[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and Purposes: Several circulating biomarkers have been implicated in carotid atherosclerotic plaque rupture and thrombosis; however, their clinical utility remains unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the role of a large biomarker panel in the discrimination of symptomatic (S) vs. asymptomatic (A/S) subjects in a contemporary population with carotid artery stenosis (CS). MethodszzProspective sampling of circulating cytokines and blood lipids was performed in 300 unselected, consecutive patients with ≥50% CS, as assessed by duplex ultrasound (age 47-83 years; 110 with A/S and 190 with S) who were referred for potential CS revascularization. ResultszzCS severity and pharmacotherapy did not differ between the A/S and S patients. The median values of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and lipoprotein(a) did not differ, but high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol was significantly higher (p<0.001) and triglycerides were lower (p=0.03) in the A/S-CS group than in the S-CS group. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were higher (p=0.04 and p=0.07, respectively) in the S-CS group. Circulating visfatin, soluble CD 40 receptor ligand, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule, leptin, adiponectin, IL-1β, IL-8, IL-18, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, myeloperoxidase, matrix metalloproteinases-8, -9, and -10, and fibrinogen were similar, but tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP) was reduced in S-CS compared to A/S-CS (p=0.02). Nevertheless, incorporation of TIMP and IL-6 did not improve the HDL-cholesterol receiver operating characteristics for S-CS status prediction. S-CS status was unrelated to angiographic stenosis severity or plaque burden, as assessed by intravascular ultrasound (p=0.16 and p=0.67, respectively). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed low HDL-cholesterol to be the only independent predictor of CS symptoms, with an odds ratio of 1.81 (95% confidence interval=1.15-2.84, p=0.01) for HDL <1.00 mmol/L (first quartile) vs. >1.37 (third quartile). In S-CS, osteoprotegerin and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) were elevated in those with recent vs. remote symptoms (p=0.01 and p=0.02, respectively). ConclusionszzIn an all-comer CS population on contemporary pharmacotherapy, low HDLcholesterol (but not other previously implicated or several novel circulating biomarkers) is an independent predictor of S-CS status. In addition, an increase in circulating osteoprotegerin and Lp-PLA2 may transiently indicate S transformation of the carotid atherosclerotic plaque.
Journal of Clinical Neurology 07/2013; 9:165-175. · 1.69 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Significant renal artery stenosis (RAS) may lead to left ventricle (LV) hypertrophy and diastolic function (DF) impairment through complex mechanisms: activation of cytokines and/or systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP) increase.
To assess interrelations between LV mass (LVM), DF and cytokines in patients undergoing renal artery stenting (PTA, percutaneous angioplasty of renal artery).
The study group comprised 72 subjects (44.4% men), 64.1 ± 9.9 years with RAS referred to PTA. SBP, DBP, transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-β1), aldosterone, B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels and change in LVM and LVM index (LVMI) and DF (Evel, e'vel, E/A ratio, E/e' ratio, Artime-Atime) on echocardiography were assessed preprocedurally, and three and 12 months postprocedurally.
TGF-β1 level decreased from 13.3 ± 14.9 to 8.6 ± 8.0 ng/mL (p = 0.027), while BNP increased from 89.1 ± 86.3 to 131 ± 105 pmol/mL (p < 0.001). A significant reduction in LVMI in women (79.4 ± 16.9 vs. 95.7 ± 18.5 g/m², p < 0.001) and men (77.2 ± 16.8 vs. 100.1 ± 19.7 g/m², p < 0.001) was found at 12 months vs. baseline. Degree of LVM reduction correlated with baseline LVM (p < 0.001; r = -0.612) and e'vel (p = 0.05; r = 0.230), but not with BP values. Among DF parameters, only e'vel increased significantly at 12 months (5.54 ± 1.57 vs. 5.92 ± 1.65 cm/s; p = 0.039), while A/E and E/e' ratio, Artime-Atime remained similar (p = 0.457, p = 0.283 and p = 0.258). Factors associated with e'vel increase ≥ 0.3 cm/s at 12 months were baseline LVM < 165 g (p = 0.043, RR = 1.39, CI 1.01-1.46), Evel (p = 0.015, RR = 1.26, CI 1.15-1.52), e'vel (p < 0.001, RR = 1.42, CI 1.18-1.7), DBP decrease > 10 mm Hg (p = 0.055, RR = 1.2, CI 1.0-1.44) and TGF-β1 > 8 ng/mL (p = 0.024, RR = 1.24, CI 1.03-1.49) at 12 months.
Significant LVMI reduction was observed after PTA of RAS, but it was independent of BP reduction. e'vel increase was independently associated with baseline LVM, Evel, e'vel, and 12 month decrease in DBP > 10 mm Hg.
Kardiologia polska 01/2013; 71(2):121-8. · 0.54 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Microparticles (MPs) are small vesicles between 100 and 500 nm, released from different cells including blood, endothelium, smooth muscle, and retina cells. MPs are produced during shedding process in response to some stressing and stimulating factors, as well as during apoptosis. The cellular machinery leading to MP shedding involves the loss of the plasma membrane asymmetry and phosphatidylserine externalization with an increase in cytosolic calcium concentrations. MPs not only transfer membrane proteins from the cells of their origin but also convey phospholipids and microRNA to the distant cells. Some of these macromolecules have neoangiogenetic properties (factor XII, tissue factor or mitogen-activated protein kinases) or participate in modulation of vascular senescence or remodeling (miRNAs). AREAS COVERED: The authors summarise recent knowledge about MP biology and pathophysiology. The mechanisms involved in MP release are discussed, and special emphasis is placed on clinical studies, which document their proangiogenic role in diabetic retinopathy and vascular aging. EXPERT OPINION: The pharmacological control of phospholipid moieties in the plasma membrane and the regulation of the MP shedding remains a challenge in the early stage of diabetic retinopathy and vascular aging.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The rate of early complications of carotid artery stenting (CAS) should not exceed 3% in asymptomatic and 6% in symptomatic patients. However, some recent studies/registries failed to reach this threshold, fueling a debate on the role of CAS in the treatment of patients with carotid artery stenosis.
To evaluate 30-day safety of CAS using different embolic protection devices and different stent types according to the tailored-CAS algorithm and to identify risk factors for complications.
Between 2002 and 2010, we performed 1176 CAS procedures in 1081 patients (age 38-86 years, mean 66.3 ± 8.4 years, 51.5% symptomatic) according to the tailored-CAS algorithm that included extracranial ultrasound and computed tomography angiography to select the most appropriate embolic protection device (EPD) and stent type. Proximal EPD and closed-cell (CC) stents were preferentially used for high-risk lesions (HR - soft/thrombus-containing/tight/ulcerated, 36.14% of all lesions) and in symptomatic patients.
Procedural success rate was 99.8%. In symptomatic patients, proportion of HR lesions was higher (41.1%) than in the asymptomatic group (30.8%, p = 0.001) and the usage of CC stents (76.2% vs 71.7%, p = 0.103) and proximal EPD (P-EPD, 34.8% vs 27.7% among asymptomatic patients, p = 0.010) was more frequent. CC stents were used in 82.4% of CAS procedures involving HR lesions (vs 69.1% for non-HR lesions, p < 0.01), and P-EPD were used in 83.1% of procedures involving HR lesions (vs 2.5% for non-HR lesions, p < 0.001). In-hospital complications included 6 (0.55%) deaths, 1 (0.08%) major stroke and 19 (1.61%) minor strokes. No myocardial infarctions (MI) were noted. Among 7 (0.59%) cases of hyperperfusion syndrome, 2 were fatal. Thirty-day complication rate (death/any stroke/MI) was 2.38%. Age > 75 years was a predictor of death (p = 0.015), and prior neurological symptoms were a predictor of death/stroke (p = 0.030). There were 4 cases of periprocedural embolic cerebral artery occlusion, all treated with combined intracranial mechanical and local thrombolytic therapy.
CAS with EPD and stent type selection on the basis of thorough non-invasive diagnostic work-up (tailored- -CAS) is safe. Advanced age was associated with an increased risk of death and the presence of prior neurological symptoms was a predictor of death/stroke at 30 days. With the tailored-CAS approach, high-risk lesion features (soft/thrombus- -containing/tight/ulcerated) are eliminated as a risk factor. Hyperperfusion syndrome is a severe CAS complication which may lead to intracranial bleeding and death. Acute, iatrogenic embolic cerebral artery occlusion is rare and may be managed by combined intracranial mechanical and local thrombolytic therapy.
Kardiologia polska 01/2012; 70(4):378-86. · 0.54 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Incidence of patent foramen ovale (PFO) has been estimated at 25% in the general population and 6% for larger defects. Data on the relationship between PFO morphology and the risk of stroke are limited. PFO closure has become a common practice in many centres, although recent guidelines limit indications for such treatment to patients with cryptogenic (recurrent) stroke. Aim: To investigate whether PFO morphology assessed by transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE) differed between patients with symptoms and those who had an asymptomatic PFO. Methods: We analysed 88 consecutive patients (48 female, 40 male; mean age 36.1 ± 16.2 [range 18-59] years) who underwent TOE before transcatheter PFO closure due to a cryptogenic cerebrovascular event (Group I) and compared them to 88 consecutive patients (49 female, 39 male; mean age 35.7 ± 14.2 [range 18-57] years) with an asymptomatic PFO found incidentally on TOE (Group II). The diagnosis of stroke was based on the occurrence of a new acute focal neurological deficit, with neurological signs and symptoms persisting for 〉 24 h, subsequently confirmed by computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging. Multiplane TOE was conducted as per guidelines using commercially available instruments. The interatrial septum was viewed in the transverse midoesophageal 4-chamber view and the longitudinal biatrial-bicaval view. PFO was diagnosed with intravenous injections of agitated saline while the patient was at rest and during the Valsalva manoeuvre. We analysed PFO size (resting and maximal separation of the septum primum and secundum during the Valsalva manoeuvre), tunnel length (maximal overlap of the septum primum and secundum), presence of an atrial septal aneurysm (excursion 〉 15 mm), shunt severity (mild: 3-5, moderate: 6-25, severe 〉 25 microbubbles) and prominence of the Eustachian valve. Results: The two groups did not differ with respect to age and sex distribution. Group I showed larger PFO size (maximal separation 3.9 ± 1.4 vs. 1.3 ± 1.3 mm, p 〈 0.0001), longer tunnel length (14 ± 6 vs. 12 ± 5.5 mm, p 〈 0.05) and a greater frequency of atrial septal aneurysm (55% vs. 15%, p 〈 0.0001) compared to Group II (controls). Group I was also characterised by a higher proportion of large PFOs (≤ 4 mm; 50% vs. 18%, p 〈 0.001) and severe shunt (40% vs. 2%, p 〈 0.0001). Conclusions: PFO in symptomatic patients is larger in size, has a longer tunnel and is more frequently associated with atrial septal aneurysm. Asymptomatic patients with PFO characteristics similar to that seen in stroke patients require more careful clinical evaluation. It may be debated whether such patients should be recruited to prospective trials to evaluate indications for PFO closure in stroke prevention.
Kardiologia polska 01/2012; 70(12):1258-1263. · 0.54 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the relationship between carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), biomarkers, atherosclerosis extent and a two-year cardiovascular (CV) event risk in patients with arteriosclerosis.
The CIMT, levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-10 (IL-10), and NT-proBNP were measured in 279 subjects with atherosclerotic disease, mean age 64.1 ± 9.6 years. The patients were included when they had artery stenosis ≥ 50% in one, two, three or four arterial territories (coronary, supra-aortic, renal and/or lower limb arteries), and this was found in 97, 80, 69 and 33 patients, respectively. During a two-year follow-up, the incidences of CV death, myocardial infarction, ischaemic stroke and lesion progression were recorded.
The identified independent predictors of ≥ 3-territorial stenoses ≥ 50% were CIMT > 1.3 mm (RR 1.72; p < 0.001), hs-CRP > 5 mg/dL (RR 1.28; p = 0.005), IL-6 > 6.5 pg/mL (RR 1.08; p = 0.089), IL-10 (RR 0.86; p = 0.002), diabetes (RR 1.11; p = 0.027), total-cholesterol (RR 1.21; p < 0.001), creatinine (RR 1.15; p = 0.004) and body mass index (RR 0.85; p = 0.001). During a two-year follow-up, CV events occurred in 52 (18.6%) patients. The CIMT > 1.3 mm (p < 0.001), diabetes (p = 0.018), TNF-α > 6 pg/mL (p = 0.018), LDL-cholesterol > 3.35 mmol/L (p = 0.012) and NT-proBNP (p = 0.074) were independent CV event risk factors associated with a 27%, 14%, 15%, 15% and 11% higher CV risk, respectively. However, after adjustment for a baseline location of artery stenosis ≥ 50%, CIMT became a non-significant predictor (p = 0.245).
Levels of hs-CRP, IL-6, IL-10 are independently associated with atherosclerosis extent, while TNF-α and NT- -proBNP are mostly related to a two-year CV event risk. The CIMT > 1.3 mm seems to be a clinically relevant marker associated with atherosclerosis extent and CV risk, although CV event risk is primarily related to the baseline stenosis location.
Kardiologia polska 01/2011; 69(10):1024-31. · 0.54 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), the presence of atherosclerotic lesions in other vascular beds is associated with a markedly worse prognosis.
To determine the prevalence and predictors of extracranial supra-aortic artery atherosclerotic disease (SAD) in patients with suspected CAD.
Supra-aortic artery angiography was performed in 379 consecutive patients aged 64.2 +/- 8.8 years (231 male) referred for coronary angiography. Clinical and laboratory data (total cholesterol, LDL, HDL cholesterol, hs-CRP, creatinine level) and left ventricular ejection fraction were analysed.
Significant stenosis (> or =50% by quantitative angiography) within at least one main branch of the coronary arteries was found in 314 (82.8%) patients, including 87 (27.7%), 96 (30.6%) and 131 (41.7%) with 1-vessel, 2-vessel, and 3-vessel CAD, respectively. Among all 379 patients, stenosis > or =50% of the carotid artery was documented in 9.5%, vertebral in 13.7%, and subclavian in 7.4% of patients. We found 130 stenoses > or =50% within the supra-aortic arteries in 90 patients (23.7% of the whole study group, and 28.7% of CAD patients), including 42 internal carotid artery stenoses in 36 patients, 58 vertebral artery stenoses in 52, and 30 subclavian stenoses in 28 patients. In 24 (6.3%) patients more than one SAD was present. The SAD > or =50% was found in 8 (12.3%) patients without significant CAD, in 22 (25.3%), 17 (17.7%) and 43 (32.8%) with 1-, 2- and 3-vessel CAD, respectively (p = 0.001). Independent predictors of SAD > or =50% identified by multivariate analysis were: previous neurological ischaemic event (p = 0.001), CAD (p = 0.015), creatinine level (p = 0.031), male gender (p = 0.001), claudication (p < 0.001) and low HDL cholesterol (p = 0.033). The following independent predictors of vertebral and/or subclavian artery stenosis > 50% were identified: CAD severity (p = 0.002), creatinine level (p = 0.024), male gender (p = 0.013), claudication (p < 0.001) and low HDL cholesterol level (p = 0.059).
In a large patient sample, we have found that significant supra-aortic atherosclerosis is present in a quater of patients with suspected CAD. Importantly, SAD prevalence increases with CAD severity. Previous neurological ischaemic event, CAD, creatinine level, male gender, claudication and hyperlipidaemia were identified as independent predictors of SAD > or =50%.
Kardiologia polska 08/2009; 67(8A):985-91. · 0.54 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular diseases are the number one killer in the developed countries, accounting for approximately half of all deaths, with the leading causes being myocardial infarction and ischaemic stroke. In line with the ageing population, the prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD), lower extremity peripheral arterial disease (PAD), supra-aortic arterial disease (SAD) and renal stenosis (RAS) is increasing. Polyvascular atherosclerosis (PVA) coexisting in several territories has an adverse effect on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.
To determine prevalence, coexistence and predictors of significant PAD, SAD and RAS in patients with suspected CAD.
Based on angiography, the frequency of coexisting CAD, SAD, PAD and RAS (stenosis > or =50%) was determined in 687 (487 male) consecutive patients, aged 63.5 +/- 9.1 years, referred for coronary angiography.
Significant CAD was found in 545 (79.3%) patients (1-vessel in 164; 2-vessel in 157; 3-vessel in 224). SAD, RAS and PAD were found in 136 (19.8%), 55 (8%), and 103 (15%) patients, respectively. Of the 545 patients with confirmed CAD, 346 (63.5%) had stenoses limited to coronary arteries. 2-, 3- and 4-level PVA was found in 130 (23.8%), 61 (11.2%) and 8 (1.5%) patients, respectively. Of the 142 patients without CAD, 127 (89.4%) had no significant stenoses elsewhere, 12 (8.5%) had 1 extracoronary territory and 3 (2.1%) had 2-territory involvement. Backward stepwise binary logistic regression analysis showed the following independent predictors of at least 2-level PVA: 2- and 3-vessel CAD (p < 0.001), hyperlipidaemia (p = 0.067), smoking (p < 0.001), creatinine level > or = 1.3 ml/dl (p < 0.001), lower extremities claudication (p < 0.001) and female gender (p = 0.003). The relative risk of having at least 2-territory PVA was 15.7-fold higher in patients with claudication, 2.1-fold in patients with multivessel CAD, 2.8-fold for serum creatinine level > 1.3 mg/dl; and 1.9-fold, 2.4-fold and 2-fold in patients with hyperlipidaemia, smokers and women, respectively. Conclusions: Significant atherosclerosis in extracoronary arterial territories is present in 36% of patients with documented CAD. With advancing PVA, accumulation of atherosclerosis risk factors, previous atherothrombotic events and more severe CAD is observed.
Kardiologia polska 08/2009; 67(8A):978-84. · 0.54 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In patients with severe degenerative aortic stenosis (DAS) the operative mortality risk is 3% for isolated aortic valve replacement (AVR), but it significantly increases in patients with concomitant coronary artery disease (CAD) and internal carotid artery stenosis (ICAS).
To assess the frequency of ICAS > or = 50% and factors determining its occurrence in patients with severe calcified DAS referred for AVR.
The study included 104 patients (67 men), aged 63.4+/-8.4 years, with symptomatic moderate-to-severe DAS (aortic valve area <1.5 cm2) undergoing coronary angiography prior to valve surgery. In all patients Doppler ultrasound of carotid arteries was performed with the assessment of lumen stenosis.
Significant CAD, defined as at least one lumen reduction > or = 50% in a main coronary artery, was found in 44 (42.3%) patients and ICAS > or = 50% in 13 (12.5%) patients. Among patients with DAS, 12 (27.3%) out of 44 patients with significant CAD and 1 (1.7%) out of 60 patients without CAD had ICAS > or = 50% (p <0.001). The frequency of ICAS > or = 50% increased with advancing CAD, occurring in 4 (25%) out of 16 patients with 1-vessel CAD, 3 (25%) out of 12 with 2-vessel CAD and (31.3%) out of 16 patients with 3-vessel CAD (p <0.001). The independent ICAS predictors by multivariate regression analysis were identified as: concomitant CAD (p <0.001), diabetes (p=0.054), cigarette smoking (p=0.08) and decreased left ventricular ejection fraction (p=0.039). ICAS > or = 50% was found to be an independent predictor of CAD (p=0.002).
ICAS > or = 50% occurs in 13% of patients with isolated DAS and in 27% of those with DAS and CAD. Independent ICAS risk factors were identified as CAD, diabetes and cigarette smoking. Duplex ultrasound of carotid arteries should be considered in patients with DAS and concomitant CAD prior to AVR.
Kardiologia polska 09/2008; 66(8):837-42; discussion 843-4. · 0.54 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Renal dysfunction is an important factor of cardiovascular risk. Renal artery stenosis (RAS) is a potential cause of secondary hypertension and by renal ischemia may lead to progressive renal insuficiency. In RAS patients a significant increase in prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD) as well as revascularisation rate and mortality rate was observed.
To determine the prevalence of RAS in patients with suspected CAD.
The study group consisted of 1036 consecutive patients (700 men; 67.6% ) in the mean age of 62.1+/-9.7 (25-85) years admitted to coronary angiography. Simultaneously renal angiography was performed in all patients.
Stenosis > or = 50% in at least one main branch of coronary artery was found in 633 (66.1%) patients. The proportion of patients with one, two or three vessel CAD was respectively 291 (46%), 169 (26%) and 173 (27.3%). Non-significant coronary lesions <50% were found in 108 (10.4%) patients, whereas in 295 (28.5%) patients no angiographic evidence of CAD was documented. In the whole group of patients RAS was found in 339 (32.7%) of patients - 124 (12%) had bilateral lesions. RAS prevalence in patients with CAD was 38.3% (284/741) and its frequency increased with severity of CAD: from 25% (27/108) in patients with insignificant coronary lesions up to 36.4% (106/291), 40.2% (68/169) and 48% (83/173) in 1, 2, and 3-vessel disease, respectively (p <0.001). RAS prevalence in patients with normal coronary arteries was 18.6% (55/295). RAS <30% was detected in 194 (18,7%) patients; RAS between 30-49% in 81 patients (8.7%); RAS 50-69% in 38 patients (3.7%) and RAS > or = 70% in the remaining 26 patients (2.5%). RAS > or = 50% was noted in 8 (2.7%) patients without coronary lesions; in 5 (4.6%) with insignificant coronary artery atherosclerosis and 51 (8%) with coronary artery stenosis >50% (p=0.0008). Stepwise regression analysis identified 4 independent predictors of RAS > or = 50%: CAD severity (p=0.014), serum creatinine concentration (p <0.001), cigarette smoking (p=0.02) and stenosis of aortic arch branches (p <0.001).
RAS is a frequent finding in patients with suspected CAD. CAD severity, number of involved aortic arch arteries, cigarette smoking and serum creatinine are independent RAS predictors.
Kardiologia polska 09/2008; 66(8):856-62; discussion 863-4. · 0.54 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increased cardiovascular morbidity leads to search for new, non-invasive diagnostic methods for early detection of atherosclerosis. Among others computed tomography has become a matter of interest. The usefulness of quantitative analysis of calcification using multislice spiral computed tomography (MSCT) in cardiology has been studied recently.
To evaluate the usefulness of calcium score (CS), estimated with MSCT, in identifying the risk of coronary artery stenosis.
The analysis involved 340 consecutive patients, 222 men and 118 women, mean age 59.7+/-9.38 years. All patients were admitted to hospital with symptoms of coronary artery disease for coronary angiography. In all subjects risk factor assessment and CS estimation using MSCT were performed.
Mean CS was 271.1+/-605.9 and it increased with the progression of coronary artery disease. The differences between mean CS values in patients without coronary stenosis and patients with 1-, 2- or 3-vessel disease varied significantly (p <0.001). The cut-off point for total CS for the presence of coronary artery stenosis in the study group was set at > or =56 (sensitivity 85.7% and specificity 85.3%). The likelihood of the absence of significant stenosis (negative predictive value) in the whole study group was 93.5% and in women reached 100%.
Coronary calcium score is a valuable parameter in assessing the likelihood of presence of coronary stenosis. The absence of calcifications in coronary arteries (CS=0) excludes significant coronary stenosis with a high probability.
Kardiologia polska 11/2006; 64(10):1073-9; discussion 1080-1. · 0.54 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent evidence shows poor efficacy of over-the-wire balloon catheter (OTW) coronary occlusive technique adopted widely for intracoronary bone marrow stem cell (BMSC) delivery. The waterfall effect of OTW-balloon inflation/deflation with reactive > or = 2-fold flow velocity increase might be partly responsible for poor BMSC retention.
To evaluate the safety, feasibility and tolerability of perfusion-infusion BMSC delivery with the facilitation of cell rolling in contact with the coronary endothelium (a pre-requisite for downstream transmigration).
We randomly assigned 11 patients (age 41-72 years) with first anterior myocardial infarction treated with PTCA+stent and LVEF < or =45% at 6-9 days to OTW in-stent occlusive (3 x 3 min.) BMSC delivery or cell infusion via a perfusion catheter with multiple side holes (SH-PC).
OTW and SH-PC patients had a similar infarct size (mean peak CK 4361 vs 4717 U/L), LVEF (41.2% vs 40.3%), infused mononuclear cell number (2.99 x 108 range 0.61-7.48 x 108 vs 3.28 x 108 range 1.64-4.39 x 108), CD 34(+) number (1.79 x 106 vs 1.62 x 106), cell viability (91.5% vs 91.8%) and clonogenicity (CFU assay). None of the SH-PC, but 67% of OTW patients, had ST-segment elevation with chest pain (and nsVT in one) that limited OTW occlusion tolerance to 50-110 sec. At 6 months DLVEF in the OTW vs SH-PC patients was +4.2% (2-6) vs +8.8% (5-16) by MRI and +4.8 (2-7) vs +13.8% (2-24) by SPECT.
Our work indicates that the SH-PC technique can be used safely for intracoronary BMSC transplantation. Further research is needed to determine whether the putative advantages of physiological SH-PC delivery translate into enhanced BMSC homing.
Kardiologia polska 05/2006; 64(5):489-98; discussion 499. · 0.54 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The myocardial perfusion assessment in myocardial infarction is crucial to proper therapeutical decisions and patient's prognosis. The aim of the study to assess the efficacy of intravenous contrast echocardiography (MCE) in detecting myocardial perfusion defects in patients with acute myocardial infarction compared with 99mTc MIBI SPECT study.
86 patients (mean age 58.4 +/- 11.2) underwent primary percutaneous coronary (PCI) for acute anterior myocardial infarction. TIMI grade flow, myocardial blush grade (TMPG), corrected TIMI frame count (cTFC) and segmental contractility and segmental perfusion were estimated in real time before and immediately after PCI, using injections of intravenous Optison. MCE performed before PCI described the risk area as the sum of segments with the lack of perfusion. A MCE perfusion defect size after PCI < 25% of the MCE perfusion defect size before PCI was used to define myocardial reperfusion. MCE was repeated on the third day after PCI. All patients underwent a rest 99mTc MIBI SPECT study (SPECT) on the third day after PCI.
Based on MCE, 54 patients had reperfusion ("reflow" group) and 32 had non-reperfusion ("no-reflow" group). Patients from the non-reperfusion group showed a higher creatine kinase peak (p = 0.0034), higher kinase-MB (p = 0.0033) and higher troponine level (p = 0.0629), longer time span between the onset of pain and reperfusion (p = 0.003), and worse baseline regional contractile function (p = 0.0022). All angiographic parameters were worse in this group before as well as after PCI: more often TIMI 0 or 1, TMPG 0 or 1 in patients from "no-reflow" group was observed. These patients had higher cTFC than ones from "reflow" group. The agreement between MCE and SPECT for detecting perfusion abnormality was 87%.
MCE facilitated identification of myocardial perfusion abnormalities in patients with acute myocardial infarction, whereas serial MCE facilitated identification of patients with early and late improvement of myocardial perfusion. MCE correlated very well with SPECT images in assessing perfusion defect.
Polski merkuriusz lekarski: organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego 04/2006; 20(117):282-4.