in males after adjustment of confounding factors. In conclusion, we observed significant gender differences in radiographic spinal involvement as well as other clinical manifestations among Korea patients with adult-onset ankylosing spondylitis. These findings may influence the timing of the diagnosis and the choice of treatment.
    Journal of Korean medical science 04/2010; 25(4):532-5. DOI:10.3346/jkms.2010.25.4.532 · 1.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To identify immunoglobulin variable heavy chain (VH) gene usages in Korean ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients, expression level of VH2 genes from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of 8 AS patients and 9 healthy donors was analysed by quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR). Q-PCR results demonstrated VH2 genes were overexpressed in AS patients (Relative amount of mRNA of VH2 genes to a house-keeping gene, 7.13+/-7.77 vs, 0.68+/-0.55; P<0.0001). The sequence analysis revealed the majority of them contained CDC42 binding protein kinase Beta (CDC42 BPB) genes. The insertion of CDC42 BPB gene was confirmed by PCR with primers corresponding CDC42 BPB and CH genes. Our study revealed VH2 overexpression and unique rearrangement in Ig VH genes from peripheral blood of AS patients. This may imply aberrant immunoglobulin gene rearrangement in B cell occurs in Korean AS patients, which requires further investigation.
    Experimental and Molecular Medicine 02/2010; 42(5):319-26. DOI:10.1007/978-3-642-17913-6_14 · 2.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Behçet's disease (BD) is a chronic systemic inflammatory disease with unknown etiology. A number of clinical and laboratory findings suggest a strongly polarized Th1 immune response in BD. T-bet is a newly identified Th1 specific T-box transcription factor selectively expressed in Th1 cells. However, it is not yet clear whether the T-bet protein is involved in the proposed Th1-mediated pathogenesis of BD at the transcriptional level. Therefore, this study investigated the potential associations of two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at positions -99 (C/G) and -1993 (T/C) in the exon and promoter regions of the TBX21 gene with susceptibility to BD in the Korean population.
    The Journal of the Korean Rheumatism Association 01/2010; 17(4):360. DOI:10.4078/jkra.2010.17.4.360
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    ABSTRACT: Etanercept is a recombinant human tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor fusion protein, which inhibits the biological activity of TNF-α. The common side effects of TNF-α inhibitors are injection site reactions, infusion reactions and infection. Rheumatoid nodules are the most common extraarticular manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis. Drugs such as methotrexate were reported to be associated with rheumatoid nodules, but etanercept-related nodules were uncommonly observed. We report the new formation of cutaneous rheumatoid nodules in a 58-year-old man during anti-TNFα therapy with etanercept. He had 2-year history of seropositive rheumatoid arthritis, and been treated with methotrexate, hydroxychloroquine, sulfasalazine, prednisolone and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs before etanercept regimen. Rheumatoid nodules developed on the palmar surface of fingers 4 month after treatment of etanercept, although his disease activity was maintained low. One month later, we decided to stop etanercept because his nodulosis extended to elbow. Since then, he has been followed up without any progression of rheumatoid nodules or aggravation of arthritis.
    The Journal of the Korean Rheumatism Association 01/2008; 15(3). DOI:10.4078/jkra.2008.15.3.250
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    ABSTRACT: POEMS syndrome--characterised by polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal protein and skin changes--is a rare multi-systemic disease. Its skin change is often like that of connective tissue diseases such as scleroderma. Although clinical manifestations of POEMS syndrome are known to be diverse, arterial or venous thrombosis is a less-recognised feature. We report a 41-year-old man with scleroderma-like skin change who was initially negative for monoclonal protein, but finally confirmed as having POEMS syndrome. During the disease course, he was complicated by extensive arterial thromboses including stroke. This case evokes the need to include POEMS syndrome in the differential diagnoses in patients with scleroderma-like skin change and to repeat measurements of monoclonal protein to confirm its diagnosis. A POEMS patient with extensive arterial thromboses may have a catastrophic disease course, requiring earlier diagnosis and more aggressive treatment.
    Clinical Rheumatology 12/2007; 26(11):1989-92. DOI:10.1007/s10067-007-0607-0 · 1.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) is a transcription factor that regulates the functions of type I and II interferons and plays a role in host protection. Behçet's disease (BD) is an idiopathic systemic vasculitis that is often complicated with thrombotic features, and infectious agents have long been postulated to be a disease-triggering factor in its pathogenesis. The authors investigated the distributions of IRF-1 promoter -415 C/A, -410 A/G, and -300 A/G, and 3'-untranslated region (UTR) A/G polymorphisms in 105 BD patients (mean age 41.7 +/- SEM 1.1 years, 44 male and 61 female) and in 105 gender- and age-matched healthy controls. The frequencies of individual alleles and genotypes were not different between the control and BD groups. However, the frequency of AGGG haplotype was significantly higher (73.5% vs 60.2%, odds ratio [OR] = 1.842, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.219-2.783, p(c) = 0.036) and that of the CAAG haplotype was significantly lower (2.2% vs 9.5%, OR = 0.195, 95% CI = 0.068-0.559, p(c) = 0.02) in BD patients than in healthy controls. In addition, the frequency of the AGGG haplotype was significantly higher (80.3% vs 57.4%, OR = 3.033, 95% CI = 1.716-5.360, p(c) = 0.001) and that of the CAAG haplotype was significantly lower (0.8% vs 12.3%; OR = 0.059, 95% CI = 0.010-0.357, p(c) = 0.005) in female BD patients than female controls. By subgroup analyses, the CAAA haplotype tended to be more common in BD patients with moderate or severe disease than in those with mild disease (25.4% vs 13.6%, OR = 2.158, 95% CI = 1.046-4.440, p = 0.037 before Bonferroni correction). When BD patients were subclassified by a history of deep vein thrombosis (DVT), the CAAA haplotype was found to be significantly increased the risk of DVT (42.1% vs 15.7%, OR = 3.906, 95% CI = 1.836-8.324, p(c) = 0.0015) and the AGGG haplotype tended to reduce this risk (57.9% vs 77.3%, OR = 0.403, 95% CI = 0.195-0.834, p(c) = 0.0685). Furthermore, the frequency of the CAAA haplotype was significantly higher in BD patients that had experienced a thrombotic event than in those that had not (40.5% vs 15.5%, OR = 3.7147, 95% CI = 1.778-7.770, p(c) = 0.0015). These results suggest that IRF-1 is a novel susceptibility gene in BD, especially in women, and furthermore, that IRF-1 polymorphisms may be related to thrombosis in BD patients.
    Human Immunology 10/2007; 68(9):770-8. DOI:10.1016/j.humimm.2007.06.002 · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: SKI306X, which consists of biologically active ingredients from Clematis mandsburica, Tricbosantbes kirilowii, and Prunella vulgaris, was developed and tested in preclinical trials in Korea. Those studies found that SKI306X was associated with an anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect, and that it can delay the destruction of cartilage in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The aim of this study was to compare the pain relief and tolerability of SKI306X and celecoxib in patients with RA. This study was a 6-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, Phase III, noninferiority clinical trial. Eligible patients were aged 18 to 80 years, had a history of RA with a disease duration of > or =3 months, and were functional American College of Rheumatology (ACR) class I, II, or III before entry. After a washout period of 2 weeks, patients were randomized to SKI306X 200 mg TID or celecoxib 200 mg BID for 6 weeks. The primary end point was a change in patient assessment of pain intensity using a visual analog scale (VAS). The secondary end points were a 20% improvement in response rate as defined by the ACR (ACR20) and the frequency of rescue medication use. Results after 3 and 6 weeks of treatment were compared with baseline and between treatment groups, and all patients were assessed for adverse events (AEs), clinical laboratory data, and vital signs. AEs were identified based on spontaneous reports by patients during interviews conducted by the investigators and the study coordinator. Two hundred twenty-two Korean patients from 7 medical centers were assessed and 183 were enrolled and randomized to 1 of 2 treatment groups. Ninety-one patients (10 male, 81 female; mean [SD] age, 52.13 [12.64] years; mean [SD] duration of RA, 9.08 [10.23] years; no. [%] of ACR class I, II, and III, 13 [14.29], 44 [48.35] and 34 [37.36] patients, respectively) received SKI306X 200 mg TID and 92 patients (10 male, 82 female; mean [SD] age, 51.78 [10.94] years; mean [SD] duration of RA, 8.78 [7.78] years; no. [%] of ACR class I, II, and III, 14 [15.22], 44 [47.83], and 34 [36.96] patients, respectively) received celecoxib 200 mg BID. An analysis of the change in reported pain intensity as determined by VAS (mm) score between baseline and week 3 (mean [SD], 13.64 [16.62] vs 14.45 [15.89]), and between baseline and week 6 (18.4 [20.8] vs 17.9 [19.1], respectively) suggested that SKI306X was not inferior to celecoxib. The number of patients who achieved ACR20 response rate was not significantly different between the SKI306X group and the celecoxib group at week 3 (16/87 [18.4%] vs 24/87 [27.6%], respectively) and at week 6 (29/87 [33.3%] vs 29/87 [33.3%]). The frequency of rescue medication use was not significantly different between the SKI306X group and celecoxib group at week 3 (54/87 [62.1%] vs 47/87 [54.0%], respectively) or week 6 (57/87 [65.5%] vs 49/87 [56.3%]). Drug-related AEs were reported by 27 (29.7%) patients in the SKI306X group and 22 (23.9%) patients in the celecoxib group. The most frequent drug-related AEs were epigastric pain (9/91 [9.9%]) in the SKI306X group and glutamyltranferase elevation (4/92 [4.3%]) in the celecoxib group. No significant between-group differences were observed in the prevalence of drug-related clinical- or laboratory-determined AEs. The results of this study suggest that SKI306X was generally well tolerated and not inferior to celecoxib in regard to pain relief in these Korean patients with RA.
    Clinical Therapeutics 05/2007; 29(5):862-73. DOI:10.1016/j.clinthera.2007.05.006 · 2.59 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

355 Citations
99.46 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2007–2015
    • Gachon University
      • Department of Rheumatology
      Sŏngnam, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea
    • Incheon St. Mary’s Hospital, Catholic Medical Center
      Bucheon, Gyeonggi Province, South Korea
  • 1998–2012
    • Seoul National University Hospital
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2005
    • Chungnam National University
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Daiden, Daejeon, South Korea
  • 1998–2000
    • Seoul National University
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      • • Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea